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I. Memoir of French Protestants settled at Oxford, 1686 . 1 

II. History and Description of Cohasset .... 84 

III. Winslow's New-England's Salamander discovered . 110 

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av. vuuujI b V OCaDuicuy ui luc wiaSoav/Huocno ^w iiaUb&j *ia- 

dian Language . . . . ■ / . . * . 147 

V. Account of Plymouth Colony Records . . . 25S 

VI. Address of the Ministers of Boston to the Duke of New- 

castle, December 5, 1737 •;, .",■■.•■*. . 271 

VII. Memoir of the Narraganset Township . . . 273 

VIII. Biographical Notice of the late Hon. Dudley A. Tyng 260 

IX. Instances of Longevity in New Hampshire . - . 295 

X. Churches and Ministers in New Hampshire . . . 299 

XI. MS. Journals of the Long, Little, &c. Parliaments . 323 

XII. Acknowledgment of Donations . . . . . 365 


memoir of the french protestants, who settled at ox- 
ford, massachusetts, a. d. 16s(3 ; with a sketch of the 
entire history of the protestants o* France. 


Among the numerous emigrations from Europe to 
New England, since its first settlement, that of the 
French Protestants has been but slightly noticed, and is 
now almost forgotten. The history of these emigrants, 
humble as it may seem, is entitled to preservation. 
The simplest narrative of the causes and circumstan- 
ces of their emigration, and of their previous and sub- 
sequent fortunes, were enough to render it interesting 
to every descendant of the early settlers of our coun- 
try, especially to the descendants of the pilgrims of 
New England. 

Nearly a century and a half ago, these Protestants 
came from France, to seek an asylum in America. 
The same cause, which brought our forefathers to 
these shores, brought them. Both, holding the strict- 
est tenets of the Reformation, were denied the privi- 
lege of professing and openly maintaining; them. In 
the one instance, conformity to the requisitions of the 
Protestant Episcopal church was exacted ; in the 
other, to those of the Roman Catholic. It was to 



the last of these that the Huguenots of France were 
subjected ; and when to the distant fulminations of 
the Vatican succeeded the intolerant edicts of their 
own princes, they fled, in all directions, from a coun- 
try where life was insecure, and repose impossible. 

The French Protestants, from the first, adopted 
the principles of that eminent reformer, John Cal- 
vin, who was a native of France. The title of Re- 
formed was first assumed by them ; and afterwards 
became the common denomination of all the Calvin- 
istical churches on the Continent.* " The doctrine 
of their churches was Calvinism, and their discipline 
was Presbyterian, after the Genevan plan."t Oi this 
discipline, the judicious Hooker, with no less candour 
than discrimination, says : "A Founder it bad, whom, 
for mine own part, I think incomparably the wisest 
man that ever the French church did enjoy, since the 
hour it enjoyed him. "J This was a just tribute of 
respect to Calvin, to whom the Church of England, 
in common with all the Protestant Reformed church- 
es, is more indebted for the purity of her doctrines, 
than to any other single reformer. Although the 
English church and the New England churc hesre- 
jected his discipline, neither were insensible to the 
merits of this truly great man, nor forgetful of the 
eminent service, which he rendered to the cause of 
truth, and to the Protestant interest. 

Notwithstanding the barbarous persecutions of the 
Albigenses and Waldenses by the Roman Catholic 
church, " there was not a total extinction of the truth. 
It was suppressed, but not destroyed. Its professors 
were dead ; but the truth lived ; it lay concealed in 
the hearts of the children of these martyrs, who 
groaned for a reformation. ?, § When learning revived 

♦Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, iv. 356. Tr. Note. 
f Robinson's Memoirs of the Reformation in France, prefixed to his trans- 
lation of Saurin's Sermons. 

% Hooker's Eccie3. Politie, Fref. 

h Quick's Synodicon in Gallia Rcformata, latrod. 2 vols. foi. Loud. 1692. 


in France under Francis I. the Reformation revived 
in that kingdom. Luther began it in Germany, and 
Ziun^Uus in Switzerland ; a little while after, Calvin 
was " called forth to be a glorious instrument of it 
in France. And the Lord owneth him," says the 
English historian of the French synods, 6< and his 
fellow servants, notwithstanding all the storms of 
Popish rage and fury against them in this great work ; 
insomuch that the whole kingdom is enlightened and 
ravished with it, and many of the most eminent 
counsellors in that illustrious senate, the parliament 
of Paris, do profess the Gospel openly, and in the 
very presence of their king Henry the Second, though 
to the loss of honour, estate, and life. It was now 
got into the court, and among persons ot the highest 
quality. Many nobles, some princes of the blood, 
dare espouse its cause. The blood of the martyrs 
proving the seed of the church, and, as Israel of old, 
so now, the more the professors of the Gospel are 
oppressed and persecuted, the more are they increas- 
ed and multiplied."* 

The Reformed Protestants in France formed them- 
selves into regular church assemblies ; and u it was 
the great care of the first Reformers to preach up 
sound doctrine, to institute and celebrate pure evan- 
gelical worship, and to restore the ancient primitive 

The Bible was translated by Olivetan, an uncle of 
Calvin, a minister in the vallies of Piedmont, from 
the original Hebrew and Greek into the French lan- 
guage ; and it u was read in their solemn meetings in 
the great congregations." It was perused and studied 
by the nobles and peasants, by the learned and the 
illiterate, by merchants and tradesmen, by women 
and children, in their houses and families ; and they 
thus became wiser than their Popish priests, and 

♦Quick's Synodicoru 


most subtile adversaries. Oicment Ma rot, a cour- 
tier, and a man of wit and genius, by advice of M. 
Vatablus, Regius Professor of Hebrew in the Uni- 
versity of Paris, translated fifty of tin 1 Psalms of Da- 
vid into French metre; Bcza, the other hundred, and 
all the Scripture songs ; and Lewis Guadimel, a most 
skilful master of music, composed those sweet and 
melodious tunes, to which they are sung even to this 
day.* Sacred music, thus revived, charmed the 
court and city, the town and country. The psalms, 
thus brought home to men's bosoms, and adapted at 
once to their understanding and taste, were sung in 
the Louvre, as well as in the Pres des Clercs, by the 
ladies, princes, and even by Henry the Second him- 
self. To this sacred ordinance alone may be greatly 
attributed the decline of Popery, and the propagation 
of the gospel, in France. It so happily accorded with 
the genius of the French nation, that all ranks and 
degrees of men practised it in the temples and their 
families. Children and youth were now catechised 
in the rudiments and principles of the Christian re- 
ligion, and could give a good account of their faith, 
and a reason of their hope. Their pious pastors thus 
prepared them for the communion table, where they 
partook in both kinds, the bread and the wine, ac- 
cording to the primitive institution of Jesus Christ. 

Although the French Reformed churches were in- 
ternally improved, and became multiplied throughout 
the kingdom ; yet they were subjected to the severest 
trials. So early as 1540, an edict was passed, in- 
terdicting the exercise of the Reformed religion, and 
prohibiting the giving of an asylum to those who pro- 
fessed it, on pain of high treason. 

The complaint of Justin Martyr to the Roman em- 
peror, that the Christians were punished with torture 
and death, upon the bare profession of their being 

* Quick's Sjnodicoo. 


such, might have been made by the Protestants. To 
be a Huguenot, was enough to ensure condemnation. 
Whoever bore this name, were imprisoned, arraigued 
for their lives, and, adhering to their profession, were 
condemned by merciless judges to the Haines. Some 
of this name and character were murdered in cold 
blood, and massacred without any legal forms of 

Amidst these barbarous cruelties, and in sight of 
these horrid executions, the pastors of the several 
churches were inspired with zeal and courage to meet 
and consult together about the arduous concerns of 
the Reformed religion. It was in these circumstan- 
ces of peril and dismay, that the first National Synod 
was called, and held its session in the metropolis of 
the kingdom, and at the very doors of the court. This 
council published a confession of their faith, that the 
kins and the kingdom might know what they heliev- 
ed and practised. It was entitled, ".The Confession 
of Faith, held and professed by the Reformed 
Churches of France, received and enacted by their 
first National Synod, celebrated in the city of Paris, 
and year of our Lord, 1559."* By this Confession, 
and the Canons of Discipline then framed and adopt- 
ed, were regulated the faith and practice of these il- 
lustrious churches, which embraced very numerous 
exemplary members, and a vast multitude of faithful 

*Tbis Confession is preserved entire in Quick's Synodicon, and in Laval's 
History of the Reformation in France. Quick says, there were twenty nine 
National Synods during the Space of one hundred years ; the first was at 
Paris, 25 Tv'lay, 1559; the last, at Loudun, 10 November, 1659; but he 
published his work in 1692. Watch, in N'eueste Religion's geschichte, 1777, 
says, their National Synods seldom meet. Their last meeting was in 1763. 
Erskine's Sketches of Church History, 1797. ii. 217. Fleury [xxi. 2:35.] 
thoueht it probable, the Confession and Discipline were composed by 

t The Reformed church in France had more members and martyrs, and of 
greater quality, than any one of the Reformed churches in Europe. In the 
-National Synod of Rocheile, in 1571, of which Beza was president, the Re- 
formed could count above 215»> churches, and in many of these, above 10,000 
members, and in most of these ; two ministers, in some, five, in 1581, it 


111 1560, admiral Coligny, in the name of the Cal- 
vinists of Normandy, presented to the king a petition 
for the free exereise of their religion. He was the 
very first nobleman in all France, who dared to pro- 
fess himself a Protestant, and a patron of the Protest- 
ants. In 1561, the king published an edict, purport- 
ing that ecclesiastics should be judges of heresy ; that 
whoever were convicted of it, should be delivered over 
to the secular arm, but that fhey should be condemn- 
ed to no higher penalty than banishment, until such 
time as the Geueral and National Council should de- 
termine.* • This same year, it was expressly ordered, 
that the Protestant ministers and preachers should be 
Laughed out of the kingdom, and every body prohib- 
ited to use other rites and eeietiionies in religion, than 
what were held and taught by the Roman church. f 
In 156 J, war broke out between ihe Catholics and 
Protestants, and was carried on with mutual cruel- 
ties, under the names of Royalists and Huquenots.% 
The duke of Guise was assassinated ; the king of 
Navarre was killed at a siege ; and 50,000 Protest- 
ants were slain. § 

This same year, 1562, admiral Coligny attempted 
to settle a colony of French Protestants in America, 

was computed, that their martyrs, within a very few years, had been up- 
wards of 2'H»,00.»>. In 1598. only twenty-seven years after the National Syn- 
od of Roche'ie, the Protestants had only 7<>o churches remaining of the 2150, 
wnich were flourishing at the time of the Synod. 

* Fleury, Hist. Fccles. xxi. I. 154, § 89, 90. Du Pin, Eccl. Hist. (Mr.) iv. 
94. De thou, lib. 25. 

f Da vila, Hist, of Civil Wars of France, i. 85. 

J There are various conjectures concerning the origin of this word. Dr. 
Maclaine, the translator of Mosheim, supposed it to have been derived from 
a French and faulty pronunciation of the German word eidgnossen, which 
signifies confederates ; and which had been originally the name of that valiant 
part of the city of Geneva, which entered into an alliance with the Swiss 
cantons, in order to maintain their liberties against the tyrannical attempts 
of Charles III, duke of Savoy. " These confederates were called eignots, ami 
from thence, very probably, was derived the word-huguenots." Abbe Plenty 
was of the same opinion : — " y fuient appelcs Huguenots, du riom des Eignots 
de Geneve un pen autrement prononce " Count Villars, in a letter to the 
king of France from the province of Languedoc in 1560, calls the Calvinists 
of the Cevennes, Huguenots ; and this is the first time that this term is found 
in the registers of that province, applied to the Protestants. Mosheim's Eccl. 
Hist. iv. 384, J\'ule d. Fieury, Hist. Feci, xviii. 603. 

h Davila, ut supra, and Robinson's Memoirs. 


where^he hoped to provide for them an asylum. Be- 
fore the commencement of hostilities he had been de- 
sirous (>f securing to them that liberty of conscience 
in the New World, which was denied to them in the 
Old. In 1555, by his influence, an attempt was 
made by the French Protestants, in concert with 
those of Geneva, to settle a colony at Brazil ; and, 
the following year, fourteen missionaries were sent 
out by the church of Geneva, to plant the Christian 
faith in those regions of America. At their arrival, 
they were received vsith great joy, and, soon ai'rer, 
their church was formed according to the constitution 
and usage of Geneva ; but through the perfidy of the 
chevalier de Villegagnon, to whom Coligny had com- 
mitted the conduct of the enterprise, the project was 
frustrated. The few French, who remained at Bra- 
zil, were massacred by the Portuguese in 1558.* The 
same design was now revived. In 1562, admiral 
Coligny, with the permission of Charles IX of 
France, sent over a small number of Protestants, un- 
der Jean Ribault, to Florida. After exploring the 
southern coast, they entered Port Royal, still known 
by that name in South Carolina, not far from which 
they built a fort, which they named Fort Charles ; 
but they soon after abandoned it, and returned to 
France. In 1504 and 15G5, the admiral renewed 
the attempt to form a settlement at Florida, at the 
river of May [St. Augustine] ; but his colony of 
French Huguenots were principally massacred, a few 
only escaping to France. f 

A peace had been concluded in 1563 ; but in 1567, 
the Protestants, whose rights were daily violated by 

* De Bry, America, P. Ill- Thnanus. Mezeray. Charlevoix, Nouv. 
France, i. 35. Lescarboi, liv. 2. Fleury, Hist. Eccles. xxv. 3S — 41. Ai- 
cedo's Geog. and Hist. Dictionary, Art. Janeiro. Brown's Hist. Propa?. 
Christianity, i. 3. Plutarque Francais, tome iii. Art. Vie de l'Amirai. de 

t Hakluyt's Voyages, iii. 80S — 362 ; where are original accounts of these 
voyages and transactions. Furchas, vols. i. and v. Mezeray's Hist, ot 
France. Plutarque Franrab, Art. Vie de i/Amikal i»e Coligm. 


new edicts, were compelled to take up arms again, in 
their own defence. The city of Rochelle declared 
for them ; and it served for an asylum sixty years. 
They were assisted by queen Elizabeth of England, 
and the German princes ; and, at the conclusion of 
this second war, 1563, they obtained the revocation 
of all penal edicts, the exercise of religion in their 
families, and the grant of six cities for their security/' 

War broke out again the same year. Queen 
Elizabeth aided the Protestants with money ; the 
count Palatine, with men ; the queen of Navarre part- 
ed with her rings and jewels to support them ; and, 
the prince of Conde being slain, she declared her son, 
prince Henry, the head and protector of the Protest- 
ant cause. She caused the New Testament, the 
Catechism and the Liturgy of Geneva, to be trans- 
lated, and printed at Rochelle. She abolished Po- 
pery, and established Protestantism in her own do- 
minions. After many negotiations, a peace was 
concluded in 1570, and the free exercise of religion 
was allowed in all but walled cities ; two cities in 
every province were assigned to the Protestants, who 
were to be admitted into all universities, schools, hos- 
pitals, public offices, royal, seignioral, and corporate ; 
and to ensure perpetual peace, a match was proposed 
between Henry of Navarre, and the sister of king 
Charles. These articles were accepted ; and the 
queen of Navarre, her son king Henry, the princes 
of the blood, and the principal Protestants, went to 
Paris to celebrate the marriage, 18 August, 1572. 

A few days after the marriage, on Sunday, the 
24th of August, St. Bartholomew's day, % the horrible 
plot for exterminating the Protestants was executed. 
The king called his council together in the queen 
mother's closet. In the apprehension, that, if the 
admiral escaped, they should fail into greater perplex- 

* Davila, A. D. 1562. Robinson's Memoirs. 


tties than ever, it was concluded that both he and 
all the Huguenots, excepting the kini^ of Navarre, 
and the prince of Comle, should he despatched. 
They then gave out orders to execute their resolution 
that same night ; and the duke of Guise was made 
the chief manager. About ten o'clock at night, he 
sent for the Swiss captains of the five small cantons, 
and some of the French companies, and ordered them 
to put themselves all in arms, and to John Charon. 
Prevost des Marehands, as also to Marcel, who was 
recently out of that employment, to arm the citizens 
and first draw them together within some houses, 
then bring them into the market places, to light 
flambeaux in all their windows, to wear a white scarf 
or linen on their iett arm, and a cross of the same 
size upon their hats ; and when they were in readi- 
ness, then to begin the butchery, at a signal given 
them by ringing the great bell, belonging to the pal- 
ace, which was not wont to be used but upon some 
extraordinary occasion of rejoicing. The orders be- 
ing given, the duke returned to the Louvre, where 
the queen's mother, the duke of Anjou, Nevers, and 
Bira^ue, used their utmost endeavours to resolve the 
kind's mind ; for the nearer he came to the moment 
of execution, the more he was troubled in his soul, 
so that the very sweat ran down his forehead, and 
his pulsation was like one in a fever. They had 
much difficulty to force a positive and precise consent 
from him ; but as soon as ever they had obtained it, 
the queen mother hastened the signal above an hour, 
and caused the bell to be rung at St. Germain de 
PAuxerrois. .When the king heard the signal bell, 
and the report of some pistols fired at the same time, 
he was so affected, that he sent orders, they should 
forbear a while longer. But word was brought back, 
that they had proceeded too far ; and indeed the duke 
of Guise had caused both the admiral, and Telignv, 
his son in law, to be massacred in their lodgings ; 




u and the tierce wolves," to use the words of Meze- 
ray, " being unchained, and let loose, ran to ever} 
house, and filled all with blood and slaughter." The 
admiral, inattentive to the presages and premonitions 
of his firmest adherents, refused to leave Paris, and 
was himself the first victim of this infamous massacre. 
He had, only two days before, been wounded by a 
hired assassin, as he was returning from the Louvre. 
It was never doubted, says Sully, but that the wound 
which the admiral received, came from the house of 
Villemur, preceptor to the Guises; and the assassin 
was met in his flight, upon a horse belonging to $ie 
king's stable. lie was now, on account of that 
wound, confined to his room, when a party, headed 
by his implacable enemy, the duke of Guise, broke 
open the door where he was sitting. At their en- 
trance into his chamber, he showed no signs, either 
of surprise or terror. His language was becoming a 
great man, conscious of integrity, and worthy of a 
Christian, expecting, yet fearless of death. Besmc, 
one of the duke's domestics, approached him with a 
drawn sword. " Young man," said the undaunted, 
but disabled Coli^ny, " you ought to respect my age, 
— but act as you please, you can only shorten my 
life a very few days." The barbarian pierced him 
in many places, and then threw his body into the 
street, where it was exposed for three days to the in- 
sults of the. populace, and then hung; by the feet on a 
gibbet. A nobler example of a Christian martyr is 
rarely to be found in the annals of the church.* 

The scene of spoliation and destruction in the city 
was such, as might better have been expected from 
Goths or Vandals. Seven hundred houses were pil- 
laged, and five thousand persons perished in Paris. 

Of this horrible massacre, Mezeray gives the fol- 

♦Tbe admiral lodged in the street Betisy in an inn, which is called at 
present the ilote! S. Pierre. The ehamher where he was murdered, is" Still 
shown there. JS'oie, by the editor of Sully's Memoirs. 


lowing- description. " It lasted seven whole clays : 
the three first, which were from Sunday, the least 
of St. Bartholomew, till Tuesday, in its greatest 
fury ; the other four till the Sunday following, with 
somewhat more of abatement. During this time, 
there were murdered near five thousand persons, by 
divers sorts of deaths, and many by more than one : 
amongst others, five or six hundred gentlemen. 
Neither the aged, nor the tender infants, were spared, 
nor women great with child Some were stabbed, 
others hewn in pieces with halberts, or shot with 
muskets or pistols, some thrown headlong out of the 
windows, many dragged to the river, and divers had 
their brains beaten out with mallets, clubs, or such 
like instruments. Seven or eight hundred had thrust 
themselves into the several prisons, hoping to find 
shelter and protection under the wings of justice ; 
but the captains appointed for this execution, caused 
them to be hauled out and brought to a place near la 
Valee de Misere (the Valley of Misery), where they 
beat out their brains w T ith a pole axe, aud then cast 
them into the river."* 

The rage for slaughter spread from Paris to the 
provinces ; and, according to Sully, the number of 
Protestants massacred, during eight days, over all 
the kingdom, amounted to seventy thousand. f 

The duke of Sully, then in his twelfth year, afte% 
wards the prime minister of Henry IV, was an eye- 
witness of the massacre of Paris, and narrowly es- 
caped with his life. His own description of it is 
terrible. " I was in bed, and awaked from sleep 
three hours after midnight, by the sound of all the 

* Mezeray's Chronological History of France, tr. by J. Bulteel, fo!. Lond. 
1688. P. Daniel says, about 3000 were slain ; others say, 10,000. Rapin's 
Hist. Eng, ii. 102, tr. Strype's Annals, ii. 158. 

t Suily's Memoirs, b. 1. p. 31 Robinson and others give a less aggregate 
number. I follow Sully, who may be presumed to have had the best means 
of information, at the time An exact account of the number massacred, 
either in the city, or in the eutire kingdom, could not, perhaps, be ever ob- 


bells, and the confused cries of the populaee. My 
governor, St. Julien, with my valet de ehambre, went 
hastily out to know the cause ; and 1 never after- 
wards heard more of these, who, without doubt, were 
saerificed to the public fury. 1 continued alone in my 
chamber, dressing myself, when, in a few moments, 
I saw 7 my landlord enter, pale, and in the utmost con- 
sternation. He was of the Reformed religion, and, 
having learned what the matter was, had consented 
to go to mass, to save his life, and preserve his house 
from being pillaged. He came to persuade me to do 
the same, and to take me with him. 1 did not think 
proper to follow him, but resolved to try if 1 could 
c^ain the college of JBursroBdv. where I had studied * 
though the great distance between the house where I 
then was, and the college, made the attempt very 
dangerous." Having disguised himself in a scholar's 
gown, he put a large prayer-book under his arm, and 
went into the street ; where he was seized with in- 
expressible horror, at the sight of the furious murder- 
ers, who, running from all parts, forced open the 
houses, and cried aloud, "Kill! kill! massacre the 
Huguenots !" and the blood, which he saw shed, 
redoubled his terror. He was repeatedly in the most 
extreme danger ; but he arrived at last at the college 
of Burgundy, where, after imminent peril of his life, 
the principal of the college, who tenderly loved him, 
conducted him privately to a distant chamber, where 
he locked him up. Here he was confined three days, 
uncertain of his destiny ; and saw no one but a ser- 
vant of his friend's who came from time to time to 
bring him provisions. At the end of these three days, 
the prohibition for murdering and pillaging any more 
of the Protestants being published, he was suffered 
to leave his cell.* 

♦Memoir? of Maximilian de Bethune, duke of Sully, prime minister to 
Henry the Great Translated from the French. 3 vols. 3d edit. Lond. 1761 
This great man adhered to his religious principles to the last. " My parents.'- 


For this horrible achievement, a jubilee was ap- 
pointed at Paris ; and solemn thanks were returned 
to God, as though the sacrifice had been acceptable 
to him. 

This massacre of the Protestants, which, among 
Catholics is but another name for Heretics, was con- 
sidered as a fit subject of joy and triumph at Home. 
The pope and cardinals instantly repaired to St. 
Mark's, to thank God for so great a favour conferred 
on the see of Rome, and appointed a jubilee over the 
whole Christian world, for this slaughter of the here- 
tics in France.* A medal, struck by pope Gregory 
XIII, to consecrate the remembrance of it, presents, 
on one side, the portrait and nam** of tr *i« pontiff, 
and, on the other, the destroying angel, armed with 
a sword and a cross, massacring the Huguenots, 
with a legend, signifying, "The slaughter of the 
Huguenots. "f I" the Vatican, at Rome, there is a 
tablet, on which is represented the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew, with an inscription, declaring the 
pope's approbation of the death of admiral. Coligny4 

The third day after the admiral's death, while the 
persecution was still, in some measure, carried on 
against the Huguenots, the king, attended by all the 
princes and lords of his court, went to the parliament; 
and though he had at first, both in his speeches and 
letters, imputed the whole affair to a popular tumult, 
yet he there avowed it as his own doing, and expa- 

says Sully, " bred me in the opinions and doctrine of the Reformed religion, 
and I have continued constant in the profession of it ; neither threatening, 
promises, variety of events, nor the change even of the king, my piolector, 
joined to his most tender solicitations, have ever been able to make me re- 
nounce it." Memoirs,!). 1. 

* Thuanus, iii. Hi), 152. 

t " I' ange exterminateur arm<? d' une croix et d' une epee, massa- 

crant les Huguenots. Autour on lit ces paroles : Huguenotorum strages." 
1572. M. Aignan. 

|" Ce qu'il y a de bien certain, e'est qu'il a a Rome dens le Vatican un 
tableau ou est represents le massacre de la Saint-Barthelemi, avec ces paroles : 
Le pape approuve la mort de Coiigni." Essai sur les Guerres Civile? de- 
France, prefixed to " La [ienriade." 

See Note I, at the end of this Memoir. 


tiated, in a lone; discourse, upon the reasons why lie 
had commanded all those perpetual rebels (as lie 
styled them) against his person and government to be 
destroyed. He then enjoined them to proceed, by 
the examination of the prisoners, agninst the memory 
of the dead, to lay open the enormity of their rebel- 
lion, and to brand them with infamy, in such a man- 
ner as was prescribed and directed by the utmost se- 
verity of the law. The parliament willingly accept- 
ed the commission, and founded a judicial process 
against the Huguenots, upon the depositions of the 
prisoners. They condemned Brequeinant and Cavag- 
nes, who were confined in the palace, to have their 
flesh publicly torn off with red-hot pincers, and their 
bodies quartered ; commanding also a statue of the 
admiral to be broken in pieces and burnt, declaring 
him a rebel, a disturber of the kingdom, a heretic, and 
an enemy to all good men. Not content with thus 
cruelly stigmatizing the memory of this great and 
good man, they ordered his house at Chastilion to be 
razed to the very foundation, and all his posterity to 
be deprived of nobility, and rendered incapable of 
enjoying any office, or possessing any estate in the 
kingdom of France. The remains of the admiral's 
body, after receiving the most shocking mutilation 
and abuse from the populace, were stolen away in 
the night by two servants of the marshal de Mont- 
morency, and secretly buried at Chantilly. ".Thus," 
says Davila, " died the admiral Gaspard de Coligny, 
who had filled the kingdom of France with the glory 
and terror of his name for the space of twelve years."* 

♦Davila, i. 312. Fleury's Hist. Eccles. xxiii. A D. 1572. 
This great and good man is thus panegyrized in the Henriade : 
Coligui, plus heureux et phis digne d'envie 
Du raoins, en succombant, ne perdit que la vie ; 
Sa liberie, sa trloire an tombeau le suivit. 
The loss of adi. >ral CoHgny's papers is extremely to be regretted ; for they 
would have thrown great light upon the history and the affairs of the Pro- 
testant?. More than a century and a half after his death, a financier, having 
-purchased some laud which, had belonged to him, found in the park, several 


This massacre threw all 'the Protestants in Europe 
into the utmost consternation, especially when they 
knew that it was openly approved of at Rome, in 
France, it was followed by internal discord, and civil 

During these troubles, king Charles IX died at the 
castle of Vincennes, in the most exquisite torments, 
and bathed in his own blood. The cruel massacre of 
St. Bartholomew's day was always in his mind, and 
he continued to the last, by his tears and agonies, to 
show the grief and remorse he felt for it.* 

Henry III so far favoured the Protestants, that 
they obtained an edict in 1576 for the free exercise 
of their religion ; but it was of no avail against the 
power of a league, formed the same year against the 

fret below the surface, an iron box foil of papers, which he threw into the 
firr, as useless. Papers, it is declared, were found, among which was a his- 
tory of the times, and many memoirs of public affairs , but all, it is presumed, 
weie suppressed or destroyed. " Mais il est surqu'on porta sa U-te a la reine, 
avec nn coffre plein de papiers, parmi lesquels etait 1' histoire du temps, ecrite 
de la main de Coli°:ni. On y trouva ainsi phisieurs me mo ires sur les affaires 
pubiiqties " La Henriade, Autes, Du Chant. II. 

* Sully's Memoirs, b. 1. p. 35. Charles IX died in 1574, in the 25th year 
of bis aa;e. It is affirmed, that soon after the massacre, he was attacked with 
a «tran«e malady, which carried him off in about two years. His blood con- 
stiintiv flowed, and issued through the pores. It was considered as a divine 
i i i.:nie;;t. . " Pen de temps apfes, le roi fut attaque d'une etrano;e maladie 
4«i Pemporte an bout de deux ans. Son sang coulait toujours, et aa 
irarers drs jwires de sa peau : maladie incomprehensible centre laquelic 
cv houa l ! nrt et I habilite des medecins, et qui fut regardee comme un effet 
<?t la vengeance divine." Essai sur les Guerres Civiles de France. 

I oltHire dilates upon the fact, in the Henriade : 

" Bientot Charles lui meme en fut saisi d' horreur; 
Le remords devorant s' eleva dans son cocur. 

Le chasrrin vint fletrir la fleur de ses beaux jours ; 
Une languer mortelle en abregea le cours: 
Dieu, deployant sur lui sa vengeance severe, 
Marqua ce roi mourant du sceau de sa colere, 
Et par son chatiment voulut epouvanter 
Quiconque a I' avenir oserait 1' imiter. 
* Je le vis expirant. ... 

Son sang, a gros bouillons de son corps elance, 
Vengeaitle sang Franrais par ces ordres verse." 

N"Te upon this passage, in Chant III. li Charles IX fut toujours maiade 
ileptiM bi ^aj,,t Bartbeiemi, et mourut environ deux ans apres, leSOMai 1574. 
'•-■ut baigne dans son sang, qui lui sortait par les pore?." 


Protestants ; and three civil wars raged during this 
reign. Henry II [ annulled the arrets, that had been 
decreed against several of the most distinguished 
Protestants ; re-established their memory ; and per- 
mitted their heirs to enter into possession of their 
estates. It is grateful to find, that this justice was 
done to the memory, and the heirs, of admiral 

In 1589, Henry III was assassinated. He was 
succeeded by Henry IV, who had been educated a 
Protestant, and had been protector of the Protestants. 
Yielding to the necessity of the times, he professed 
the Roman Catholic religion before his coronation. 
It was necessary that he should receive absolution 
for his previous heresy ; and the pope gave it.f It 
was this king who granted the Protestants the justly 
celebrated Edict of Nantes. This Edict, which 
was called " perpetual and irrevocable,' 5 granted to 
the Protestants liberty of conscience, and the free 
exercise of religion ; many churches in all parts of 
France, and judges, of their own persuasion ; a free 
access to all places of honour and dignity ; great 
sums of money to pay off their troops ; an hundred 
places, as pledges of their future security ; and cer- 
tain funds to maintain their preachers, and their gar- 
risons. It was signed at Nantes, on the 13th of 
April, 1598, and afterwards sent to be registered in 
parliament, which published it on the 25th of Febru- 
ary, 15994 

* Sa Majestc y declaroit qu'elle n' avoit eu aucune part a la journee de la 
S. Barthelemi, et qu' elle en' etoit tres-affligee . . . cassoit et annulloit le» 
arrets portes contre la Mole, Coconas et Jean de (a Haye lieutenant de Poitou, 
rehabilitoit leur memoire, permittoit a leurs heritiers de rentrer dans leurs 
biens, et ctendoit la meme grace a l' aniiral de Coiigni, de Briquetnaut, de 
Cavalries, le comte de Montgomrneri, et du Pui-Montbrun. Fleury, xxiv. 45. 

f See Note II 

| Sully's Memoirs, v. i. b. 9. p. 460. Du Pin, Hist. Church, c. 25. Robin- 
son's Memoirs. History of the Lite and Reign of Lewis XIV. Lond. 1742. 
ii. 228. Quick's Syno.Jicon, i. \ xv. where the Edict of Nantes is preserved. 
It contains 92 Articles, aud nils 25 folio pages. Mezeray, $66. 


France was now in peace, and the free toleration. 
secured by this Edict, was auspicious to the kingdom. 
The Protestants applied themselves to the care of 
their churches ; and, having at this time many able 
ministers, they flourished and increased during the 
remainder of this reign. " Their churches were sup- 
ported by able pastors ; their universities were adorn- 
ed with learned and pious professors, such as Casatl- 
bon, Daille, and others, whose praises are in all the 
Reformed churches ; their provincial and national 
synods were regularly convened ; and their people 
were well governed."* Great pains were taken with 
the king to alienate him from his Protestant subjects; 
but in vain. He knew their worth, and protected 
them until his death. This great pi nice, who was 
hated by the popish clergy, was stabbed in his coach 
by Ravaillac, on the 14th of May, 1610. A ju- 
dicious French historianf thus delineates his char- 
acter : "France never had a better nor a greater 
king than Henry IV. He was his own general and 
minister : in him were united great frankness and 
profound policy ; sublimity of sentiments and a most 
engaging simplicity of manners ; the bravery of a 
soldier and an inexhaustible fund of humanitv. And 
what forms the characteristic of a great man, he was 
obliged to surmount many obstacles, to expose him- 
self to danger, and especially to encounter adversa- 
ries worthy of himself. In short, to make use of the 
expression of one of our greatest poets, he ivas the 
conqueror and the father of his subjects." t 

Louis XIII, not nine years of age, succeeded his 
father Henry. The first act of the queen mother, who 
had the regency during his minority, was, a confirm- 
ation of the Edict of Nantes ; which was confirmed 

* Robinson's Memoirs, 
t Hena'ull, 

J The historian evidently refers to these lines in the Henriade : 
Ss Tout le peuple, dans ce jour salutaire, 
Reconnait son vrai roi. son vainqueur, et c on pere : 



Cardinal Richelieu died in 1G 12. The king died 
in 1048. The Protestants had greatly increased in 

number during this rci^-n, though they had lost their 
power. They were now computed to exceed two 
millions.* Richelieu had at length become, more 
favourably inclined to toleration, and had formed a 
project to conciliate the Protestants, and to put an 
end to the dangerous dissensions between them and 
the Catholics ; but his death prevented its execution.! 
Louis XIV succeeded his father. During his mi- 
nority, the queen was appointed sole regent. The 
Edict of Nantes was confirmed by the regent in 1G4 J, 
and again by the king, at his majority, in 1652. No 
sooner did the king take the management of affairs 
into his own hands, in 1661, than, following the ad- 
vice of cardinal Mazarine, of his confessors, and of 
the clergy about him, he made a firm resolution to 
destroy the Protestants.! In prosecution of his pur- 
pose, he excluded the Calvinists from his household, 
and from all other employments of honour and profit; 
ordered all the courts of justice, erected by virtue oi 
the Edict of Nantes, to be abolished, and, instead of 
them, made several laws in favour of the Catholic 
religion, which debarred from ail liberty of abjuring 

* Robinson's Memoirs. Hist, of Life and Reign of Lewis XIV, ii 229. The 
device for the seal of the National Synods of the Reformed churches of 
France was taken from the vision of Moses, when feeding his flock under 
the mount of God : A hrarnble bush in a flaming fire, having the name of 
God, Jehovah, engraved in its centre, with this motto in its circumference, 
Comburo non consumor. " With this seal those venerable councils sealed all 
their letters and despatches: — a sacred emblem," says Quick, " of their past 
and present condition." Synodicon, A. D. 1692 

t ML Aignan. u Richelieu avoit forme projei de gaigner les Prot^stans 
il se promettai d' effacer dans 1' eglise et dans 1' etat toute trace de dangereus- 
es dissidences : la mortvint T arreter a milieu de cet heureux dessein." M. 
Aignan, having mentioned as a well known fact, that the French Academy, 
founded by Richelieu, had conciliated the literati of the two religions, affirms 
it to be not less true, but less generally known, that Richelieu had serious 
thoughts of separating France from Rome, by the creation of a patriarchate. 

t M. Aignan says, the clergy, as appears from the papers of their assemblies, 
had the ruin of the Protestants in view from l*>t>-3 to 1685: " Le elerge, to nine 
i' atte-tent les cahiers de ses assemblies, de lno\"> & ]6S5, s' y pnt de loin, 
par 1' entretnise de Louvois et de Le Teliier. pour consounner la mine de« 


again, in 1614, by Louis, who promised to observe 
it inviolably. It was not long, however, before the 
king, under the influence of cardinal Richelieu, began 
to make encroachments upon the Protestants, who, 
though they had resolved, in a general assembly, to 
die rather than submit to the loss of. their liberties, 
were yet obliged to bear daily infractions of edicts 
from their oppressors.* Richelieu at length deter- 
mined, by getting possession of Rochelle, to extin- 
guish their hopes. The city was besieged, both by 
sea and land. After a long and resolute resistance, 
the besieged, who had lived without bread for thir- 
teen weeks, were overcome by famine ; and of 
eighteen thousand citizens, not above live thousand 
were left. This disastrous event, by which the 
strength of the Protestants was broken, occurred in 

The cardinal suffered the edict to be infringed 
every day, in the determination not to stop until he 
should have established uniformity in the church. 
The affairs of the Protestants were daily becoming 
more afflictive and perilous. They saw and dreaded 
the approaching storm ; but knew not how to evade 
it. Some of them lied to England, but found no 
peace there. Laud, in conjunction with other high 
churchmen, drove them back, " to the infinite damage 
of the manufactures of the kingdom," in 1634. 
Richelieu, in the name of Louis XIII, having, after 
a seven years' war, taken from the Protestants and 
destroyed the places that had been given them by the 
Edict of Nantes as pledges of their future security, 
they were ever after without any places of refuge, or 
leader, being divested of all their troops and strong 

♦Voltaire says, The Huguenots were always quiet, until their adversaries 
demolished their temples : " Les Huguenots meihe furent toujours tranquilles 
jusqu' au temps ou t' on demolit leurs temples.'' Siecle de Louis XIV. iii. 30. 


the Catholic doctrine ; and restrained those Protest- 
ants, who had embraced it, from returning to their 
former opinions, under severe punishments. He or- 
dered soldiers to be quartered in the houses of 
Protestants, until they should change their religion. 
He shut up their churches, and forbade the ministe- 
rial function to their clergy ; and where his com- 
mands were not readily obeyed, he levelled tiieir 
churches with the ground. 

Those cities, which had given the strongest proofs 
of their zeal and loyalty for their late king, were 
first assaulted. On very slight pietences, the assail- 
ants fell instantly upon Rochelle, Montauban, and 
Milhaud, — three towns where the professors of the 
Reformed religion had most distinguished themselves 
for the interests of the court. Rochelle was vexed 
" with an infinite number of proscriptions ; her best 
citizens driven out and exiled ; and her temple de- 
molished. Montauban and Milhaud were sacked by 
soldiers." The king, at last, on the 8th of October. 
1685, revoked the Edict of Nantes, and bauislud the 
Protestants from the kingdom. In consequence of 
this revocation, the public exercise of the Reformed 
religion was entirely abolished in France ; its minis- 
ters were obliged to withdraw themselves ; their 
churches were pulled down ; and all the king's sub- 
jects were obliged either to abjure, or to depart out 
of the kingdom ; so that, in a short time, there was 
no other public religion in France, but that of the 
Catholic church.* 

Bishop Burnet was in France this very year, and 
witnessed the calamities that preceded, and the still 
more disastrous calamities that followed, the revoca- 
tion. " I saw," says the bishop, " that dismal tra- 
gedy, which was at this time acted in France 

♦Quicks Synodtcon, where (bis Edict of Revocation is preserved. Robin- 
son's Memoirs. Da Pin's History ot (he Church. Histoire de V Edit de 
Nautes. See Note IU. 


The king of France had been for many years weak- 
ening the whole Protestant interest there, and uns 
then upon the last resolution of recalling the Edict of 
Nantes. — M. de Louvoy, seeing the king so set on 
the matter, proposed to him a method, which, he be- 
lieved, would shorten the work, and do it effectually : 
which was, to let loose some bodies of dragoons, to 
live upon the Protestants/ on discretion. They were 
put under no restraint, but only to avoid rapes, and 
the killing them. This was begun in Beam." The 
people here were thrown into such distress and ter- 
ror, that, perceiving they must be either starved or 
imprisoned, and being only required to promise to 
reunite themselves to the church, and having no time 
Tor consultation, they universally complied. Their 
compliance so animated the court, " that the same 
methods were taken in most places of Guienne, Lan- 
guedoc, and Dauphine, where the greatest numbers 
of the Protestants were. Upon which the kiu<r, now 
resolved to go through with what had been Ions; pro- 
jected, published the edict repealing the Edict of 
Nantes, in which (though that edict was declared 
to be a perpetual and irrevocable law) he set forth, 
that it was only intended to quiet matters by it, till 
more effectual ways should be taken for the conver- 
sion of heretics. He also promised in it, that though 
all the public exercises of that religion were now 
suppressed, yet those of that persuasion who lived 
quietly, should not be disturbed on that account, 
while, at the same time, not only the dragoons, but 
all the clergy, and the bigots of France, broke out 
into all the instances of rage and fury, against such 
as did not change upon their being required in the 
king's name to be of his religion ; for that was the 
style every where. 

" Men and women," proceeds the bishop, " of all 
ages, who would not yield, were not only stript of 
all they had, but kept long from sleep, driven about 


from place to place, and hunted out of their retire- 
ments. The women were carried into nunneries, in 
many of which they were almost starved, whipt, and 
barbarously treated. Some tvw of the bishops and 
of the secular clergy, to make the matter easier, drew 
formularies, importing that they were resolved to re- 
unite themselves to the Catholic church, and that 
they renounced the errours of Luther and Calvin. 
It must be acknowledged, here was one of the most 
violent persecutions that is to be found in history. 
In many respects, it exceeded them all, both in the 
several inventions of cruelty, and in its long continu- 
ance. I went over the greatest part of France," 
says the bishop, " while it was in its hottest rage, 
From Marseilles to Montpeiier, and from thence to 
Lyons, and so to Geneva. I saw and knew so many 
instances of their injustice and violence, that it ex- 
ceeded even what could have been well imagined ; 
for all men set their thoughts on work to invent new 
methods of cruelty. In all the towns through which 
I past, 1 heard the most dismal accounts of those 
things possible ; but chiefly at Valence, where one 
Dherapine seemed to exceed even the furies of In- 
quisitors. One in the streets could have known the 
new converts, as they were passing by them, by a 
cloudy dejection that appeared in their looks and de- 
portment. Such as endeavoured to make their es- 
cape, and were seized (for guards and secret agents 
were spread along the whole roads and frontier of 
France), were, if men, condemned to the gallies, 
and, if women, to monasteries. To compleat this 
cruelty, orders were given that such of the new con- 
verts, as did not at their death receive the sacrament, 
should be denied burial, and that their bodies should 
be left where other dead carcases were cast out, to 
"be devoured by wolves or dogs. This was executed 
in several places with the utmost barbarity. And it 
gave all people so much horrour, that, finding the ill 


effect of it, it was let fall. This hurt none, but 
struck all that saw it, even with more horrour than 
those sufferings that were more 1 felt. The fur) that 
appeared on this occasion, did spread it sell with a 
sort of contagion : for the inlendants and other offi- 
cers, that had been mild and gentle in the former 
parts of their life, seemed now to have laid aside the 
compassion of Christians, the breeding of gentlemen, 
and the common impressions of humanity. The 
createst part of the clergy, the Regulars especially, 
were so transported with the zeal that their king show- 
ed on this occasion, that their sermons were lull of 
the most inflamed eloquence that they could invent, 
magnifying their king in strains too indecent and 
blasphemous to be mentioripd by me." 

Bishop Burnet remained at Paris until the begin- 
ning of August, and then went to Italy. He staid 
at Rome, until he received an intimation, that it was 
time for him to go ; when he " returned to Marseilles, 
and then went through those southern provinces of 
France, that were at that time a scene of barbarity 
and cruel ty. J ** 

The restrospect of Saurin, a son of one of the Pro- 
testant refugees, and a celebrated preacher at the 
Plague, is at once eloquent and historical. " A 
thousand dreadful blows," said the preacher, "were 
struck at our afflicted churches, before that which 
destroyed them ; for our enemies, if t may use such 
an expression, not content with seeing our ruin, en- 
deavoured to taste it. One while edicts were pub- 
lished against those, who, foreseeing the calamities 
that threatened our churches, and not having power 
to prevent them, desired only the sad consolation of 
not being spectators of their ruin. Another while, 
August, 16G9, against those, who, through their 
weakness, had denied their religion, and who, not 

* Burnet's History of his own Time ; apud An. lfiSa. Referring (o the Edict 
of Revocation, lip. Burnet says, " As far as I couM judge, the affiirs of Eng- 
land ?ave the last stroke" to it. Ia i ebruarv : king James declared himself a 


being able to bear the remorse of their consciences, 
desired to return to their first profession. One while, 
May, 1679, our pastors were forbidden to exercise 
their discipline on those of their flocks, who had ab- 
jured the truth. Another while, June, 1680, child- 
ren of seven years of age, were allowed to embrace 
doctrines, which, the Church of Rome allows, are 
not level to the capacities of adults, June, 1681. A 
college was suppressed, and then a church shut up, 
January, 1683. Sometimes we were forbidden to 
convert infidels; and sometimes to confirm those in 
the truth, whom we had instructed from their infan- 
cy ; and our pastors were forbidden to exercise their 
pastoral office any longer in one place than three 
years. Sometimes the printing of our books was 
prohibited, July, 1685, and sometimes those which 
we had printed, were taken away. One while, we 
were not suffered to preach in a church, September, 
1685, and another while, we were punished for 
preaching on its ruins ; and at length, we were for- 
bidden to worship God in public at all. Now, Oc- 
tober, 1685, we were banished ; then, 1689, we were 
forbidden to quit the kingdom on pain of death. 
Here, we saw the glorious rewards of some who be- 
trayed their religion ; and there, we beheld others, 
who had the courage to confess it, a haling to a dun- 
geon, a scaffold, or a galley. Here, we saw our 
persecutors drawing on a sledge the dead bodies of 
those who bad expired on the rack. There we be- 
held a false friar tormenting a dying man, who was 
terrified, on the one hand, with the fear of hell, if he 
should apostatize, and, on the other, with the fear of 
leaving his children without bread, if he should con- 
tinue in the faith : yonder, they were tearing children 
from their parents^ while the tender parents were 
shedding more tears for the loss of their souls, than 
for that of their bodies or lives."* 

* Saurin, in Robinsons Memoirs. The father of Rev. James Sacrkn was 
an eminent Protestant lawyer at Msmes, who, alter the .Revocation of the 



The exclamation of the same preacher, in another 
sermon on some public occasion, bewailing tin; mise- 
ries of his exiled countrymen, reminds us of the 
" Lamentations" of the prophet over Jerusalem and 
his captive brethren at Babylon. The apostrophe to 
Louis XIV is admirable. " Are our benedictions ex- 
hausted ? Alas ! on this joyful day can we forget 
our griefs ? Ye happy inhabitants of these provinces, 
so often troubled with a recital of our afflictions, we 
rejoice in your prosperity ; will you refuse to com- 
passionate our misfortunes. ? And you, fire-brands 
plucked out of the burning, sad and venerable ruins 
of our unhappy churches, my dear brethren, whom 
the misfortunes of the times have cast on this shore, 
can we forget the miserable remnants of ourselves ? 

ye groaning captives, ye weeping priests, ye sigh- 
ing virgins, ye festivals profaned, ye ways of Ziou 
mourning, ye untrodden paths, ye sad complaints, 
move, O move all this assembly. Jerusalem, if 

1 forget thee, let my right hand forget her cunning. 
Not remember thee ! Let my tongue cleave to the roof 
of my mouth, if I prefer not Jerusalem above my 
chief joy ! O Jerusalem, peace be within thy walls, 
and I prosperity within thy palaces. For my brethren 
and companions'' sake, I will now say, peace be with- 
in thee ! May God be moved, if not with the ardor 
of our prayers, yet with the excess of our afflictions ; 
if not with our misfortunes, yet with the desolation 
of his sanctuaries ; if not with the bodies we carry all 
about the world, yet with the souls that are torn from 

Edict of Nantes, retired to Geneva. His son, then at the age of ton years, 
went with his fathnr into exile ; and, having finished a liberal course of study, 
under very eminent instructors at Geneva, visited Holland and England. He' 
staid in England nearly five years, and preached with great acceptance to his 
fellow exiles at London. Jn 1705, he returned to Holland, when a chaplain- 
ship to some of the nobility at the Hague was ottered him, which he accept- 
ed. The French church at the {{ague afterwards inviting him to become 
one of its pastors, he accepted the call, and continued m his office til! his 
death, in 1*30. 



" And thou, dreadful prince, whom I once honour- 
ed as my king, and whom 1 yet respect as a scourge 
in the hand of Almighty God, thou also shalt have a 
part in my good wishes. These provinces, which 
thou threatenest, but which the arm of the Lord pro- 
tects ; this country, which tiiou fillest with refugees, 
but fugitives animated with love; these walls, which 
contain a thousand martyrs of thy making, but whom 
religion renders victorious, all these yet resound bene- 
dictions in thy favour. God grant, the fatal bandage 
that hides the truth from thine eyes may fall off! 
May God forget the rivers of blood, with which thou 
hast deluged the earth, and which thy reign hath 
caused to be shed ! May God blot out of his book 
the injuries, which thou hast done us, and, while he 
rewards the sufferers, may he pardon those who ex- 
posed us to suffer ! O may God, who hath made 
thee to us, and to the whole church, a minister of 
his judgments, mako thee a dispenser of his favours, 
an administrator of his mercy !"* 

M. Claude,f a distinguished defender of the Re- 
formed church, referring to the " dragoons," who 
were sent to the Protestants to extort from them an 
abjuration, says : " They cast some into large fires, 
and took them out when they were half roasted. 
They hanged others with large ropes under the arm- 
pits, and plunged them several times into wells, till 
they promised to renounce their religion. They tied 
them, like criminals, on the rack, and poured wine 

*Id. Sermons, v. 255—257. 

t" The famous Mr. Claude, pastor of the church at Charenton, near Paris, 
wrote a Defence of the Reformation, which aii the clergy of France could not 
answer. The bishops, however, answered the Protectants all at once, by 
procuring an edict which forbade them to print." Robinson. An English 
translation of Claude's work was printed at London, in 4to. 1683. — Among 
the eminent divines and men of learning, who were ornaments to the French 
Reformed church in the seventeenth century, may be reckoned Cameron. 
Chamier, Du Moulin, Mestrezat, Blondel, Drelincourt, Duffle, Amyrault, the 
two Cappels, De la Place, Gainstole, Croy, Moms, Le Blauc, Fiijon, Bochart, 
Claude, Allix, Jurieu. Basnage, Abbadie. Beausobre, Lenfant, Martin. De 
Vignoles, Lc. 


with a funnel into their mouths, till, being intoxicated 
they declared that they consented to turn catholics. 
Some they slashed and cut with penknives; others 
they took by the nose with red hot tongs, and led 
them up and down the rooms, till they promised to 
turn catholics." 

These tremendous cruelties compelled eight hund- 
red thousand Protestants to quit the kingdom. Tin- 
Protestants of other states and kingdoms opened their 
arms to receive them.* Abbadie, Ancillon, and oth- 
ers fled to Berlin ; Basnage, Claude, Du Bosc, and 
many others, to Holland ; Allix, with many of his 
brethren, to England ; very many families, to Geneva ; 
and no inconsiderable number, to America. 

. It was while the storm was bursting upon them, 
in the year preceding the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, that the Prostestants of Rochelle looked to- 
wards America, for an asylum. At an earlier period, 
indeed, they had applied to the Massachusetts gov- 
ernment for this purpose ; and, although they did not 
then avail themselves of the liberty given them, they 
w T ere flow encouraged by the remembrance of it. So 
early as the year 1662, " John Touton, a French 
doctor and inhabitant of Rochel in France, made ap- 
plication to the court" of Massachusetts, " in behalf 
of himself and other protestants expelled from their 
habitations on account of their religion, that they 
might have liberty to inhabit there, which was readi- 
ly granted to lhem."t Their state, it would seem, 
was tolerable at that time, and they endured it : but, 
at the time of the revocation, it was evidently insup- 
portable. As they drew nigh that crisis, there were 
harbingers of " the windy storm and tempest." A 
declaration against the Protestants in 1681, was the 
forerunner of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. t 

* See Note IV. 

f Hutchinson's Hist. Massachusetts, i. c. 2. 

t Hist, of Lewis XIV, b. 13 


In 1682, the Assembly of the clergy of France issued 
a " warning to the pretended Reformed," for so they 
styled the Huguenots, " to return to the bosom of the 
church."* This menace, with the portentous indi- 
cations accompanying and following it, must have 
been sufficient to warn the Protestants of the im- 
pending danger, and to incite them to concert meas- 
ures for escaping it. The asylum, which had been 
solicited and promised twenty years before, was again 
sought, and a renewed application made for it, in 
New England. 

By a " Letter, written from Rochel, the 1st of Oc- 
tober 1684," to some person in Massachusetts, it 
appears, that some Protestants in that city were rob- 
bed, their temple razed, their ministers banished, 
their goods confiscated, and a fine imposed ; that 
they were not allowed to become " masters in any 
trade or skill ;" that they were in daily expectation 
to have soldiers put in their houses, and their child- 
ren taken from them. The writer observes, that 
this country, New England, was in such high esti- 
mation, that many Protestants were intending to 
come to it ; inquires, what advantage they can have 
here, and particularly " the boors," who were accus- 
tomed to agriculture ; and suggests, that the sending 
over of a ship to transport the French Protestants, 
would be a profitable adventure. t 

* Du Pin, iv. 363. This paper is preserved in Hist, de 1' Edit de Nantes, v. 
139 — 144. It is entitled, " Avertissement Pastoral do I' Eglise Gallicane 
assemblee a. Paris par 1' autorite du roi, a ceu de la R. P. R. pour les porter a 
se convertir, et a se reconcilier avec 1' Eglise." Towards the ciose of this 

" warning," is this monitory sentence : " Qui si vous refusez parce 

que cette dernier erreur sera plus crirainelle en vous que toutes les autre?, 
vous devez vous attendre a des malheurs incomparablement plus epouve- 
nables et plus funestes, que tous ceux que vous ont attirez jusqu' a present 
votre rerolte et votre schisrne." 

f MS. An extract from this letter I discovered among the MSS. in the New 
England Library, collected by Rev. Thomas Prince, and given by him to the 
Old South Church in Boston. It is now among the valuable MSS. deposited 
by that Church in the Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society. See 
Appendix. A. 



Whether a vessel was sent, or not, we are unable to 
determine. The difficulty of escaping from the king- 
dam, by any means whatever, must have been ex- 
treme, and attended with the utmost peril. Every 
attempt must have been made in the very face of the 
edict, which prohibited a departure from the realm on 
the severest penalties. One of the articles of the 
edict of revocation was : " And we do most straitly 
again repeat our prohibitions unto all our subjects of 
the pretended Reformed religion, that neither they 
nor their wives nor children do depart our kingdom, 
countries, or lands of our dominion, nor transport 
their goods and effects, on pain, for men so offending, 
of their being sent to the gallies, and of confiscation 
of bodies and goods for the women." 

It is certain, however, that a considerable number 
of Protestants by some means effected their escape 
from France, and came over to America ; and au- 
thentic papers, in our possession, seem to imply, that 
their transportation and settlement were provided for 
by men of the first distinction in New England. 

By the records of the town of Oxford, it appears, 
that, in the year 1682, the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts granted to Joseph Dudley, afterwards govern- 
or of the province, William Stoughton, afterwards 
lieutenant governor and commander in chief, major 
Robert Thompson, and their associates, a tract of 
land in the northwesterly part of the province, now 
known by the name of Oxford, in the county of 
Worcester. This tract was " of eight miles square, 
and situated in the Nipmug country," so called from 
a tribe of Indians, of that name, in its vicinity. Soon 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the pro- 
prietors " brought over thirty French Protestant 
families into this country, and settled them upon the 
easternmost part or end of the said tract of land."* 

* Oxford Town Records. These Records, reciting the grounds of forfeiture 
«n 1713, say : " The said Joseph Dudley and their associates, in the year 


Jn an original MS. " Delineation of the Town of 
Oxford," lying before me, it is laid out in lots in the 
names of the original proprietors. Between eleven 
and twelve thousand acres, at the east end, were 
" severed, granted, and sett apart for a village called 
Oxford, for the said Families."* 

These imperfect notices are all that we have been 
able to discover, of the time and the manner of the 
transportation of the French Protestants to New 
England. How long they continued on their planta- 
tion, what were their occupations, and what their 
progress in improvements, we have not been able 
precisely to ascertain. It appears, however, that the 
united body of settlers continued ten years at least, 
on the plantation ; that they erected fortifications up- 
on it ; that they set up a grist mill and a malt mill-; 
that they planted vineyards and orchards—remains of 
which are still to be seen ; and that they acquired 
the right of representation in the provincial legislature. 
Of this last fact, the public records preserve the evi- 
dence ; for in the year 1693, an act was passed by 
the Massachusetts government, empowering Oxford 
to send a representative to the General Court. f 

Every thing concerning this interesting colony of 
exiles has hitherto been learnt from tradition, with 
the illustrations derived from scanty records and ori- 
ginal manuscripts. Many of these manuscripts, 
which are generally written in the French language, 
were in the possession of Mr. Andrew Sigournev, of 
Oxford, and the rest were principally procured by 
Mr. Sigourney for the compilation of this Memoir. J 

168 , brought over 30 French Protestant families," leaving the year uncer- 
tain. The Rev. Mr. Whitney, in his History of the County of Worcester, 
says, it was " in the year 1636." 

* See Appendix, B. 

•j- Mr. Whitney, who takes a very slight notice of the French settlement in 
Oxford, mentions this act, as appearing " by the records in Secretary's office 
of the Commonwealth. " 

% Mr. Andrew Sigottrn-ey is a descendant from the first of that name, 
who was among the original French settlers of Oxford. To bis kindness I 


The oldest Manuseript that I have seen, is an ori- 
ginal paper, containing " Articles of Agreement be- 
tween Caleb Church of Watertown, mill- wright, and 
Gabriel Bernon of Boston, merchant,'* concluded in 
March, 1689, by which the said Church covenants 
and agrees to " erect a com or grist-mill, in the vil- 
lage of Oxford." This instrument was sealed and 
delivered in presence of J. Bertrand Du .... [obscure.] 

" Tho. Dudley." 

Church's acknowledgment of a receipt " in full 
following our bargain," is signed at " Boston, 4th 
Februarii, 168-^," the witnesses of which were Pe- 
ter Basset and Gabriel Depont. The Paper is en- 
dorsed, " Contract de M r . Church pour le Moulin de 

1>CVV UAlOlUt 

We can clearly trace the French plantation down 
to the year 1696 ; at which time it was broken up 
by an incursion of the Indians. By original manu- 
scripts, dated that year and at subsequent periods, it 
appears, that Gabriel Bernon, a merchant, of an an- 
cient and respectable family in Rochelle, was under- 
taker for the Plantation, and expended large sums 
for its accommodation and improvement. An origi- 
nal paper in French, signed at Boston, in 1696, by 
the principal settlers, certifies this fact in behalf of 
Mr. Bernon ; and subjoins a declaration, that the 
massacre of Mr. Johnson and of his three children by 
the Indians was the melancholy cause of his losses, 
and of the abandonment of the place.* 

Upon the dispersion of the French settlers from 
Oxford, it appears, that many, if not most of them, 
came to Boston. From the distinction which many 

»m indebted for nearly all my materials for this part of the Memoir. After 
giving me every facility at Oxford, in aid of my inquiries and researches, he 
made a journey to Providence for the sole purpose of procuring for me the 
Bernon papers, which he brought to mc at Cambridge. These papers were in 
the possession of Philip Allen, Esq. of Providence, who married into the 
Bernon family; and who has since indulged me with the MSS. to the extent 
of my wishes. • 

♦See Appendix, C. 


of the families attained in the metropolis, it may be 
fairly inferred, that they approved themselves to the 
citizens, whose hospitality they experienced, and to 
whose encouragement and patronage they must have 
been greatly indebted for their subsequent prosperity. 
They appear to have adhered to the principles, and, 
so far as they were able, to have maintained the in- 
stitutions, of religion, according to the Reformed 
church in France. It was for their religion that they 
suffered in their native country ; and to enjoy its 
privileges, unmolested, they fled into the wilderness. 
While at Oxford, they enjoyed the ministrations of a 
French Protestant minister.* Of their religious af- 
fairs, however, we have no distinct account, until 
their settlement iu Boston, after the Indian mas^a^ic 
in 1696. 

It is well known that the French refugees had a 
church of their own in Boston, where they, for many 
years, attended divine service. The Rev. Peter 
Daille was their first minister ; and he was highly 
esteemed. He was succeeded by the Rev. Andrew 
Le Mercier, w r ho is described as " a worthy char- 
acter." He was the author of " The Church His- 
tory of Geneva, and a Political and Geographical Ac- 
count of that Republic," printed at Boston in 1732. 
By intermarriages and otherwise, it appears that, 
in process of time, the French families became so 
blended with the other inhabitants of the town, as to 
render a separate and distinct religious service either 
unnecessary, or impracticable ; for, in the life time 
of Mr. Le Mercier, their church was, for some years, 
unoccupied, and, at length, sold for the use of a new- 
Congregational church, f 

Whether the French exiles never dared to return to 
the plantation from which they lied iu such terror 
and dismay, or whether ihey became so advantage- 

* See Appendix, D. t See Appendix, E. 


ou sly settled in Boston as not to wish to return, or 
whatever were the cause, they never did, as a body, 
return to Oxford. Permanent inhabitanee, it nitty 
be presumed, had been a condition of the. grant ; for 
the lands of that township reverted to the origin il 
proprietors. By the Records of the Town, under 
the date of 1713, it appears, that the French settlers 
had u many years since wholly left and deserted their 
settlements in the said village ;." that, upon public 
proclamation, they had refused to return ; and that 
most of them had voluntarily surrendered their I m Is. 
The proprietors, having recited these facts, and far- 
ther stated, that " there were sundry good families of 
her majesty's subjects within this province, who offer 
themselves to °o and resettle the said viiJaiiei where- 
by they may be serviceable to the province, and the 
end and design of the original grant aforesaid he 
answered and attained,'* proceed to grant and con- 
vey these lands to several ^persons and others, their 
associates, " so as their number amount to thirty at 
least." The instrument of this conditional grant is 
dated the 8th of July, 1713. The requisite number 
of associates was obtained ; and, about a year and a 
half after the above date, a distribution was made by 
lot among the thirty families.* 

There are but few relieks, or memorials, of the 
French settlement, now to be found in Oxford. Of 
these the most interesting are to be seen on a very 
high hill, which lies in the southwest part of the 
town, and commands a beautiful and extensive pros- 
pect. The village of Oxford beneath, and the rural 
scenery around, are delightful The hill is about a 
mile south of that part of the village, at which is the 
junction of two great roads leading from Boston, one 
through Westborough and Sutton, and the other 
through Marlborough and Worcester ; and, after 

♦See Appendix, F 


uniting in one at Oxford, passing through Dudljpy, 

Woodstock, Brooklyn, and otket town-., to Noruh h, 
in Connecticut. It is called Mayo's Hill, and some- 
times Fort Hill, from a fort, built on its summit by 
the French Protestants. The farm, on which the- 
re ma ins of the fort are, is owned by Mr. John MayOj 
whose grandfather, of Roxbury, was the original pur- 
chaser. The fort is a few rods from the dwelling 
house, ft was evidently constructed in the regular 
form, with bastions, and had a well within its enclo- 
sure. Grape vines, in 1819, were growing luxuri- 
antly along the line of the fort ; and these, together 
with currant bushes, roses, and other shrubbery, 
nearly formed a hedge around it. There were some 
remains ot an apple orchard. The curraat and as- 
paragus were still growing there. These, with the 
peach, were of spontaneous growth from the French 
plantation ; but the last of the peach trees were de- 
stroyed by the memorable gale of 1815 .* 

Of the French refugees, who settled in the other 
American colonies, we have but imperfect accounts. 
It is well known, that many of them, at the Revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes, and afterwards, settled 
in New York, Virginia, and Carolina. f 

New Rochelle, in the state of New York, was 
settled by French Protestant emigrants from Rochelle, 
in France. A French Protestant Episcopal church 
was founded in the city of New York by the French 
Huguenots, soon after the Revocation- Between 
these refugees and those who came to Massachusetts, 
it appears by the Bernon papers, there was some 
correspondence. The historian of New York, about 
the middle of the last century, says, " The French 
church, by the contentions in 1724, and the disuse 
of the language, is now reduced to an inconsiderable 
handful. The building, which is of stone, nearly a 

♦ See Appendix, G. t See Note V. 



square, plain both within and without. It is fenced 
from the street, has a steeple and a hell, the latter of 
which was the gift of sir IJenn Ashurst of London." * 
M, Pierre Antonie Albert was a rector of this church 
in our day. He died in 1806, in the forty-first year 
of his age. 

In 1690, king William sent a large body of French 
Protestants to Virginia ; to whom were assigned 
lands on the banks of James river, which the* soon 
improved into excellent estates. 

Among the colonies in America, which reaped ad- 
vantage from the Revocation of the Edict of Xanvs, 
Carolina had a large share. Many of the French 
refugees, having purchased lands from the proprietors, 
embarked \\ itli iheii iauiilica for that colony, an«j 
proved to be some of its best and most industrious 
inhabitants. These purchasers made a settlement on 
Santee river ; others, who were merchants and me- 
chanics, took up their residence in Charlestown, and 
followed their different occupations. Carolina had 
begun to be settled but fifteen years before the Revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes ; and these new settlers 
were a great acquisition to that colony. f It is wor- 
thy of remark, that, more than a century before, ad- 
miral Coligny had attempted a settlement of French 
Protestants in the territory now called Carolina, then 
Florida ; and that, at length, under the auspices of 
the English, this same country became an asylum for 
them, as it had been originally intended by Coligny. 

It should heighten our respect for the French emi- 
grants, and our interest in their history, to be re- 

* Smith's New York. On the front of the church is the following inscrip- 
tion : 




FVNDA. 1704. 

RCPAR. 1741. 
J Smith Hist. New York. Allen's Biog. Diet. Art. Albert. Beverly's Hist. 
Virginia. Hewatt's S. Carolina, i. 9 4. Ramsay's Hist. S. Carolina, i. 10. 

36 French protestants. 

minded of the distinguished services which their de- 
scendants have rendered to our country, and to the 
cause of civil and religious liberty. Gabriel Mani- 
gault, of South Carolina, assisted this country, which 
had been the asylum of his parents, with a loan of 
§220,000 for carrying on its revolutionary struggle 
for liberty and independence. " This was dorte at 
an early period of the contest, when no man was 
certain, whether it would terminate in a revolution or 
rebellion." Of the nine presidents of the old congress, 
which conducted the United States through the revo- 
lutionary war, three were descendants of French 
Protestant refugees, who had emigrated to America 
in consequence of the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. These were, Heinky Laurens, of South 
Carolina, John Jay, of New York, and Elias Bou- 
dinot, of New Jersey. 

What became of the Protestants, who remained in 
France after the catastrophe of 1685, every lover of 
truth, every philanthropist, every friend to the Pro- 
testant church and to pure religion, must be desirous 
to know. To resume, then, the thread of their his- 
tory : 

By an edict of Louis XV, in 1724, all marriages, 
not celebrated by priests of the Church of Rome, are 
declared concubinage, and the children of such mar- 
riages, bastards. The laws of France also ordain, 
that before marriage the parties shall confess, and re- 
ceive the Lord's supper. As Protestants could not 
do this without renouncing their religion, and as, 
since the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, they 
had been deprived of their churches ; their marriages 
were solemnized in the open fields, and hence called 
Marriages of the Desert. 

So late as the middle of the last century, the 
Catholic clergy, attended by bailiffs, broke into hous- 
es in the night ; destroyed every thing ; tore child- 
ren, who had reached four years of age, from the 


bosoms of their parents, and placed them under t in- 
direction and government of monks ; the parents be- 
ing obliged to defray the charge of educating them in 
a religion which they detested. If children escaped, 
the father was forced to pay an enormous fine, or to 
pine away in a gloomy dungeon. From 1751 to 
1753, there w 7 ere many barbarous transactions in 
France. In 1751, the intendant of Languedoe en- 
joined, that all children, baptized by Protectants, 
should be rebaptized in the Roman church ; and that 
the marriages of Protestants should be rendered le- 
gitimate only by the priests' subsequent blessing. 
Men present at religious assemblies were punished 
with the gallies ; women, with perpetual imprison- 
ment ; preachers, with the halter. The severe laws, 
from which these evils arose, remained unrepealed ; 
and the execution of them depended on the humour 
of bishops and intendants. 

Great efforts were made to prevent emigration ; 
yet such multitudes fled from France to avoid these 
persecutions, that at last the court found it necessary 
to restrain them ; and, from about the year 1703 to 
the French revolution, the situation of the Protest- 
ants became more favourable. " Since that time," 
says Dr. Less, " the bloody laws which remain in 
force have not been executed. Protestants are suf- 
fered to attend their worship ; and their marriages 
and children are acknowledged legitimate." Before 
the late Revolution, however, the French Protestants 
had no preachers, nor religious assemblies in the 
capital; " for as their freedom of worship rests on 
indulgence, in opposition to law, they venture not to 
violate the law, in the presence of the court." Their 
onlv public worship in Paris was in the chapel of the 
Dutch ambassador, where they had two preachers. 
" Many of the bishops," it was affirmed, " favour 
liberty of conscience. The present king [Louis XVI] 
loves his subjects, and hates persecution. The bigot- 


ry of the archbishop of Paris, and of some ministers 
of state, is the chief hindrance of their obtaining a 
legal toleration >; which, by encouraging their mar- 
riages, and recalling refugees, would increase the 
commerce and manufactures of France, and unite the 
strength of the kingdom."* 

What will be the ultimate influence of the French 
revolution, and of the restoration of the Bourbon 
family to the throne of France, upon the cau>e of 
civil liberty and religious toleration, it is not for us 
to predict. The massacre of the Protestants on St. 
Bartholomew's day in former time, and the mas- 
sacre of the Catholics in France in our own day, 
present lessons to kings, alike instructive and moni- 
tory. The last [ give in the first words of a Catho- 
lic historian : " O/ie hundred and thirty-eight bishops 
and archbishops, sixty-four thousand curates or vicars, 
driven from their sees, their parishes, for refusing to 
take an oath, by which they must have incurred the 
guilt of perjury and apostasy ; all the clergy, all the 
religious of both sexes robbed of the patrimony of the 
church, and forced from their retreats ; the temples of 
the Lord converted into capacious prisons for the 
reception of his ministers ; three hundred of his 
priests massacred in one day, in one city ; all the 
other pastors, who remained faithful to their God, 
either sacrificed or' banished their country, seeking 
through a thousand dangers a refuge among foreign 
nations : such is the spectacle exhibited to the world 
by the French revolution. r t 

A more easy and delightful lesson is furnished — if 
we may be permitted to say it — by our own country. 
While we reflect with gratitude on that portion of 
our history which shows, that it has in former time 

♦Lesse, State of the Protestants in France. Erskine's Sketches of Church 
History, ii. Nos. V. and VI. 

f History of the daring the French Revolution. By the Abbe 
Barrpfl. " An impious and wily philosophy had refreshed the remem- 
braiic of th^ history of thai terrible night [St. Bartholomew] over which 
Religion iveeps, and Humanity must shudder. - ' Barruel. 


fnrnishccl an asylum for the persecuted Protestants, 
we cannot but highly estimate the constitutions and 
laws of our commonwealth and of the United States, 
which secure to all persons, of whatever nation or 
lasgtiarge, entire liberty of conscience. Nor, while 
we reflect on the important services which the de- 
scendants of the French refugees rendered to us, in 
the vindication of our liberties, can we forbear to ex- 
press a wish for the recovery of theirs in the parent 
country. The disastrous revolution in France, which 
had nearly prostrated all religion with the throne and 
the altars, may, by an overruling Providence, be 
made promotive of the cause of religious liberty. We 
do hope in God, that the toleration, nominally afford- 
ed 10 Protestants in the present constitution of the 
French government, is the harbinger of their future 
freedom. Of our own free constitutions it does not 
become us to boast ; but, while we are grateful for 
them, we may be allowed to express the hope, that 
their tolerant principles will be adopted by other na- 
tions, whatever may be the form of their government." 
The recent presence in our country of a native of 
France, who from earliest life has been a zealous and 
disinterested friend to rational liberty, may justly 
heighten our sympathies with our Protestant brethren 
of his nation, as well as our interest in the subject of 
this Memoir. M. de la Fayette unites the Old 
world with the New — " nexus utriusque mundi." In 
both have his patriotic services been devoted to the 
cause of freedom; and in neither will the remembrance 
of them be ever obliterated. The half century cele- 
bration of the epoch of our liberties has been a com- 
memoration of his virtues : and the monument, which 

* " II [France] a\-ait sous les yeux l'exemple des Etats-Cnis d' Amertque, 
le seul pays de la terre oil fteurisse veritablemeut la iiberte reltgienae." Ai^- 
nan. For a concise account of the state of the h re'nch Protestants t'rmn the 
XVI th century to the year ISIS, the reader is referred to a recent and valua- 
ble work, entitled, i: De I' Etat des Protestaiis en France, depuis ie XVI 
siecle jusqn' a nos jour?, Avec dfs Notes Eciaircbsem^ns Hist.»riques-; Par 
M. AmNAK. de V Academie Francaise. Deuxteuie Edition. Pari*, lsJy. 


we are erecting in memory of our patriots and heroes, 
will he a memorial of him. 

It is in reference to the cause of the Protestants. 
that the name of La Fayette is here introduced. On 
his return to France in 1784, after the successful 
termination of the American war, Congress resolved, 
that a letter be written to his most Christian majesty, 
expressive of the high sense which the United States 
in Congress assembled entertain of the zeal, talents, 
and meritorious services of the marquis de la Fayette, 
and recommending him to the favour and patronage 
of his majesty. During the year following his arrival 
in France, finding the minds of his countrymen great- 
ly agitated on questions of political rights, he took 
part in some of their perilous discussions at once , 
on others, he delayed ; but, on all, his opinions were 
openly and freely known, and on alJ he preserved the 
most entire consistency. He very soon united his 
efforts with those of Malesberbes to relieve the Pro- 
testants of France from disabilities, and place them 
on the same footing with other subjects ; but the time 
for their freedom had not yet arrived, and his endeav- 
ours at this early period were unsuccessful. La 
Fayette was the first Frenchman, who raised his 
voice against the slave trade ; and he attempted to 
form a league against the Barbary pirates.* 

While busily engaged in these interests of philan- 
thropy, in February, 1787, the Assembly of the 
Notables was opened. Of this Assembly La Fayette 

♦The conduct of this young warrior, in returning from America with his 
military laurels, and espousing the cause of the. oppressed in his own country, 
is strikingly represented by M. Aiguan. The object of La Fayette and his 
associates, he says, was to obtain permission for the Protestants to be born, 
to marry, and to die. " Un jeune guerrier qui rapportait d' Amerique des 
lauriers avoues par la philosophic, un homme par qui toutes les nobles routes 
du patriotisiae nous out etc frayees, M. de la Fayette, s' etait concerto avec 
M. de Malesherbes et avec M. de Breteull pour qu' il fut permis aux Protes- 
tans de uaitre, de se marier et de mourir. — Mais ce» genereuses tentatives 

etaient pretnaturees Cependant I' assemblee des notables oftrit bientot 

a M. de la Fayette 1' occasion de renouveler en faveur des Protestans sen 
patriotiques efforts. " 


was a member ; and the independent, yet temperate 
tone, which he held throughout its session, " gave a 
marked character to its deliberations." lie propos- 
ed the suppression of the arbitrary and odious lettres 
de cachet: he proposed the enfranchisement of 


It was not until the reign of Louis XVI, under the 
ministry of Malesherbes, that the government discov- 
ered any disposition to alter the law which respected 
those who were called li Non-Catholics." In 1787, 
Rabaut de St. Etienne, a Protestant minister, was at 
Paris. Supposing that something might then be ef- . 
fected in the relaxation of the laws against the Pro- 
testants, he applied to the ministry, and received a 
favourable answer. He w T as soon after invited, and 
received in public, as a Protestant clergyman ; and 
obtained an edict favourable to the Protestants. Up- 
on this acknowledgment of the Reformed church, an 
immense number ranged themselves under its banners. 
Nearly a million of people came forward to profess 
their faith, and to register before the local govern- 
ments the baptisms and marriages, which had been 
secretly performed. At the meeting of the States 
General, in 1789, some Protestants were returned as 
representatives ; and a decree was passed, that no 
one should be interrupted in his religious opinions, if 
the manifestation of them did not break in upon the 
public peace ; and soon after, all Non-Catholics were 
permitted to hold civil and military employments in 
common with other citizens. In 1790, that portion 
of the confiscated property of Protestants, which had 

♦North American Review, 1825, Art. Lafayette. Aignan. In 17S4, La 
Fayette was at Nismes, whei;e resided Paul Rabaut, a minister, considered a> 
at the head of the Protestants, father of Rabaut de St. Etienne. How sub- 
lime the Dimitlis of this venerable old man, embracing the friend ot Wash- 
ington and cheered with the hope of Protestant Liberty, when contrasted 
With that of the ferocious Tellier, on sealing the Edict for its extinction, a 
century before ! 4i Le vieillard touchait au terme d' une vie orageuse ; il em- 
brassa comme un sauveur V ami de Washington, et pronome dans ses bras 
un yunc dwiitlis expiatoire de celui du fercce Le Tellier/' 



remained unsold after the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes in the hands of the government, was restored 
to tlie heirs of the former possessors. 

The government of the National Assembly, which 
assumed the authority in 1792, declared itself hostile 
alike to all ministers, who would not disavow the 
principles of their own profession, and assist in estab- 
lishing an atheistical system, and partake in the acts 
of that age of terror. 

It was not until 1802, that Christianity could be 
said to be publicly recognised by the government of 
France. It was in the consulate of Bonaparte, that 
the churches were repaired, and religion publicly re- 
established. Upon reports on this subject, presented 
l>v liw dirpction to the diflfprpnt jnomKpre r\f *Vio rt^fn 
was founded a religious establishment, which, while 
it gave to the Catholics a pre-eminence in the state, 
afforded to the Protestants a free worship and equal 
political rights. At that time the dominion of France 
extended far beyond the limits of the old, or of the 
present government. It included a vast population 
of Protestants, principally of the Confession of Augs- 
burg, and also of the Reformed church, belonging to 
the city of Geneva, and the vallies of Piedmont. 
In the registry made of tne ministers in the empire, 
it was found that there were 557 attached to the 
Reformed, and 481 to the Lutheran church, in all 
1038 ministers of the two communions ; to both of 
which the same privileges were secured. During the 
reign of Bonaparte, many of the old and dilapidated 
churches, which had belonged to Catholics before 
the Revolution, were given for the Reformed worship; 
and, as numbers were gathered into this communion, 
principally from the scattered remains of those which 
had survived the persecution to which the church had 
been subjected, new ministers were appointed and 
paid by the government. The number of these, both 
in France, and in other parts formerly dependent 


upon it, but now separated from it, is stated to have 
very much increased since the year 1802. No othci 
change of importance has occurred in the situation 
or circumstances of the Reformed church since the 
time of Bonaparte. The provisions that had been 
adopted for its support and security, were included 
in those fundamental laws, which formed what is 
called the Charter, and which were solemnly recog- 
nised when the Bourbons reascended the throne. 

There are several circumstances in the present 
condition of the French Protestant church, which af- 
ford an encouraging prospect of its increase and im- 
provement. These are: Its comparative toleration 
by law ; the increasing distribution, within it, of the 
Word of God ; the soundness of its Mutilations ,* the 
large number of its ministers ; the extension of its 
adherents over the whole kingdom — amounting, it is 
supposed, to upwards of a million ; and the influence 
of Bible, Missionary, and Tract Societies.* If the 
reign of the present king of France shall be as dis- 
tinguished by justice, as the reign of the king, whose 
name he has assumed, was by cruelty, to the Pro- 
testants ; the memory of Charles Xth will be per- 
petuated *vith glory. Should the hopes of our French 
Protestant brethren be not -fulfilled ; if the fiery or- 
deal must again be passed ; our prayer for them is, 
that they may have the " good will of him who 
dwelt in the bush," and that, with the faith of their 
forefathers, they may resume their seal, with its ap- 
propriate mOttO, I BURN, I AM NOT CONSUMED. 

•"History, present Condition, and Prospects of the French Protestant 
•Church," in the Christian Observer, vol. xsv, for the year 182-3. 


NOTE I. p. 13. 


A respectable German, who visited Rome about the middle of 
the last century, describing- the paintings in one of the apartments 
of the Vatican, says : "Here is also Vasari's piece of the perfidi- 
ous massacre of Paris ; which has its name from St. Bartholo- 
mew's day, on which it was perpetrated. Formerly these words 
were inscribed under it : Strages Uugonotorum, i The slaughter 
of the Hugonots ;' and on the other side : JVecem Coligni Rex 
probata ; The king approves of killing Coligni.' But Rome itself 
-/.'vrr.j +q \)Q sslisiniC'd of that execrable inhuman procedure * this 
inscription having some years ago been covered with a little 
gilded border. This, however, will remain in history as an in- 
delible blot on Gregory the Thirteenth's character, namely, that 
he applauded those bloody nuptials of Henry of Navarre, by a 
medal he caused to be struck, which on one side had this legend : 
Ugonotiorum Strcges. Under a smaller picture (near that men- 
tioned above) where the wounded admiral is carried along, these 
words are still legible : Caspar Colignius Amiralius accepto vulnere 
dcrmvm defertur. Gregorio XIII. Pontif. Max. MDLXXIL Over 
against this is a person half naked, which was without doubt in- 
tended for Henry IV. of France, in a submissive posture before 
the pope. Some of the inscription under this picture has like- 
wise been erased ; all that remains of it now is, 

" Gregor . . Ecclesia . . . supplicem et panitentem absohitP 
Travels through Germany, Italy, kc. By J. G. Keysler, F. R. S. 
Lond. From the German, Loud. 1757, v. ii. Art. Rome. — Medals 
were struck, having on one side the king sitting on a throne, and 
treading on dead bodies, with the motto, Virtus in rebelles; and 
on the reverse, the arms of France crowned between two col- 
umus, and Pietas excitavit Justiciam 24 Aitgusii 1572. There is a 
print of this medal in P. Daniel, torn. viii. 786. 

NOTE II. p. 16. 


Keysler observed, at Rome, a memorial of the absolution of 
Henry IV. During the ceremony, the staff in the hands of the 


pope was used in a very uncourteous manner upon the shoulders 
of the king's representatives, and of the cardinals du Perron and 

d 1 Ossat, " who were kneeling at his feet." Though cardinal 
d' Ossat often repeated, " that nothing passed in the absolution in 
the least derogatory to the king's prerogative, few impartial 
readers will take his word for it. His delay in sending an ac- 
count of this singular circumstance betrays some fears of the cen- 
sures that might be passed on it; and that he would have been 
much better pleased, if it could have been entirely concealed 
from the French. It Was, however, publicly known in France, 
with all its ignominious circumstances, before the papal court 
had published the narrative of this extraordinary absolution. 

"In the area before the church of St. Anthony is a cross of 
oriental granate, w T ith a crucifix of brass on it ; and at its side the 
Virgin Mary, of the same metal, under a canopy support* d by 
four granate pillars. This is a memorial of the mass celebrated 
in this church by Clement VIII, on the conversion of Henry IV, 
king of France, to the Romish religion. On the pedestal of this 
pillar there was formerly this inscription : 

d. o. M. 

Chmente VIII. Pont. Max. 

Ad memoriam absolulionis 

Henrici IV. Franc, ct JVavarr. 

Regis Chrlstianissimi. 

Q. F. R. D. xv. Kal Octobris. 


But about twelve years since it has been thought fit to erase this 

inscription." Keysler, ut supra. 

An oration was pronounced at Rome before pope Gregory XIII, 
by Antony Muretus, in praise of Charles IX, in which he blesses 
that memorable night in which this accursed slaughter was com- 
mitted ; extols the king, the queen-mother, and the brethren of 
the king, for the share they had in this execrable work ; and 
calls the pope himself most blessed Father, for his going in proces- 
sion to return thanks to God and St. Lewis for the welcome news 
when brought to him.* 

*"0 noctera illam memorabilem, et in fastis eximia? alien jus nota> adjec- 
* tione signandam ! . . . Qua quidem nocte stellas equidem sollto nitidius arbi- 

tr'or, et Rumen Sequanam majores undas volvisse, quo iila impuroruru liorai- 
xium cadavera evolveret et exoneraret in mare. O felicissimam mulierem 
Catharinam regis niatrem, quae cum tot annus admirabili prudentia parique 
sollicitudine regnum fitio, filium regno conservasset, turn demum secura 
regnantem filium adspexit. ! O regis t'ratres, ipsos quoque beatos ! — O diem 
denique ilium plenum letitia? et hiluritatis, quo lu, Beatissime Pater, hoc ad te 
nuncio allato, Deo immortali, et Divo Hludovico regi, cujus haeG in ipso 
pervigilio evenerant, gratias acturus. . . . Quis autem optabibor ad te nuncius 
adferri poterat ? aut nos ipsi quid felicius cptare poteramus principium pon- 
tificatus tui ?" 


NOTE III. p. 20. 

Hisloire de 1' Edit de Nantes, contenant les. choses les plus 
remarquables qui se soot passees en France avant et apres sa 
publication a 1" occasion de la diversite dcs Religions ; et princi- 
palement les Contraventions, Inexecutions, Chicanes, Artifices, 
Violences, et autres Injustices, que les Reformer y ont souffertea 
jusques a l' Edit de Revocation, en Octobre 1685. Avec ce qui 
a suivice nouvel Edit jusques a present. 5 vols. 4to. Printed at 
Delft, 1695. In this History, a copy of the original is inserted, 
entitled, " Edit du Roi, qui revoque celui de Nantes, et tente ce 
qui s 1 est fait en consequence, et defend tout tous exercice public 
de la Rel. P. R. dans le Royame." — At the close of the Edict : 
"Donne a Fontainebleau au mois d' Octobre, 1' an de grace 1685, 
et de notre regne le 43. Signe, Louis. Et a cote : Et sur le re- 
pli visa, le Tellier. Et a cote : Par le Roi, Colbert. Et seal- 
Kes du grand Seau, de cire verte, sur lacs de soye rouge et 
verte." The author of this t; Histoire" demonstrates, that the 
Edict of Nantes was to be irrevocable, and ought to have been 
perpetual. Le Tellier, the high chancellor of France, expressed 
extreme joy when he put the seal to the Edict of its Revocation. 
But it was the last act of his life ; u for no sooner did he return 
from Fontaiubleau to his own house, but he fell sick, and died in 
a (evi days."— Quick's Synodicon. Voltaire recites the fact, and 
makes this just reflection ; that he knew not he had sealed one 
of the greatest evils of France : u Le vieux chancellier le Tellier, 
en signant P edit s' ecria, plein de joie : A'unc dimittis servum 
tuum, Domine, quia viderunt oculi mei salutare tuum. II ne savait 
pas qu' il signait un des grands malheurs de la France." — Siecle 
de Louis XIV, ch. 36. Dr. Maclaine observes, that some late hire- 
ling writers, employed by the Jesuits, have been audacious 
enough to plead the cause of the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes ; but that, to the honour of the French nation, those im- 
poteut attempts to justify the measures of a persecuting and un- 
relenting priesthood, have been treated almost universally at 
Paris with indignation and contempt. Note to his Translation 
of Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. v. 354. But at what time he made 
this observation does not appear. The first edition of his Trans- 
lation is dated " Hague, Dec. 4, 1764;" my copy is " London, 
1803." Dr. Maclaine was pastor of the English church at the 
Hague, where he married the daughter of Mr. Chais, the minis- 
ter of the French Protestant church. He continued at the Hague 
till the troubles of 1796, when he went over to England, and re- 
tired to Bath, where he died in 1804. For a true state of the 
losses wh-ich the French nation sustained by the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nante«. we are referred to "Etat de la France, 


extrait par M. le Comte de Boulainvilliers des Memo ires dressee 

par les Intendans du Royaume, par V ordrc du Roi Louis XIV, ,1 
la solicitacion du due de Bourgogne :" and, for an account of the 
conduct of the French court towards the Protestants ;it that dismal 
period, to the incomparable memorial of the learned and pious 
Claude, entitled, " Plaintes des Protestans de France." 

NOTE IV. p. 27. 


The number of exiles, or refugees, is variously stated by dif- 
ferent historians. Hume says, " Above half a million of the most 
useful and industrious subjects deserted France, and exported, to- 
gether with immense sums of money, those arts and manufactures 
which had chiefly tended to enrich that kingdom — lYear fifty 
thousand refugees passed over into England." Hist. Eng. c. 7(5. 
One hundred and t^ifiy of the exiled ministers went to London. 
Voltaire says, one of the suburbs of London was entirely peopled 
with French workers in silk. It is an observation of Robinson : 
ct Had England derived no more advantage from its hospitality to 
the 'refugees than the silk manufacture, 1693, it would have 
amply repaid the nation." To the honour of the English gov- 
ernment and people, they have always been hospitable and gene- 
rous to distressed Protestants. Even in the reign oC king James 
the Second, large collections were made for the French refugees; 
and at the Revolution, William and Mary, who, while they were 
the prince and princess of Orange, had been bright examples for 
that charity, were distinguished for it after they became monarehs 
of Britain. At king William's accession, the parliament voted 
fifteen thousand pounds sterling annually to be distributed among 
such of the French fugitives, as either were persons oi quality. 
or were, through age or otherwise, unable to support themselves. 
To the French refugees, Anderson says, England owes the im- 
provement of several of its manufactures of slight woollen stutis, 
linen, paper, glass, and hats; the silks, called alamodes and 
lustrings, were entirely owing to them; also brocades, satins, and 
' other silk fabrics, and black velvets ; also watches, cutlery ware, 
clocks, surgeons' instruments, &c. 

An account of the truly Christian reception of the French re- 
fugees at Geneva, and in the electorate of Brandebourg, may be 
found in Le Merciers Church History of Geneva, and " Histoire 
de V Etablissement des Francois Refugiez dans les Etats de son 
Altesse Electorale de Brandebourg ;" Berlin, 1690. The prompt 
and liberal measures of the elector Frederick William, in behalf 
of the refugees, entitle him to the hie'h commendations, bestowed 


upon him in the last named work. He instantly provided not 
merely for the safety of their persons, but for the supply of* their 
wants. By the Xlth article of the edict passed by his electoral 
highness in the same month of the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes (29 Oct. 1685), it is declared, that they shall have the 
exercise of their religion, according- to the customs and wi;.b the 
same ceremonies which had been practised among them in France : 
ct Que les Francois feront P exercise de leur Religion, selon les 
coutumes et avec les memes ceremonies qui se sontpratiquees par- 
mi eux en France." They were even invited into his electorate : 
" II les apellez et a pouryu a leurs besoms." Anderson says, 
u The great elector William allowed them a yearly pension of 
forty thousand crowns." The author of " Histoire dc la Repub- 
lique des Provinces-Unies des Pais-Bas" says, England, the United 
Proviuces, the elector of Brandebourg, and the landgrave of 
Hesse, signalized themselves among all the Protestants by their 
great efforts to receive an immense number of people [une infi- 
nite de gens] who had taken refuge among them in this extremi- 
ty, iv. 301. The two first kings of Prussia caused collections to 
be made for them throughout their dominions ; settled stipends 
on their clergy ; built them churches : and granted them immu- 
nities from taxes and offices. These wise and liberal princes 
even placed their agents on the confines of France for conducting 
the refugees to Brandebourg, " bearing their expenses all the. 
way." The States General of the United Provinces settled a 
fund for an incredible number of pensions to military officers, 
gentlemen, and ministers, and for supplies to virgins and ladies 
of quality. Great sums were also raised for supporting their 
poor, for whom liberal collections were made in all their towns 
and villages; and the prince and princess of Orange were emi- 
nently exemplary in this office of Christian charity. Hist de 1* 
Edit de Nantes. Anderson Hist. Commerce. Voltaire, Siecle 
de Louis XIV. The Jesuit historian Petavius extols the humani- 
ty of the foreign Protestants on this occasion. ;: Protestantes 
certatim diffugere incipiebant. Sed rex, solitudinem regni me- 
tuens, ne quis discederet, sub gravissima poena prohibuit. Vel 
sic tamen multa hominum millia subduxerunt, qui ab Protestanti- 
bus exteris summa cum humanitate excepti et adjutisunt." Rat. 
Temporum, A. D. 1672—1683. 

The ;i strict and cordial union" between the French and Dutch 
churches, in faith and discipline, must have had a kindly influ- 
ence in favour of the refugees. These churches mutually signed 
their confessions and discipline at the National Synod at Vitre in 
Brittany, in 1533 ; and for some time sent their deputies recipro- 
cally to their National Synods. In 1618, the French deputies, 
Chamier, Du Moulin, Chauve, and Rivet, were on their way to 
the Synod of Dort ; but u they were frighted back again by a 
prohibition issued out against them by the king then reigning. 



Louis XIII. These National Synods paid a very great deference 
to the church, pastors, and professors of Geneva, and embnn < •! 
their councils.''' Quick's Synodicon, i In bod. and i 43. Synod XII. 
Quick says, Calvin first drew up the confession of the French 
Protestant church. 

The effect of the Revocation was felt, in its greatest severity! 
by the Protestant ministers. On the same day that the Edict was 
registered (Oct. 23). they began to throw down the temple of 
Charenton. The oldest minister of the Reformed church wis 
commanded to leave Paris in twenty-four hours, and immediately 
to depart the kingdom. " This was that excellent minister of 
God, M. Claude, who afterward died at the Hague. Hi* col- 
leagues met with a little better treatment; for they had fortv- hours given them to quit Paris, and upon their parole for 
so doing, they were left to shift for themselves. Accordingly/ 1 
says Quick, u Monsieur Maynard, Allix, and Bertau, come for 
England, and are here exercising" their ministry [T692], — The 
rest of the ministers were allowed fifteen days for their depar- 
ture ; but it can hardly be believed to what cruelties and vexa- 
tions they were exposed. . . . There was hardly any kind of de- 
ceit, and injustice, and troubles, in which these worthy ministers 
of Christ were not involved. And yet," adds the English histori- 
an, " through rich mercy, very few revolted ; the far greatest 
number of them escaped, either into England, Holland* Germany, 
or Swi zerland; yea, and some are now settled in New England." 
Synod icon, hit rod. § 52. 

NOTE V. p. 34. 


Baudouin. The ancestors of the Bowdoins were Protestants, 
inhabitants of Rochelle, in France. They were of honourable 
descent, and possessed a fair inheritance there. On the Revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes, Pierre Baudouin, who is said to have 
been a physician at Rochelle, fled from France to Ireland, and 
soon after came thence to America. An original letter in French, 
of his writing, dated t; at Casko," 2 Aug. 1687, is in the posses- 
sion of James Bowdoin, Esq. of Boston, one of his descendants, a 
member of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Pierre Bau- 
douin came first to Casco bay, where this letter was dated. He 
writes, that his family with him consists often persons. He was 
the grandfather of governor Bowdoin, whose name is distinguish- 
ed in the annals of New England. The ancestor, in the letter 
abovementioned, wrote his name Baudouin ; but. like many other 
French names, it was afterwards changed. The father of the 


50 historical notes. 

late governor Bowdoin, who was nn eminent merchant, was born 
in France, ami probably accompanied his father Pierre to Ameri- 
ca. He removed from Falmouth (Casco hay), now Portland, to 
Boston, in lb\>0. "By his industry, economy, and integrity, he 
accumulated a very ample fortune ; and possessed so much of the 
esteem and respect of hi* fellow citizens, that he was chosen a 
member of the council for several years before his death." His 
son James was educated at Harvard college, of which he was a 
bright ornament, and a liberal benefactor. The American Aca- 
demy of Arts and Sciences was formed under his influence. He 
was its first President; and "A Philosophical Discourse," deliv- 
ered at his induction into office, is printed in the first volume of 
the memoirs of the Academy. To this institution he bequeathed 
one hundred pounds, and his valuable library. He received the 
degree of doctor of laws from the university of Edinburgh and 
was elected a member of the royal societies of London and Dub- 
lin. He was governor of Massachusetts in the years 1785, and 
1785 ; and died in 1790, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. His 
character is given in Dr. Thacher's funeral sermon, Judge Low- 
ell's eulogy, inserted in the memoirs of the American Academy, 
and Eliot's and x\llen*s Biographical Dictionaries. — Governor 
Bowdoin left one son, the late honourable James Bowdoin, and 
one daughter, the lady of sir John Temple, late consul general 
of Great Britain to the United States. The son, who was minis- 
ter plenipotentiary at the court of Madrid, and a distinguished 
benefactor to Bowdoin college in Maine, died 25 October, 1811. 
At his decease, an eulogy was delivered by Rev. William Jenks, 
then a professor of the oriental languages at Bowdoin college. 

The name of Baudouin repeatedly occurs in French history. 
At the time of the synod of Castres, A. D. 1626, Sebastian Bau- 
douin was a pastor of one of the Reformed churches in the Collo- 
guy of St. John d' Angely. At the time of the Synod of Alanson, 
1637, John Boudouins was a pastor of one of the Reformed 
churches in the Coltoguy of Caux. Quick's Synodicon, ii 234, 
383. Francois Baudouin, an eminent advocate, is mentioned by 
Fleury, as conducting with great integrity, in refusing; to give 
counsel to the duke of Anjou, to justify the St. Bartholomew mas- 
sacre. " Le due d'Anjou, encore plus interesse que le roi a justi- 
fier la saint Barthelemi, voulut employer le secours et la plume 
du ceiebre jurisconsulte Francois Baudouin, qui etant passe en 
Allemagne,avoit enseigne le droit dans les plus celebres universi- 
tes ; mais Baudouin, qui detestoit veritablement cette action, s ? 
excusa . . . conduite digne d' un homme de bien."' . . . Histoire 
Ecclesiastique, xxiii. 562. A. D. 1572. The first version of Da- 
vila into French was by I. Baudouin, a native of France, in 2 
volumes folio, 1642; for which cardinal Richelieu, then prime 
minister of that kingdom, promised him a pension of 12,u00 
crowns, but died the December following, 4< before he had per- 


formed it." Davila, i. p. v. In the ;c liste" of persecuted French 
Protestants, in 1685, 1686, &c. preserved in Histoire tic V Edit 
Ue Nantes, is tl Baudoin . . . tuez." 

Berxox. Gabriel Bernon was undertaker for the plantation at 
Oxford. See Appendix, E. This name is mentioned by Baron 
La Hontan, as or fiochelle. '<• The merchant that has carried on 
the greatest trade la Canada, is the Sieur Samuel Bernon, of Ra- 
chel* who has great ware-houses at Quebec, from which the in- 
habitants of the other towns are supplied with such commodities 
as they want. It is true, there are some unerchmits at Quebec 
who are moderately rich, and fit out ships upon their own bot- 
tom, that ply to and again between France and Canada ; and these 
merchants have their correspondents at Rochet, who send out and 
'take in every year the cargoes of their ships. 1 ' — La Hontan was 
at Quebec in 1633, and left Canada for France in 169 J. In his 
Account of the Government of Canada, subjoined to his Voyages, 
he makes the following remarks upon the wretched policy of the 
Into measures of his government. " I wonder, that instead of 
banishing the Protestants out of France, who, in removing to the 
countries of our enemies, have done so much damage to the king- 
dom, by carrying their money along with them, and setting up 
manufactories in those countries — 1 wonder, that the court did 
not think it more proper to transport them to Canada. I am con- 
vinced, that, if they had received positive assurances of enjoying 
a liberty of conscience, a great many of them would have made 
no scruple to go thither If the Council of State had follow- 
ed my scheme, in the space of thirty or forty years, New France- 
would have become a liner and more flourishing kingdom than 
several others in Europe." New Voyages to America, written 
in French by the baron La Hontan, lord lieutenant of the French 
colony at Placentia in Newfoundland, i. 255, 268, 269. 

Boudixot. This name appears in the memoirs of Oxford. See 
Appendix. It appears, that a family of this name came to Boston ; 
but it probably removed to New York, or one of the middle colo- 
nies. The late Eiias Boudinot, LL. D. whose memory is pre- 
cious to our churches and country, was born in Philadelphia. 
He was a descendant of one of the Protestants, who, at the Revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, fled from France to America. In 
1777, he was chosen a member of congress ; of which, in 1782, 
he was chosen president. On quitting his station in congress, of 
which he continued a member six years after the adoption of the 
Federal constitution, he was appointed by president Washington 
director of the national miut. After remaining twelve or four- 
teen years in this office, always acting in it with ability and ex- 
emplary fidelity, he resigned it, and withdrew into private life, 
and spent the remainder of his days at Burlington, New Jersey. 
He was a distinguished benefactor to the college of New Jersey, 
of which he was a trustee : and to the Presbvterian church, oi 


which he was a member. Mo made a donation of lands to the 
general assembly of the Presbyterian church; and left a testa- 
mentary donation for the theological seminary at Princeton, and 
for missionary purposes. He extended his beneficence to foreign 
missions; to institutions for the relief of the deaf and dumb; to 
the society for colonizing and Christianizing the Jews ; to seve- 
ral societies for educating youth for the ministry; and to many 
other pious and humane associations. He is considered as the 
father of the American Bible Society, to whose funds he made the 
most liberal donations. Of this important society he was chosen 
the first president, and he continued in that office until his death. 
He died at Burlington in 1821, in the 82d year of his age. 

In Quick's' Synodicon, ;i Monsieur Elias Boutonnet, a merchant 
of Marans near Rochell," is mentioned, among other Protestants, 
as " martyred ty these bloody miscreants. 1 ' 

Daille. The Rev. Peter Daille was a minister of the French 
Protestant church in Boston. Among the churches and ministers 
in New England in 1696, Dr. C. Mather mentions, as oi Boston, 
"a French congregation of Protestant Refugees, under the pastor- 
al care of Monsieur Daille." His name, with the addition of 
" ministre," appears in the French paper (1696), inserted in the 
Appendix, C. In the Bernon [MSS. ib. E.J there is a letter from 
M. Daille dated at Boston, 11 April, 1707. M. Daille continued 
to be pastor of this church till his death, 1715. He was " a per- 
son of great piety, charity, aftable and courteous behaviour, and 
of an exemplary life and conversation : much lamented, especial- 
ly by his flock. By his will he required, that his body should 
be " decently interred" according to the discretion of his execu- 
tor, Mr. James Bowdoin, with this restriction, that there be no 
wine at his funeral, and no mourning to his wife's relations, ex- 
cept gloves. All the ministers of the town, together with Mr. 
Walter, are presented with gloves and scarves. His books are 
given to form a library for the church ; £100 for the benefit of 
the minister, and £10 to be put to interest, until the church 
should erect a meeting-house, when it was to he appropriated 
towards the expenses of the same. He remembers his brother 
'Paul Daille Vaugelade in Amsfort in Holland,' and signs himself 
Daille, omitting his baptismal name of Peter. — History of Boston, 
201. He died in 1715, and was interred in the Granary burying 
yard in Boston. His grave is nearly in the centre of the yard; 
and from its headstone 1 copied the following epitaph: 
Here lies ye Body of ye 
Reverend Mr. Peter Daille 
Minister of the French Church in Boston, 
Died ye 21st of May 1715 
In the 67 year of his Age. 


Near his own grave is that of his wife, with this inscription 
on her grave stone : 

Seyre Daille 
Wife to ye Reverend Mr. Peter Daille 
Aged about CO.* 
Around these graves are many others, apparently French : 
Basset, Mian, Garrett, Paliere, Sabin, Berrey, &c. The Frank- 
lins lie buried near them. Three paces distant from M. Daille's 
grave is that of Jo?iah Franklin, the father of Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin, inscribed, 

J.T. born 1655. d. 1744. 
A. F. b. 1G67. d. 1752. 
The name of Daille appears in the history of the French Re- 
formed church. In 16-GO, M. Daille, then pastor of the church at 
Paris, was moderator of the synod at Loudun. He was a mo^t 
learned and eloquent preacher, and a very respectable author. 
His «' Right use of the Fathers" was translated into English, and 

i • T-i I-,«A 

. Faneuil. Th3 family of Faneuil was among the French Hu- 
guenots that fled from France to America, on the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. The house in Boston, now occupied by the 
honourable William Phillips (late lieutenant governor), was built 
by Andrew Faneuil ; and the summer-house attached to it bears 
a grasshopper vane, similar to that on Faneuil hall. After An- 
drew's death, Peter Faneuil lived and died there. In 1740, Peter 
Fanueil, Esq. made an offer to build, at his own expense, a com- 
plete edifice on the town's land in Dock square, " to be improved 
for a market, for the sole use, henetit, and advantage of the 
town, provided that the town would pass a vote authorizing it. 
and lay the same under such proper regulations as should be 
thought necessary, and constantly support it for the said use." 
A vote of thanks to Mr. Faneuil was immediately passed. The 
work was commenced in September of that year, and finished 
10 September 1742, on which day the key of the house was de- 
livered to the selectmen by his order. The thanks of the town 
were given him by a vote at a town meeting, 13 September, 
1742. After a pertinent preamble, specifying the donation of Mr. 
Faneuil, and the great accommodations which it furnished for 
a market place, c a spacious and most beautiful town hall, over 
it, and several other convenient rooms,'' it was voted, u That the 
town do, with the utmost gratitude, receive and accept this most 
generous and noble benefaction ;" and a committee was appointed 
to wait upon Peter Faneuil esq. and in the name of the town, to 
render him their most hearty thanks for so bountiful a gift, with 
their prayers, that this and other expressions of his bounty and 
charity may be abundantly recompensed with the divine blessing." 

* *By a letter of G. Bernon it appears, that she died in 1696. 


It was also voted, that, in testimony of the town's gratitude to 
Peter Faneuil esq. that the hatl over the market place be named 
Faneuil Hall, and at all times hereafter, he called and known by 
that name. And as.a further testimony of respect, it was voted, 
that Mr. Faneuir» picture be drawn at lull length, at the expense 
of the town, and placed in the hail. It was accordingly placed 
there, but did not escape the ravages ot' the revolution. This 
and the portraits of general Conway, and colonel Barre, it is sup- 
posed, were carried oil by the British. Another portrait of _\.ir. 
Faneuil has been placed in the hall, and now remains there, sur- 
rounded by portraits of Hancock, Adams, and the most distin- 
guished revolutionary patriots and heroes. Faneuil hall has been 
emphatically called '■ The Cradle of Liberty.'' The building is 
of brick, two stories high, and measuring 100 feet by 40. ;< It was 
esteemed one of the best pieces of workmanship, and an orna- 
ment to the town. The hall would contain 1000 persons ; there 
were convenient apartments For the offices of the town, besides a 
room for a naval oihee, and a notary publick." 

Mr Faneuil died suddenly, 3 March, 1743; and at the next 
meeting of the inhabitants in the hall, 14 March, a funeral ora- 
tion was delivered by Mr. John Lovell, master of the south gram- 
mar school. As the first specimen of eloquence uttered in the 
hall, and as a tribute due to the memory of Faneuil. this oration, 
" a precious relick, 7 ' is inserted in the History of Boston. 

Huger. This was a French Protestant family. The name of 
Francis K. Huger, of Charleston, S. C son of a patriot of the 
American revolution, is memorable for the daring and adventu- 
rous effort which he made while. in Austria, in conjunction with 
Dr. Bollman, a Hanoverian, to liberate La Fayette from the dun- 
geon of Olmiitz. See a well written and very interesting Me- 
moir of La Fayette in the North American Review for January 

Jay. The honourable Johu Jay, a descendant from the French 
Protestant refugees, was one of the commissioners for the trea- 
ties of peace with Great Britain, and other European powers at 
the close of the revolutionary war; and sole commissioner for 
the treaty with Great Britain in 1795. He has sustained the 
offices of governor of the state of New York, and of chief justice 
of the United States. Although he has lived many years in re- 
tirement, he has taken such an interest in the greatest work of 
Christian benevolence which distinguishes our age, that, on the 
death of the hon. Elias Boudinot, he was chosen president of the 
American Bible Society. u The memory of these illustrious men 
is embalmed in the hearts of their countrymen."* Mr. Jay still 
Jives — " Familiae presidium, et eolumen Reipubiicce.'" 

* Address of Governor Clinton to the American Bible Society, in the ab- 
sence of the President, lb2«>. 


A person of this name, Guy Michel le Jay, was an advocate of 
the parliament of Paris. He printed, at his own expense, a beau- 
tiful Polyglott Bible, in 10 volumes folio, containing the Syriac 

and Arabic versions, which are not inserted in the Polyglott of 
Ximenes. He died in 1675. 

Laurens. The ancestors of Henry Laurens were Trench Pro- 
testant refugees. They first settled in New York; but after* 
wards removed to Charleston, South Carolina. This descendant 
was an ornament to his family, and to his adopted country. He 
was one of the first presidents of Congress. His eminent charac- 
ter, his services and sacrifices in the cause of freedom, are w*!l 
known; as well as the valour and patriotism of hi^ son. colonel 
John Laurens, who was killed in a skirmish just at the close of 
the revolutionary war. The characters of both are faithfully 
* delineated by Dr. Ramsay, in his History of South Carolina. The 

same historian has given, in an interesting and instructive volume, 
•* Memoirs of the Life of Martha Laurens Ramsay, the wife of 
the biographer; a work, which presents an example of intellec- 
tual improvement, of polite accomplishments, and of Christian 
virtues and graces, worthy of the imitation of her sex. Mrs. 
. Ramsay was the daughter of Henry Laurens. " By the father's 
side, she was of French extraction. Her great grandparents 
were born in Rochelle, and suffered in the famous siege of that 
place."' They were Huguenots, or Protestants. Compelled by 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes to leave their native coun- 
try, they came to America in the latter part of the 17lh century. 53 

The name of Laurens appears in the History of the French 
Protestant Church, in 1620. The National Synod of Aioz, that 
year, out of sums due to the Synod, ordered £300 to be paid ** to 
Monsieur Laurens, pastor of la Bastide in Vivaretz." Quick's 
Synodicon, ii. 69. 

Manigault. Gabriel Manigault, of South Carolina, was born 
in 1704. Both his parents were French Protestant refugees, 
who came to America soon after the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. Their son was distinguished for his integrity and be- 
nevolence. "He generally had pensioners, who received his 
bounty at stated periods. 1 " In the course of a long and useful 
life he acquired a large fortune. At his death, he left to the 
South Carolina Society of Charleston a legacy of £5000 steriing ; 
from the interest of which the society has been enabled to add 
very consiaerably to the number of children educated en its 
bounty. He was treasurer of the province ; and for some time 
a representative of Charleston in the provincial hou*e of com- 
mons. " Being descended from French parents, he was by birth 
a member of the Calvinistic church in Charleston, of which he 
was always a most zealous supporter; yet he was a steady com- 
municant and regular attendant on divine service in St. Philip's 
church." It was this man, who, at the commencement of the 


American war, made the g-enerous loan to the state of South Car- 
olina. Peter Manigault. the only child of Gabriel Manigault, 
was distinguished for his zeal and patriotism, his scholarship and 
eloquence. He died in 1773, the year when the tea was destroy- 
ed at Boston. A letter written in French by Judith Manigault, 
the wife ot the first Peter Manigault, " the worthy founders of 
the family of that name,"' is preserved in an English translation 
in Ramsay's History of South Carolina; and it gives an affecting 
description of the sufferings of the refugees, 'This lady left 
France, and embarked for Carol'na by toe way of London, when 
she was about twenty years oid, in the. year lb85, and arrived at 
Carolina the following year. She died in 1711, seven year3 
after the birth of her son Gabriel. 

Marion. This is among the names of respectable families of 
French refugees in South Carolina. The first emigrants of this 
family settled on Cooper river, near Charleston, whence the fa- 
ther of general Marion removed to the vicinity of Georgetown, 
where he resided, a occupied in cultivating his plantation," dur- 
ing the remainder of his life. Francis Marion was a colonel in 
the regular service, in the revolutionary war ; and a brigadier in 
the militia of South Carolina. He assisted at the battle of Sulli- 
van's Island, in 1776. In 1780, he received the commission of 
brigadier general. After performing many gallant and successful 
enterprises, at the head of a small corps, he joined the main army 
under general Greene, a short time before thfc battle of Eutavv 
Springs, and received the thanks of Congress for his intrepid 
conduct in that action. After the British evacuated Charleston, 
he retired to his plantation, where he resided until his death. 
Of the partizan officers he was one of the ablest, and one of 
the most successful. He seldom failed of taking his enemy, 
and almost always effected his purpose by surprise. " His cou- 
rage was the boldest, his movements were the most rapid, his 
discipline was severe, and his humanity, the most exemplary. " 
He died in February, 1795, "leaving behind him an indisputable 
title to the first rank among the patriots and soldiers of our, re- 

Prioleal\ The Rev. Elias Prioleau, "the founder of the emi- 
nently respectable family of that name,"' came from France to 
America soon after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and 
brought with him a considerable part of his Protestant congrega- 
tion. He was the grandson of Anthoine Prioli. who was elected 
doge of Venice in the year 1618. Samuel Prioleau was among 
the citizens of Charleston, who, in 1780, were "shipped off for 
St. Augustine," for refusing to become subjects of Great Britain. 
Thomas G. Prioleau, M. D. is a professor in the medical college 
of South Carolina. 

Benjamin Priolo, born of a noble family in Venice, was author 
of a good Latin history of France, from the death of Louis XIII. 
1043 to 1664. 



Dr. Ramsay records the following names of French Protestants, 

wno, soon ai« 

?r me ne vocation 

oi ine iMici 

oi in ames, can 

Carolina, and 

were heads of respectable fami 

ies there : 







PelaConsiliere Gourdine 




De Lciseline 









Du Pont 




Du Bourdieu 



i i 


D' Harriette 





La Roche 
























St. Julien 










T\ — p«« v 



We regret, that more justice cannot be here rendered to those, to whom it 
is due. An account of all the communities, and distinguished individuals, of 
the French Protestants, that have settled in our country, and contributed to 
its population and prosperity, is very desirable. Lawson, who carric to 
America in the year 170O, and was in Carolina eieriit years, says, in refer! nee 
to Charlestown : " There is likewise a French church in town, of the Reform- 
ed religion." Of the French who first settled at James river, lie says : 
"Most of the French who lived at that town [Mannakin] on James river, ;ire 
removed to Trent river in North Carolina, where the rest were expected 
daily to come to them, when I came away, which was in August, 17i>S." — 
That respectable individuals and families of French Protestants, in the 
United States, are not mentioned in this Memoir, is not doubted. It should 
be remembered, that no distinct history of them, within the writer's know- 
ledge, has ever appeared ; and that this article for the Historical Collections 
was originally intended solely for the French settlers of Oxford. We in- 
dulge the hope, that the vnry respectable writers in Virginia and the Car- 
olinas, and the assiduity of the New York Historical Society, to which 
our literary Republic is already so much indebted, will, in due time, give us 
the history of the French Protestants in their respective States. 1 cannot 
close this Note without adding, from an obliging correspondent: " My use- 
ful and highly respectable frrend John Pintard is a descendant from the Hu- 
guenots" It is a pleasure to me to subjoin, that John Pintard, Esq. is Re- 
cording Secretary of the New York Historical Society. Etsi non })rosiu:t 
singula, juncta juvent. 

(EPPage 49. The number of P. Baudouin's family, I find, was six : " Pierre 
Baudouin — et sa famille qui sont au nombre de six " The copyist, whom I 
followed, probably read it dix. The hand writing of P. Boudouin's letter, 
though perfectly French in its appearance, is remarkably good. 

* Page 55. G. Manigault was born in 1704. 


[Many words in this Appendix are incorrectly spelt. It will be remembered, 
that the articles containing them are taken from MSS. chiefly original, 
written by persons, all of whom were very imperfectly acquainted with 
our language, and some of whom, unless their language was provincial, 
appear to have forgotten their own. For deciphering some of the most 
obscure French words, I am indebted to the kind assistance of Francis 
Sales, F.sq. Instructer of the Spanish and French languages in our Univer- 
sity ; also, for M. Aignan's History of the Protestants.] 


[Page 28.] 

An Abridgement of the Afflictions of the French Protestants, and also 
their Petition, extracted from a Letter written from Rochel, the 
1st of October, 1684. 

" God grant that I and my family were with vou ; we should 
not been exposed to the furie of our enemies, who rob us of the 
goods which God hath given us to the subsistence of our soule 
and body. I shall not assume to write all the miseries that we 
suffer, which cannot be comprehended in a letter, but in many 
books. I shall tell you briefly, that our temple is condemned, 
and rased, our ministers banished forever, all their goods confis- 
cated, and moreover they are condemned to the fine of thousand 
crowns. All V other temples are also rased, excepted the temple 
of Re, and two or three others. P>y act of Parliament we are 
hindered to be masters in any trade or skill. We expect every 
days the lord gouvernour of Guiene, who shall put souldiers io 
our houses, and take away our childeren to be offered to the 
Idol, as they have done in t' others countrys. 

u The country where you live (that is to say New England) is 
in great estime ; I and great many others Protestants intend to go 
there. Tell us, if you please, what advantage we can have there, 
and particularly the boors who are accoustumed to plough the 
ground. If some body of your country would hazard to come 
here with a ship to fetch in our French Protestants, he would 
make great gain. All of us hope for God's help, to whose Provi- 
dence we submit ourselves, etc." 

The Paper containing the " Delineation of the Town of Oxford" 1 
is endorsed, u Papiers qui regarde New Oxford." The chirog- 
raphy is evidently French. With the delineation there is an 
account of the village and town, in the following words : " Oxford 


Village, or the general Plantation, containing 11,215 acres, 
whereof the proprietors common Way 265 acre-?, and Mauchaug 
in deficient, 172 .. . 437. Rest 10808 acres.— The Town of 
Oxford, including its village, called the General Plantation, con- 
taines 41245 acres, viz. the five grand lotts. On the W. side of 
the dividing line, each 3000 . . . 15000, and on the East side 
thereof. . each 3000 . . . 15000. 

The Village Plantation . . 11245. The 41245 general." 
Nipmuck river (called by the English settlers of New Eng- 
land, Blackstone) takes its rise in Sutton, and receiving several 
tributary streams in its course, falls into Providence river just 
below Providence. It is there called Pavvtucket. When the 
French settled Oxford, there was a town of praying Indians at 
Hassanamesitt [Grafton], about two miles to the eastward of 
Nipmuck river, " and near unto the old road way to Connecti- 
cut," consisting of about twelve families, and about sixty souls. 
* c Here," says Gookin,* " they have a meeting house for the 
worship of God, after the English fashion of building, and two or 
three other houses after the same mode. In this town was the 
second Indian church (Natick being the first) gathered in 1671; 
and three years afterwards there were in full communion in this 
church, and living in the town, about sixteen men and women; 
and about thirty baptized persons, and several other members 
living in other places. This church had a pastor, Tackuppawillin, 
a ruling elder, and a deacon. In 1674 the Rev. John Eliot and 
general Gookin visited « the new praying towns in the Nipmuck 
country. The first of these," says Gookin, " is Mauchage [Ox- 
ford], which lieth to the westward of Nipmuck river about eight 
miles, and is from Hassanamesitt, west and by south, about ten 
miles ; and it is from Boston about fifty miles. To it bclongeth 
about twelve families and about sixteen souls. For this place 
we appointed Waaberktamin, a hopeful young man for their min- 
ister. There is no land yet granted by the general court to this 
place, nor to any other of the praying towns. But the court in- 
tendeth shortly, upon the application and professed subjection of 
those Indians unto the yoke of Christ, to do for them as they have 
done for other praying Indians." Gookin's Hist. Collections of 
the Indians in New England, printed in Coll. Mass. Hist. Society, 
in 1792. 

[Page 31.] 

Nous sousignes certififions et atestons que Mons r . Gabriel Ber- 
non a fait une despance [depense] considerable a new oxford 

♦A. D. 1674. 


pour faire valoir la Ville et encourager et ayder les habitant. 
et quil [qu' il] a tenu sa maison en etat jusques a ce que en fin 
Jes Sauvages soient venus ma-acrer et tuer John Johnson et ses 
trois enfens [enfans] et que netant [n' etant] pas soutenu II a ete 
oblige et force (V abandoner son Bien. en foy de quoy lui avons 
signe le present Billet, a Baston le 4 e Septembre 1 690 : 
Jermons Baudouin Benja faneuil 

Jacques Montier Nous attestons ce qui est desus et 

| marque [est] veritable. 

^ marque depaix cazaniau 

^ marque de abraham Sauuage 

Mousset Entien [Ancien] 
Jean Rawlings Ancien 

* marque de la vefue de Jean Jeanson p «, , 

Charle Jeanson Entien 

Nous certiffions que ce sont les marques de personnes susdites. 
Daille ministre Baudouin 

Jacques Montier Barbut 

Elie Dispeux Andre Sigournay 

Jean Maillet Jean Millet ant. 

Nous declarons ce que dessus fort veritable et que John John- 
son et ses trois enfans ont ete tue le 25 e . Auost [Aoiit] 169G : en 
foy de quoy avons signe 

Montel Dispeux I B marque de Jean baudoin 

Jacques Depont Philip English 

Jermont Rene Grignon 

Je connois et Je le sais d' experiance que m r . Gabriel bernon 
a fait ses efforts pour soutenir notre plantation, et y a depance 
pour cet effet un bien considerable. 

. Bureau L'aine [The elder or senior.] 
Peter Canton. 

We underwritten doe certifie and attest that m r . Gabriel Ber- 
non hath made considerable expences at Newoxford for to pro- 
mote the place and incourage the Inhabitants and hath kept 
his house until the s d . 25 e . August that the Indians came upon s d . 
Plantation & most barbarously murthered John Evans John John- 
son & his three childrens. Dated Baston 20 th Septemb. 1696. 
John Usher 

W m . Stoughton . 
John Butcher Increase Mather 

Laur. Hammond Charles Morton 

Jer. Dummer 
Nehemiah Walter min r . 

W m , Fox. 



[Page 32.] 

That the French settlers at Oxford had a minister of then 
own, appears from a letter, written by him to some person in au- 
thority [probably £ov. Dudley], complaining' of the sale of rum 
to the Indians, u without order and measure," and of its baneful 
effects. The date is lost, with a line or two at the beginning; 
but is endorsed, " M r . Dan 1 . Bondet's Representation referring 1 to 
N. Oxford July 6 th . 1691." He mentions it as upon u an occasion 
which fills my heart with sorow and my life of trouble, but my 
humble request will be at least before God, and before you a 
solemn protestation against the guilt of those incorrigible persona 
who dwell in our place. The rome [rum] is always sold to liie 
Indians without order and measure, insomuch that according the 
complaint sent to me by master Dickestean with advice to present 
it to your honour. Tiie 26 of the iasi. month there was about 
twenti indians so furious by drunkness that they fought like bears 

and fell upon one called remes who is appointed for 

preaching the gospel amongst them he had been so much dis- 
figured by his wonds that there is no hope of his recovery. If it 
was your pleasure to signitie to the instrumens of that evil the 
jalosie of your athoriti and of the publique tranquility, you would 
do great good maintaining the honour of God in a Christian hab- 
itation, contorting some honest souls wich being incompatible 
with such abominations feel every day the burden of aillixon of 
their honorabje perigrination aggravated. Hear us pray and so 
God be with you and prosper all your just undertakins and appli- 
cations tis the sincere wish of your most respectuous servant 

D. Bondet 
minister of the gospell in a 
French Congregation at newoxford. " 

The government probably interfered, and took measures to 
prevent the repetition of the evil complained of. The above 
paper was found in the Secretary's office, and shown to me by Mr. 
secretary Bradford, who, at my request, searched the government 
papers, in aid of my inquiries. The " representation of the mitiis- 
ter may have induced the government to appoint him a missionary 
to the natives in the neighbourhood of Oxford ; for, in another 
communication, Mr. Bradford informed me: "In 1695, Mr. Bon- 
det, a French Protestant minister, preached to the Nipnuig In- 
dians ... in the south of Worcester county." 

62 appendix!. 


[Page 32.] 

The French who settled at Oxford were, probably, but a part 
of the emigrants who arrived, about this time, at Boston. Dr. 
Bentley, in his History of Salem [Coll. Hist. Society, vi. 265.J 
says, M In September, 1G8G, twenty-six pounds were contributed 
for the relief of the French Protestants, who came to New Eng- 
land. Whole families associated in Boston, but not any families 
in Salem. The greater part went to the southern states, par- 
ticularly to South Carolina." From the time of this contribution, 
with another coincident fact, discovered in the diligent research- 
es of Dr. Snow, this recent writer infers, " that those who arriv- 
ed here probably came in the summer of 1686." He observes, 
that, beside the circumstance of the contribution at Salem, u we 
also find in Cotton Mather's MS. notes of sermons, under dates of 
Sept 12, and Oct. 7, minutes of discourses of a Mr. Laurie, from 
the tenour of which it is apparent that he was of the number." 
History of Boston, 1825. Of Mr. Laurie I have met with no oth- 
er notice. Whether he accompanied, or followed, the settlers 
of Oxford, and preceded Mr. Bondet in the ministry there, or 
whether he remained in Boston, and preceded Mr. Daiile in the 
ministry, I know not. The first notice we have of Mr. Daiile is 
in 1696 ; the year of the breaking up of the French settlement 
at Oxford, when there was, doubtless, a considerable accession to 
the little society in Boston. Dr. C. Mather [Magrralia, b. i. c.7.], 
in his account of the " Christian congregations" in New England, 
«' at this present year 1696," thus closes the list of " The Coun- 
ty of Suffolk Ministers," in the town of Boston: "And a French 
Congregation of Refugees under the pastoral cares of Monsieur 
Daiile." The historian of Boston, referring to this passage in 
Mather, says, "the first notice we discover of the [French] 
church in this place is in the Magnalia." The congregation as- 
sembled for worship in one of the large school houses of the 
town, for several years. By a communication from my worthy 
friend Rev. Isaac Smith of Boston, I find, that the land for the 
erection of the French church in Boston was purchased for that 
purpose in 1704 (eight years after the abandonment of Oxford,). 
The minutes, " copied from the Register of Deeds office in Bos- 
ton," by Mr. Smith, are as follow: "Original deed from Ja $ . 
Mears, hatter, to John Tartarien, Fra s . Bredon, and John Dupuis, 
elders of the French Church, in consideration of the sum of 
£110 current silver money of N-E. all that tract or parcel of 
land, bounded northerly by School house land so called, where it 
measures in front 43£ feet, easterly &c. 36 feet, westerly 88j 


feet, southerly 35| feet, to erect and build a church upon for th* 
use of the French Congregation in Boston aforesaid, to meel 
therein for the worship and service of Almighty God, according 
to the way and manner of the Reformed churches in France." 

"Given Jan. 4. 1704." 

It appears hy the History of Boston, that the above named el- 
ders of the French church " petitioned the select men for license 
to erect a wooden building for a meeting-house of 35 by 30 ft. 
on that piece of land. It was judged c not convenient to ^mnt 
the same, since they have the offer of the free liberty to meet 
in the new school-house, as they had for some years past done iu 
the old, and that being sufficient for a far greater number of per- 
sons than doth belong to their congregation.' " About twelve 
years afterwards, a small brick church was built upon this land, 
in School street. " The descendants of the founders of this 
house," says Mr. Pemberton, the late respected antiquary of 
Boston, "as they formed new connexions, gradually dropped oil. 
Those who remained were Lew in number, and the support of a 
minictcr .* as an expense they could not weii continue. The Rev. 
Andrew Le Mercier, a worthy character, desisted from officiating 
as minister, and the house was for some years unoccupied. A 
large folio Bible in French, with a commentary, was presented 
to the French Protestant Church by Queen Anne. It was pur- 
chased at the sale of the late Dr. Byles's library, and we are toJd, 
is now in possession of a gentleman in this town, retained as a 
curiosity, and is the only remaining relick of the Protestant 
French Church." 

In 1748, some persons who separated from other churches in 
the town, formed themselves into a distinct society, and occupied 
the Protestant French Church, one or more of them having pur- 
chased the building of its former proprietors. The following is 
an extract from the deed, copied by Mr. Smith at the Register's 
office. " Stephen Boutineau,* the only surviving elder of the 
said French Church, Andrew Le Mercier, Clerk, Minister of said 
Church, Zechariah Johonnot, John Arnault, John Brown, Andrew 
Johonnet, Ja s . Packenett, Vv m . Bowdoin and Andr w . Sigourney, 
proprietors of s<i church, made over their right and interest in it 
to Tho 3 . Fillebrovvn, James Davenport, W m . Hickling. Nathi. 
Proctor, and Tho s . Handyside Peck, trustees for the new Con- 
gregational Church, whereof Mr. Andrew Croswell is pa-tor, for 
the sum of £3000, in good bills of public credit, of the oid tenor, 
for the sole use of a Protestant Church, from henceforth and for- 

"Signed May 7, 1748/* 

* He married a daughter of Pierre Baudouin [Bowdoin]; a sister of the late 
governor Bowdoin. Rev. Mr. Jenks Eulogy on Hon. James Bowdois. 


The Rev. Andrew Croswell was installed as their pastor i r* 
1748. He died April 1785, oged 77. The house was next used 
as a Roman Catholic chapel. Mass was performed in it for the 
first time, November 2d, 1788, by a Romish priest. The Rev. 
John Thayer, a native of Boston, having embraced the Roman 
Catholic religion, and received orders at Rome, began his mis- 
sion here in 1790. In 1792, the Rev. Dr. Francis A. Matignon 
arrived at Boston, and in 1796 was joined by Rev. John Cheverus, 
now bishop of Montauban, in France. Upon their united appli- 
cation to the Protestants, a generous contribution was made ; a 
lot was purchased in Franklin Place, and a Roman Catholic church 
built, which was dedicated in 1803. Pemberton's Description of 
Boston, Coll. Hist. Society, iii. 264. Snow's History of Boston. — 
The French church in School street has been taken down, and a 
Universal church built near the place where it stood. ;t Tem- 
pora mutantur." What consecrated ground has sustained such 
changes, in one century ! It is very remarkable, that the same 
church, which was originally built for French Protestants who 

1>^J +1~J f~~™ +l. ^ naffepfntinn nf th*s Rruvrari P! timli#»« nrac i 

first to receive the Roman Catholics who tied from the persecu 
tion of the Jacobins of France. 

u t- 



Gabp.iel Bernon, in a letter to his father, dated " A Baston le 
29 e Decemb. 1696," writes, he had mentioned in his last, that M. 
De la Tour had been taken going from Piscataqua, which had 
given them much trouble and loss. ..." que moris r . De la Tour 
avoit ete arreste sortant de Piscataqua, ce qui nous a donne beau- 
coup d 1 embaras et perte, ces gens icy nous ayans fait toutes les 

injustices que leur malice (et envie contra nous) a pen 

suggerer' &c. — In this letter he mentions the death of Mrs. 
Daille: "Lapauvre Mad lee . Daille est morte depuis quinz jours 
cc qui a beaucoup afflige et embarrasse Mons. Daille pour tons 
vous. Autres Amis se portent fort bien comme ausi tout le 
famille " 

Among these MSS. is "Memoire, presente a mylord Belamon 
Gouveur de Boston et de la JN"ouvelle York,'* without date. 
Also, a letter endorsed, u Answer of the Gentlemen of French 
Church in York to G. Bernon." It is dated < : York le 22 e May 
1699," and appears to be a vindication of the French refugees at 
New York against the charge of disloyalty to the British gov- 
ernment: under the administration of lord Beilamont, . . . . ;t Cet 


homme suppose comme vous aicez veu dans la copie de la Ictrc 
qu' il vous a remise que nous sommes enneinis du Roy trailn 
Gouvernement et violateurs du respect qui est deu a moused 
Le Compte dc Bellamont" &,c. The letter fills three folio pages, 
and is subscribed, 

" Voire &c. 

Peiret — ministre 
Jean Burbcrie 
Elie Boudinot 
Paul Drouillet 
Gabriel le Boytcul.v." 


De le JVouvdh. Ymkh 23" J&vembre 1693. 

Je suis fache d' apprendre, que vous aves quitte la nouvelle. 
Angleterre, pour venir habiter dans Rode Island. C est utie 
Nouvelle que Mr. Campbel me dit et qui nr atliige beaucoup, 
puis que J* avez [avois] de vous faire toute V amitie possible lors 
que Je serais arive a Boston. 

J' ay de la honte de ne vous avoir pas ecrit plutost mni-; je 
vous assure que eel n'a ete faute d' estime, mais seulemont poor 
avoir ete continuellement occupe aux atfaires de mon gouverne- 
ment. Si vous tronvez a propos de vous verir etablir icy dans 
cette ville, Je feray tout mon possible de vous donner de V en- 
couragement. Je n' oublira pas le recommendation de Monsieur 
]e Comte de Gallway en votre faveur et sans compliment Je suis 
fort dispose d' y repondre pas toute sorte des bons oilices. Je 
seray bien ayse de vous voir ici, a fin de discourir avec vous sur 
de certaines affaires, qui regarde [regardent] le service du Roy. 
Je suis avec une veritable Estime et Amitie 

Votre tres humble Serviteur 

For Monsieur Bernon 
a French Marchand 
In Rode Island. 

In this Collection of MSS. there is a letter of introduction, dat- 
ed « D 1 Orange ; Octobre 1699," and signed " De la Veiliere." 

There is also a letter in French, from Eiias Neau to G. Ber- 
non, dated "Newyork the 25e. of Juin 1701.' 1 The object of 
this letter is, to encourage Bernon in the sacrifices which he had 
made, and was still making, in the cause of the French refugees, 
especially in. their religious concerns; and to recommend the 
distribution of religious books . . . u des livres pour faire distri- 



buer gratis qui sont d' \in grand secours aux pauvres, et anz 
jgnoraus" &c. 

- There is a letter from P. Chasscloup to " Mons. Bernon march, 
a Boston." 

" A Londre 4c Avril 1699. 
Monsieur &, bon Amy 
Je m' attendois d" avoir 1' honneur de vous ecrire par Mon- 
sieur Depont The letter is upon Demon's concerns — 

mentions u my lord Carmarthen" as desirous to know the value 
of the lands in the late plantation . .. . "de la valleur des dittes 
terres et de lcur utilite 1 ' . . . and mentions the cruel treatment of 
their poor brethren in France. " Nos pauvres freres sont cruel- 
lenient maltraites an France, plus que jamais. Vous devous 
celebrer, moyennant Dieu, une jeune cmain pour implorer le 

secours Divin pour ces pauvres amis affligees." 

Also, a letter " A Chapelt . . . pros de Dublin, le |f de Juillet, 
1700," addressed to "Monsieur Gabriel Bernon, march**, a ]{our) 
Island, sur la cote de la Nouvelle Angleterre," signed " Bouhe- 
reau," and endorsed, " Passee a Londres, chez vutres humble 
servit*. Jn°. Barbot le 28 Juillet 1700." A letter from Elias 
Neau to G. Bernon, dated "]\ew York ce 30 de September 
1701." A letter to do. signed '• Daille, James L — [Le Blom] 
Sam 1 . Baker, Henry Guionneau," dafed "-Boston ce 3 e Mars, 
170-f ;" and another to do. from " Daille," dated " A Boston, IK 
April 1707." A letter from G. Bernon to governor Dudley, 
dated, "Providence 1 March 1710." In this letter M. Bernon 
complains of injuries and losses, and asks for redress or relief. . . 
" J* espere que Voire Exellence vous-trabien considerer que M v . 
hoosrborn a fait son possible pour ruiner mes Interes au dit 
Oxford. 11 a fait abandonner Couper de Vieux Moulin et Thomas 

Atterton de mon autre maison kc P ay ete traite 

apres avoir despence audis Oxford plus de 1500 pistolles le 
mevilleur de mons temps pendent une possessions de plus de vini 

Letter froin Gov. Dudley to G. Bernon, dated, 

"Roxbury April 6, 1715." 
We are now in a way to thrive at Oxford, and 1 particularly 
thank you for what you have done towards a Grist Mill in the 
Village, by giving the mill stones and irons to Daniel Eliot, con- 
ditionally' that the mill should be built to serve the town 
within such a prefixed time which is now past and nothing done. 
I desire you to write to him to go forward immediately so as to 
finish the mill presently to the satisfaction of the Inhabitants, or 
that Vou will order the said milt and irons to be given to such 


other person as will go forward in the work, that they may not 
be starved the next winter. 

1 pray you to take effectual order in the matter. 

I am your humble servant, 

J. Dudley/ 1 
" To Mr. Gabriel Bernon 

The answer of Mr. Bernon is dated < ; Kingstown 30 April 
1715.*' He writes, that, according to the letter from bis excel- 
lency, he had " ordered M r . Daniel Eliot to finish the Crjst Mill 
at Oxford, or to let the town have the two mill stown to set the 
mill in a convenient place. It will be a great blessing to strive 
[thrive] after so ranch distorbance : And if I can but have the 
freinship and charity of your Excellency in my old time, with a 
young wife and a second family in this New World, 1 may he 

happy and blessed." In a petition, afterwards, to Gov. 

Shute. be savs. ■ • ■ tf heinsr potv near 80 vears of -v^o, and havinc 
several children by my first wife, and so seeing children of my 
children. I have since married an English woman, by whom, 
also I have several children," &c 

By a statement of G. Bernon, intended to prove his claim upon 
the plantation, it appears, that he considered " the Plantation ot 
New Oxford"* indebted to him for 2500 acres of land 3 beside the 
amount of expenses laid out by him upon the place. This claim 
appears to have been made about the year 1717, or 1720; fur 
on his account there is a charge of interest " for above 30 years.* 1 
The statement alleges, that 500 acres of the plantation were 
u granted by their Excellencys M r . Dudley and M r . Stoughton to 
Isaac Bertrand Du Tutfeau and Gabriel Bernon in the year 1G87,** 
and that 250 acres were " granted since, making in all 750 
aikers ;" and that wi their Excellencys fcl*. Dudley and M r . Stough- 
ton did grant to the said M r . Bernon for his own use alone 1750 
aikers more, which makes in all 2500 aikers, which M r . Bernon 
justly claims, upon which he hath built a corn miln, a wash 
leathern miln, and a saw miln, and laid out some other consider- 
able expences to improve the town of New Oxford, as he has 
made appear by the te-timonys of several worthy gentlemen 
whose names he has hereto snbjoined. 

The four elders of William Fox Governor Usher 

the'French Church. Benj. Faneuil William Stoughton 

Mousset ~) j. .... . . . P. Jermort Increase Mather hi***. 

Railing ( , ;! ,e m,ni3tre Jacques Montier Charles Morton m"e. 

ChJirden ( 0t jSJJJ r .f ncri Paix Cazaueau Jer. Dummer 

Babut J "~ narcn - Abraham Sauvages Nehemiah Walter rain r . 

Jacque Uepau John Butcher 

Jean Beaudoin Laurence Hamirond 

Rean Grignon 

P-helippe Euogerland 


By the Inhabitanc of New Oxford. 

Montel OberJermon 

J. Pupcn Jean Maillet 

Capt. Jermon Andre Segourne 

Feter Cante Jean Milletcxi 

Eereau Caine Peter Canton 

EKe Dupeu £cc. 

The Wcidovv Leveufe Jean Johnson of which her husband and three 
. children was kil and murder by the lugen." 

By a plan of Mr. Gabriel Bernon's land in Oxford, taken in 1717, 
it appears, that it measured 2672 acres, " exclusive of M r . Daniel 
Bdndefs of 200 acres, and out of said 2672 acres must come out 
172 acres of meadow in one entire piece, which M r . Dudley and 
Comp a . give to the village. 1 ' The tract of land "within this 
Flan'' was estimated b} r the selectmen of Oxford " to be worth 
one thousand pound ;" and this valuation was certified by them 
on the plan, 11 January 17 j-?. Signed, Richard Moore, Benoni 
Twitchel, Isaac Lamed. Another certificate was given on the 
same paper by the selectmen of Mendon, concerning" the justness 
of the above valuation, adding-, "that we know nothing but the 
said Bernon hath been in the quiet possession of said land for or 
nere thirty years/' 1 Signed, Thomas Sanford, Robert Evans, Ja- 
cob Aldrich. 

B}^ another paper in the MS. Collection, it appears, that Mr. 
Bernon petitioned the king in council for certain privileges, 
which indicate the objects to which the enterprise of this adven- 
turer was directed. It is entitled, " The humble Petition oi Ga- 
briel Bernon of Boston in New England." It states ; 4; That 
being informed of your Majesty's pleasure, particularly in en- 
couraging the manufactory of Rosin, Pitch, Tarr, Turpentine &c. 
in New England, in which manufactory your Petitioner has spent 
seaven years time and labour and considerable sums of money and 
has attained to such knowledge and perfection, as that the said 
comodities made and sent over by him have beene here approv- 
ed of and bought for your Majesty's stores ; your Petitioner's 
zeale and affection to your Majesty-encouraged him to leave his 
habitation and affairs (being a merchant) and also his family to 
make a voyage to England on purpose, humbly to propose to 
your majesty in how great a measure and cheap price the said 
Navall stores may be made and brought into any of your majes- 
ty's kingdomes to the great promotion and advantage of the 
Trade and Commerce of your majesty's subjects of .New England, 
all which is most evident by the annexed paper. 17 He prays his 
majesty to take the premises into consideration, and to grant him 
his royal patent or order for providing and furnishing his majes- 
ty's fleet with the said stores under the conditions his majesty in 
his royal wisdom should think fit, or otherwise to except him out 
of any patent to be granted for the said manufactory, that he 
u may have liberty to go on and continue in the said manufacto- 
ry in any part of New England." 


This paper is endorsed : " Pcticon Gabriel Bernon." 

u Papiers qui regarde deux voyages de Londre pour lea affaires 
a fabriques des Resme. Exarnne le premier Octohre 171'J.*' 

Iu 1720, Gabriel Bernon, " of New Oxford in New England." 
presented a petition to his excellency governor hdiute, and to 
his majesty's council, and house of representatives in General 
Court assembled. In this petition he states, that lie was %t one 
of the most ancient families in Iiochel in France ; that upon the 
breach of the Edict of Nantes, to shun the persecution of France 

he fled to London; that upon his arrival, Teftereau Esq. 

treasurer of the Protestant churches of France presented him to 
the honourable society for propagating- the gospel among the In- 
dians in New England; that Mr. Thompson the governor [presi- 
dent] offered to " instal him in the said society," and offered him 
land in the government of the Massachusetts Bay ; when upon 
Isaac Bertrand Du Tuffeau desired him " to assist him to come 
over to New England to settle a plantation for their refuge,*' that 
he did advance him such sums, as, "with the exchange and in- 
terest from that time, would amount to above one thousand 
pounds ; that Du Tuffeau, arriving at Boston with letters of en - 
dit from major Thompson and himself, " delivered them to his 
late excellency Joseph Dudley Esq. and the honourable William 
Stoughton Esq. deceased, who granted to the said Du Tuffeau 
750 acres of land for the petitioner at New Oxford, where he 
laid out or .spent the abovesaid money." Mr. Bernon farther 
stated in his petition, that Du Tuffeau allured him by letter* to 
come to Boston ; that the said Du Tuffeau, "being through pov- 
erty forced to abandon the said plantation, sold his cattle and 
other moveables for his own particular use, went to London, and 
there died in an hospital." Mr. Bernon closed his statement by 
observing, that, excited by letters of Du Tuffeau, he shipped 
himself, his family, and servants, with some other families, and 
paid passage for above forty persons ; that, on their arrival at 
Boston, he presented letters from major Thompson to Dudley 
and Stoughton, Esquires, "who were pleased (besides the 750 
acres that were granted to Bertrand Du Tuffeau and the peti- 
tioner) to grant him 1750 acres of land more; and,*' he adds, 
"for a more authentick security his late Excellency and Honour 
was pleased to accompany me to Oxford, to put me in possession 
of the said two thousand live hundred acres, which I have peace- 
ably enjoyed for better than these thirty years last past, having 
spent above two thousand pounds to defend the same from the 
Indians, who at divers times have ruined the said Plantation, and 
have murdered men, women, and children." 

At the close of the petit'on he represents, that the inhabitants 
of New Oxford now disputed his right and title, in order to hin- 
der him from the sale of said plantation, which would put him to 
the utmost extremity, "being now near eighty years o( age, ' 


and having several children, all which have dependence, under 
God, for a subsistence on him, after he had " spent more than 
ten thousand pounds towards the benefit of the country, in build- 
ing ships, making nail?, and promoting the making of stuffs, hats, 
rozin &c." The object of this petition was, to obtain such titles, 
as would confirm to him and his family the said lands, ''without 
any misunderstanding, clear and free from any molestation either 
from the inhabitants of New Oxford, or any pretensions of Ber- 
trand Du Tuffeau." 

Neither the merits, nor the success, of this claim are known 
to the writer of this Memoir. 


The Rev. Mr. Honey man, with whom Mr. Bernon correspond- 
ed on this subject, was a minister of the Episcopal church in 
.Newport, Rhode Island. He was appointed, by the Society in 
London for propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the rirst 
piissionary there, in 1704, and continued there many years. In 
1712, a missionary was sent by the Society to three towns in 
Rhode Island ; Freetown, Tiverton, and Little Compton. In 1720, 
there was no Episcopal church in Providence. The people at 
Narraganset had built a church about the year 1707 ; and in 
1717, the Society appointed Mr. Guy a missionary there. w He 
resided at Narraganset, otherwise called King town, 9 ' until 1717, 
when he removed to South Carolina, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. Mr. McSparran. Mr. Honeyman was " instrumental in 
gathering the congregations at Freetown, and Tiverton, and, last 
of all, at Providence."' He had, as early as about the year 1712, 
very earnestly represented the want of a missionary at Provi- 
dence ; and about the year 1722, he visited the place, and 
preached there, " to the greatest number of people that he had 
ever had together, since he came to America. 5 ' He wrote to 
the Society at London, "there is a great prospect of settling a 
church here ;" solicited " a missionary to the people ;" and 
added, " the people are now going to get subscriptions to build a 
church." By their own contributions, and aid from abroad, 
41 they raised a timber building for a church,*' in 1722 ; and, the 
next year, the Society in London appointed the Rev. Mr. Bigot 
missionary there. In 1722, the Society sent Mr. Orem a mis- 
sionary to Bristol. — Humphreys' Hist. Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. £uch was the rise and progress 
of the Episcopal church in Rhode Island, and such the state of it at 
the time of the ensuing correspondence ; which begins with a 
letter from G. Bernon to Mr. Honeyman, in 1721, and closes with 
» letter from dean Berkeley to Mr. Bernon. in 1729. 


Mr. Bernon went to Providence about the year 1G38. Wheth- 
er he had become diaaffected towards the old inhabitants of the 
country by his misfortunes at Oxford; or was less attached than 
his brethren to the strictness of the Reformed churches; or had 
changed his sentiments in favodr of the rites and ceremonies of 
the English church ; or had found it impracticable to form and 
sustain a church in Providence without foreign aid — we are not 
informed. There was scarcely a Congregational church, at this 
time, in Rhode Island. The first in Newport was gathered in 
1720. The doctrinal articles of the French Reformed church, 
it is well known, agree with those of the Church of England ; 
and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts had funds for the support of missionaries. Whatever were 
the cause, Mr. Bernon united himself to the English church, and 
applied to that Society for assistance. The papers on this sub- 
ject, among the Bernon MSS. are thus marked on the envelope : 

"Lettres et autres Papiers que justitie et regarde notre etab- 
lissement pour V E^lise Episcopate de Providence.' 1 

Some of the letters are in English. One from Mr. Bernon i-. 
" Copy of a Letter to M r . James Honeyman, minister of the 
Church of England at Newport in Roadisland, Septemb r . 21, 
1721." In this he writes, "■ My last going to Roadisland was 

chiefly to be partaker of the communion and secondly to 

shew jour honour how busy~are the gentlemen of the govern- 
ment of Boston and Connecticut to establish the presbyterian 
church in our town of Providence. And also I was wiiiin^ to 
shew your honour the letter that Mr. Joseph Morse minister of 
Dorchester has writ to me and my answer to him to the purpose. 
but your honour did not see cause to give me the opportunity to 

shew the said letters unto you &c Thirdly my intention 

was to propose unto you and M r . Mac Sparran minister of IVar- 
raganset, some measure that your honours should not forsake our 
town of Providence to not let us destitutes and deprived abso- 
lutely from the Church of Englnnd, when the other hands party 
are so actives to establish the presbytery church in our said 
Providence town," &,c 

The letter, of which this was a copy, was enclosed to Mr. 
McSparran in a letter addressed to him, dated si Sept r . 27, 1721.** 
In this Mr. Bernon writes, " Inclosed is a copy of my letter to 
the gentleman your colleague, for to trying and to promoting the 
Church. I may say since twenty years I have past by diver- and 
several different and hard difficulty and circumstance that I de- 
sire with great passion to forget, for a better behaviour amongst 
us, and for the honour of the Church in the Government of Road- 
island where I look M r . Honeyman, and your selfe to be the two 
chief gentlemen and the two only minister for establishing the 
Church in the said Government, ice. . . 

*' Gentlemen It seems to me this is the time that we should 
shew our zeals for the propagation and setting the Church in 


Providence town the principal and first town establish in the Said 
government where yonrs honours are most belongs ; for we can't 
slight or neglected what concerns salvation and happiness of 
.... people &c." " Sir you have already done right well hy 
goodness, promoting the true church in Bristol town, so it is 
hopes with great expectation of your generosity, you will do the 
same for our town of Providence were you have most interest 
being the like government and the same Diocese as Naraganset 
"where you have your residence. 

" When your honour will go from Narraganset to Bristol or 
Swansay, if you but be pie ass to let me know, I shall do my best 
to meet you at Warik, or elsewhere &.C. 1 ' .... 

Mr. McSparran, in a letter to Mr. G. Bcrnon, dated ''• Kings- 
town July 2 d , 1721, " writes : "Pursuant to your request and my 
appointment with Collector . . . I've determined to be at y r house 
Monday night the 10 th of this month and to preach and to baptize 
your children on Tuesday, so that you may notifie as many as you 
please, particularly M r - Nathaniel Brown of Kettlepoint your 
messenger to me &X." 1 . . . 

In another letter, Oct. 5, 1721. " Narrnganset," Mr. McSparran 
writes, in answer to G. Bernon : U I rejoice you continue zeal- 
ous and forward to promote a Church of England in your town/' 
. . . and gives encouragement of assistance in the work. But he 
adds: " Mr. Honvman never mentioned any thing to me about it, 
nor is it practicable tor me to begin such an affair, considering 

I'm become y fc mark of by the steps 1 have taken in 

> e like affair at Bristol."' 

In the " Memoranda*' of those, who might be consulted or 
■written to, on ecclesiastical concerns, are : ;t M r . Moore secreta- 
ry for propagating the gospel in forreign parts &c. . . . M r . Dum- 
mer, at the Temple Exchange Colfee house ... at the Temple," 
&x. This gentleman, I presume, was Mr. Jeremy Dummer, the 
Massachusetts agent, who was at Loudon in 1721, the last year of 
his agency. 

Nothing effectual appears to have been done for several years 
after the last mentioned date, towards the settling of the Episco- 
pal church in Providence. Difficulties occurred ; and, at length, 
Mr. Bernon addressed a letter to dean Berkeley, for his interpo- 
sition and advice. This eminent man, afterwards bishop of 
Cloyne, was at that time at Newport, in Rhode Island, which was 
the place of his residence while in America. His letter, in ans- 
wer to Demon's is dated " Newport Avril 9, lV2iV' He excus- 
es himself from any interference in the ecclesiastical concerns of 
Providence, in consideration that he is simply a passenger in this 
country, without any authority over the churches of that colony: 
and that all his jurisdiction was for the diocese of Londonderry in 
Ireland ; but he assures bin), that he has no doubt, the bishop of 
London, and the honourable society for propagating the. r Gospel. 


would take just and wise measures for remedying the evils com- 
plained of; and that he shall not cease to pray to God to succour 
and protect the church at Providence. He concludes his letter 
with an apology for writing in a language, in which he was not 
accustomed to write. 

"Je ne suis qu' un simple passager dans ce pais sans 

etre revetue d' aucune autorite in jurisdiction sur les Eglises 
de cettecolonie et que toute ma petite jurisdiction (telle qu 1 elle 
soit) est . . [illegible] . . pour la Diocese de London -Derry en Ire- 
land. . . . Je puis cependant vous assurer que je ne doubtc gueres 
que Monseigneur V Eveque de Londres et V honorable Societe 
prendrent des mesures tres justes et sages pour y rcmedier. . . Je 
ne laisse .... pas pourtant de supplier le Bon Dieu de socourir 

et de proteger votre Eglise de Providence Vous avois la 

bonte Monsieur de me pardonner ce que j' ecris dans une lan^ue 
que je n' ay pratique que tres rarement et de croir que je suis 
avec beaucoup de respect, 


voire tres humble et tres obeissant 

serviteur Geob. Berkeley." 


[Page 33.] 

Copy of a Deed conveying the Lands in Oxford to the second Com- 
pany of Settlers, 1713. 

Extracted from the Records of the town of Oxford, at Mr. Campbell's, the Town 
Clerk, by A. H. 1317. 

" To all people unto whom these presents shall come Joseph 
Dudley of Roxbury in the county of Suffolk and Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay in New England, Esq. W m , Taylor of Dor- 
chester in the same county Esq. Peter Sergeant of Boston afore- 
said Esq. and Mehetabell his wife, John Danforth of Dorchester 
aforesaid and Elizabeth his wife, John Nelson of Boston afore- 
said Esq. and Elizabeth his wife, as they the said W m . Taylor, 
Peter Sargeant, John Nelson and John Danforth are the heirs 
and executors of the Hon. W m . Stoughton late of Dorchester Esq. 
deceased, send greeting: Whereas the General Court of the Col- 
ony of the Massachusetts Bay in the year One thousand six hun- 
dred and eighty two granted to the said Joseph Dudley. W m . 
Stoughton, major Robert Tompson and their Associates a certain 
tract of land scituate in the Niprnug Country, of eight miles 



square, for a Township &c. as may be seen more at large by the 
Records of said General Court, Pursuant whereunto and for the 
uses aforesaid the said Joseph Dudley VV m . Stoughton and their 
Associates in the year one thousand six hundred eighty and 
brought over thirty French Protestant Families into this country, 
and settled them upon the easternmost part or end of the said 
Tract of land, and severed, granted, and sett apart 12000 acres 
for a village called Oxford for the said Families, and hounded it 
as by a Piatt upon Record will manifestly appear : But forasmuch 
as the said French families have many years since wholly left and 
deserted their settlements in tire said Village, and the said lands 
as well by their deserting the same, and refusing to return upon 
publick Proclamations made for that end, as by the voluntary 
surrender of most of them are now reinvested in restored to and 
become the estate and at the disposition of the original proprie- 
tors their heirs and successors for the ends aforesaid And 
whereas there are sundry good families of her majesty's subjects 
v.ithin this province who offer themselves to go and resettle the 
said village whereby they may be serviceable to the province 
and the end and design of the original grant aforesaid be answer- 
ed and attained : Now Know Ye, That the said Joseph Dudley, 
W m . Taylor, Peter Sergeant and Mehetabell his wife, John Nelson 
and Elizabeth his wife, and John Danforth and Elizabeth his 
wife, for and in consideration and to the uses and intents above- 
mentioned, Have fully, freely, and absolutely and by these presents 
do give grant and confirm unto Samuel 1 Hagbour John Town 
Daniel Eliott, Abiel Lamb, Joseph Chamberlin, Benj n . Nealand, 
Benoni Twitcheli, Joseph Rockett, Beivj". Chamberlin, Joshua 
Whitney, Thomas Hunkins, Joseph Chamberlin jun. Oliver Coller, 
Daniel Pearson, Abrara Skinner, Ebenezer Chamberlin, James 
Cotter, Isaac Learned, Eben r . Learned, Thomas Leason, Eben 1 '. 
Humphry, Jon*. Tiliotson, Edmund Taylor, Ephraim Town, Is- 
rael Town, \\\ m Hudson, Daniel Eliott jun v . Nathaniel Chamber- 
lin, John Chandler jun*. John Chandler and others their Associ- 
ates, so as their number amount to thirty families at least, All 

that Part of the s*. Tract of Land &c. &c Provided Aj> 

way, That if any of the persons grantees above named or any of 
their Associates shall and do neglect to settle upon and improve 
the said land with themselves and families by the space of two 
years next ensuing, or being settled thereon shall leave and de- 
sert the same and not return to their respective habitations in 
the said Town upon due notice given, That then and in such 
case it shall and may be lawful to and for the rest of the Gran- 
tees and their Associates heirs or assigns respectively or the ma- 
jor part of them to seise upon and take the said Estate or Es- 
tates of such person or persons so deserting &€. . . . 

In witness whereof the party abovenamed to these present* 
hn? e hereunto mterchangably set their hands ami seals the 8^. 



day of July in the 12 th . year of her Majesty's Reigne Annoq. 
Dom. 1713. 

• Joseph Dudley (seal.) 
Wm. Taylor (seal.)" 


"Boston July 15 th . 1713 Rec d . and Recorded 
of Deeds for the O. of Suffolk, Lib. XXVII 

Addington Davenport Register." 

with the Records 
mo fol. 174 kc per 

[Attested by John Town, To: 

Division of Land. 

From Oxford Town Records. 

The draft of y e first Division of Land voted to be drawn on 

January y e 18 th . 17-ff To each man of the 30 to his house lot — 

his choice according to the lot he draws each man's lot to be tiu 


Daniel Eliot jun. 
Eph m . Town 
Sam 1 . Hagbourn 
Benony Twichel 
Isaac Lamed 
Joshua Chandler 
Eben r . Humphry 
Daniel Pearson 
W m . Hudson 
Benp. Nealand 
Jos h . Chamberlin jun. 
Daniel Eliot 
Abiel Lamb* 
Thomas Gleason 
John Town 


John Coller 


Joshua Whitney 


Joseph Rocket 


Eben r . Lamed 


Joseph Chamberlin 


Thomas Hunkins 


Edmund Taylor 


Eben r . Chamberlin 


Nathi. Chamberlin 


Jonathan Tillotson 


Oliver Coller 


John Chandler jun. 


Benjn. Chamberlin 


Abram Skinner 


Israel Town 










[Page 40.] 

The lapse of a century since the resettlement of Oxford, by 
the ancestors of its present inhabitants, has nearly obliterated the 
remembrance of the fact of its original settlement by the French. 
A river, which runs through the town, does indeed bear up their 
name ; but why it was so called, if known there, is scarcely known 

*Died not many years ago, aged upwards of 90 years. He often " toM 
about the Great Snow," which occurred when he was a boy [1717-1S]. 


in the vicinity. This river runs about three quarters of a mile 
west of the great road that leads over Oxford plain, and fails iu- 
to the Quinebauo- in the town of Thompson, in Connecticut.* 
The Quinebaug I had known- from early life, as passing through 
Oxford, and Thompson, and joining- the Shetucket at Norwich ; 
iyet this smaller stream, the bridge over which is at a consider- 
able distance below the village of Oxford, had not attracted my 
particular notice. In passing it, nine years ago, seeing a boy 
near the bridge, I asked him, What is the name of this river? 
" French river," he replied. Why, I asked, is it called French 
river? L ' I believe," said he, "there were some French people 
once here'* 1 — pointing up the stream. On my arrival at the vil- 
lage, I inquired of Mr. Campbell, the innkeeper, who gave me 
sufficient information on the subject to excite farther inquiry, and 
to render all the subsequent labour of investigation delightful. 
Mr. Campbell was of the family of the Rev. Mr. Campbell, for- 
merly a respectable minister of Oxford. Having married a 
daughter of Mrs. Butler, who was a descendant of one of the. 
French settlers, he referred me for information to his wife, who, 
after telling me all that she knew, referred me to her mother. 
I waited upon Mrs. Butler, who obligingly told me all that she 
could recollect concerning the French emigrants. 

Mrs. Butler was the wife of Mr. James Butler, who lives near 
the first church in Oxford; and, when I saw her, was in the 
seventy-fifth year of her age. Her original name was Mary 

♦The writer of 'an original history of the county of Worcester, in a late 
Historical Journal, corrects former mistakes respecting French river, which 
name, he says, "two streams formerly bore." French river, properiy so 
called, has its principal source in Spencer, and receives waters from Leices- 
ter, Paxton,and Chariton ; and, passing through Oxford and Dudley, " it en- 
ters the stateof Connecticut, where it unites with the Quineboag," which also 
runs through Worcester county. " It afteiwards takes the naiueof Thames, and 
enters into Long Island Sound, near New London." This Journal will be 
welcomed by all the lovers of history arid antiquity in our country. It is 
entitled, "The Worcester Magazine anil Historical Journal." It commenc- 
ed in October last, and is publishing under the direction of an Historical So- 
ciety, recently formed in the county of Worcester. The Corresponding 
Secretary, -who obligingly sent me the numbers that had been published, 
writes : "it is intended to be the medium through which we shall present to 
the publick, our collections for a complete history of this county." The asso- 
ciates, who have pledged themselves to furnish this history, say: " To ac- 
complish our objects in their full extent, all of these relics, within our reach, 
should be critically examined and carefully collated. Even our burying 
ground«, the sacred inclo^ures, where the venerable ' forefathers of our ham- 
lets sleep,' should not pass unnoticed. The fading inscriptions of their mon- 
uments should be retraced with faithful diligence." That diligence may lead 
our fellow labourers to visit a place in their county, at the distance of twelve 
miles only from Worcester, and settled within one year of that now beauti- 
ful and flourishing town ; — a place, where, if they shall find no monument, 
they may be induced to erect one. It is richly deserved ; and whoever shall 
raise it, however simple its materials, may say with Horace, 



Sigourney. She was a granddaughter of Mr. Andrew Sigourney 
who came over when young, with his father, trom Kochelle. 
Her grandmother's mother died on the voyage, leaving an infant 
of oniy six months (who was the grandmother of Mrs. Butler), 
and another daughter, Mary Cazneau, who was then six years of 
age. The information which Mrs. Butler gave me, she received 
from her grandmother, who lived to about the age of eighty- 
three, and from her grandmother's sister, who lived to the age 
of ninety-five or ninety-six years. 

Mrs. Butler's Reminiscences. 

The refugees left France in 1684, or 1685,* with the utmost 
trepidation and precipitancy. The great grandfather of Mrs. 
Butler, Mr. Germaine, gave the family notice that they must %o. 
They came off with secresy, with whatever clothes they could 
put upon the children, and left the pot boiling over the fire. 
When they arrived at Boston, they went directly to Fort Hill, 
where they were provided for; and there they continued until 
they went to Oxford. They built one fore on Mayo's hili, on the 
east side of French river ; and, tradition says, another fort on the 
west side. Mrs. Butler believed, they had a minister with them. 

Mrs. Johnson, the wife of Mr. Johnson who was killed by the 
Indians in 1696, was a sister of the first Andrew Sigourney. Jier 
husband, returning home from Woodstock while the Indians were 
massacring his family, was shot down at his own door. Mr. 
Sigourney. hearing the report of the guns, ran to the house, and 
seizing his sister, pulled her out at a back door, and took her 
over French river, which they waded through, and tied towards 
Woodstock, where there was a garrison. The Indians killed the 
children, dashing them against the jambs of the fire-place. 

Mrs. Butler thinks, the French were at Oxford eighteen or 
nineteen years. Her grandmother, who was brought over an 
infant, was married, and had a child, while at Oxford. This fact 
would lead us to believe, that the Sigourney family returned to 
Oxford after the fear of the Indians had subsided. It is believed 
in Oxford, that a few families did return. These families may 
have returned again to Boston in about nineteen years from the 
time of their first settlement in Oxford, agreeably to Mrs. But- 
lers opinion ; in which case, the time coincides with that of the 
erection of the first French church in Boston, 1704-5. Mr. An- 
drew Sigourney, who furnished the written materials for this 
Memoir, still lives on or near the place that was occupied by 
his ancestors. 

Mrs. Butler lived in Boston until the American revolution, and 
soon afterward removed to Oxford. Her residence in both phi; 
ces rendered her more familiar with the history of the emigrants 

*Mrs. Butler's account was entirely verbal, according to her recollection. 
—Mrs. Butler died in 1823, /L(at. LXXXI. 


than she would have been, had she resided exclusively in either. 
She says, they prospered in Boston, alter they were broken up 
at Oxford. Of the memorials of the primitive plantation of her 
ancestors she had been very observant, and still cherished a rev- 
erence for them. Mrs. Shumvvay, of French extraction, living 
near the Johnson house, showed her the spot where the house 
stood, and some of its remains. Col. Jeremiah Kingsbury, aboutr 
fifty-five years of age [1817], has seen the chimney and other re- 
mains of that house. His mother, aged about eighty-four yenrs, 
told Mrs. Butler that there was a burying place, called " The 
French Burying Ground," not far from the fort at Mayo's Hill. 
She herself remembers to have seen many graves there. 

French Families. 

Mrs. Butler named, as of the first emigrants from France, the 
following families : 

Bowdoix and Boudixot came to Boston : — could not say, wheth- 
er or not they came to Oxford. 

Bowyer, who married a Sigourney. 

Germaine : — removed to JSew York. 

Oliver : — did not know, whether this family came to Oxford, 
or not ; but the ancestor, by the mother's side, was a Sigourney. 

Sigourney. Andrew Sigourney, son of the first emigrant of 
that name, was born in Oxford, and died in 1763, aged sixty 
years. He was the uncle of Mrs. Butler, my informant ; of the 
late Martin Brimmer, Esq. of Boston, and Mr. Andrew Brimmer, 
still living : and of the late Hon. Samuel Dexter, of Boston. 

No branch of the Bowdoin family is known to have been set- 
tled south of New England. Governor Bowdoin left one daugh- 
ter, the lady of Sir John Temple, some time consui general of 
Great Britain in the United States. Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
John and lady Temple, was married to the Hon. Thomas L. Wnr- 
throp, Esq. of Boston, a member of the senate of Massachusetts, 
and now (April 1826) candidate for lieutenant governor, Mrs. 
YYinthrop „died in 1825. In that truly honourable lady were 
combined dignity with ease, intellectual with polite accomplish- 
ments, benevolence of temper with beneficence in action, Chris- 
tian principles with the Christian graces. One of the sons, 
Francis William vYinthrop, a young man highly distinguished 
as a scholar, and of. very fair promise, was graduated at Harvard 
college in 1817, but died soon after he had finished his education. 
Another son, James, who, since the death of his uncle James 
Bowdoin, has taken his name, is the only representative of the 
Bowdoins, of that name, now living in New England. 

Some future antiquary may perhaps trace the original name 
to the famous Baldwin, king of Jerusalem, who, according to 
French authority, spelt his name precisely as the first of this 
familv in America, Baudouin. He died in 1118, and his remains 


\rere deposited in a church on Mount Calvary. Floury, in 
his Histoire Eccltsiastique, Edit. 1779, gives an accoant of nine- 
teen eminent persons, from the " compte de Flanders/ 1 A. J). 862, 
to Baudouin, " jurisconsulte," A. D. 15C1, whose names are uni- 
formly written Baudouin. 

The Hon. Samuel Dexter, senior, father of the late Mr. Dex- 
ter, who married a Sigourney, was a member of the first pro- 
vincial congress in Massachusetts, and founder of the Dexter pro- 
fessorship of Sacred Literature in the University in Cambridge. 
Soon after the commencement of the revolutionary war, he re- 
moved with his family to Woodstock, in Connecticut. He had a 
large library, which attracted much attention at the time of its 
. removal ; and he was greatly devoted to the use of it in his re- 
tirement, to the close of his life. He was a gentleman of a high- 
ly respectable character, possessed of a handsome estate, and 
enjoyed, far beyond most literary men in our country, otium cum 
dignitate. He spent a few of his last years at Mendon, in Mas- 
sachusetts, where he died hi 1810; but his remains were inter- 
Led, according to the directions oi his Will, aL Woodstock. I 
have seen the lot in which he was buried, not far from the first 
church in my native town; but no sign of his grave can be trac- 
ed. It was his own direction, that his body should be interred 
in the exact centre of the lot, and the grave levelled on the sur- 
face, and the whole lot cultivated alike, that no distinction might 
be perceived. There is a good portrait of Mr. Dexter at the 
Library of our L'niversity. Mrs. Dexter I well remember while 
at Woodstock. She was a respectable lady, of dark complexion, 
with characteristic French features, and pronunciation. 

Very soon after my visit to Mrs. Butler, I received a letter 
from her husband, expressing her regret, that she had not men- 
tioned to me Mrs. Wheeler, a widow lady, the mother of Mr. 
Joseph Coolidge, an eminent merchant in Boston. Her maiden 
name was Oliver. She was a branch of the Germaine family, 
and related to " old Mr. Andrew Sigourney," in whose family 
she was brought up, and at whose house she was married. Mrs. 
Butler supposed, she must be between eighty and ninety year* 
of age, and that, being so much older than herself, she had heard 
more particulars from their ancestors ; but, on inquiry for Mrs, 
Wheeler in Boston, I found that she died a short time before the 
reception of the letter. 

How much do we lose by neglecting the advice of the Son of 
Sirach ! " Mi, uttox,^ hny^t^^M y*j**tm — Miss not the discourse o» 
the elders; for they also learned of their fathers, and ot them 
thou shalt learn understanding, and to give answer as need re- 


Remains of the French Fort. 

My first visit to Fort Hill in Oxford was 20 April, 1019. it [i 
about a mile southerly of the inn, kept many years by the Camp- 
bell family, at the union of the two great roads from Boston and 
Worcester, about fifty miles from Boston. Mr. Mayo, who owns 
the farm on which the fort stands, believes, that his grandfather 
purchased it of one of the French families ; and Mr. Sigourney, 
of Oxford, thinks it was bought of his ancestor, Andrew Slgour- 
ney." I measured the fort by paces, and found it 25 paces by 35. 
Within the fort, on the east side, I discovered signs of a well; 
and, on inquiry, was informed that a well had been recently 
filled up there. 

On a second visit to the Fort, in September of the same year, 
I was acccompanied, and aided in my researches, by the Rev. 
Mr. Brazer, then a Professor in our University, who went over 
from Worcester, and met me, by agreement, in Oxford. We 
traced the lines of the bastions of the fort, and were regaled with 
the perfumes of the shrubbery, and the grapes then hanging in 
clusters on the vines, planted by the Huguenots above a century 
before. Every thing here, said J\Jr. Mayo, is )et\ as I found it. 

We next went in search of the Johnson place, memorable for 
the Indian massacre in 1696. Mr. Peter Shumway, a very aged 
man, of French descent, who lives about thirty rods distant from 
it, showed us the spot. It is at a considerable distance from the 
village, on the north side of the road to Dudley, and is now 
overgrown with trees. We carefully explored it, but found no 
relicks. — The last year (1825) I called at Mr. Shumway's. He 
told me, that he was in his ninety-tirst year; that his great 
grandfather was from France; and that the plain, on which he 
lives, is called " Johnson's Plain." 

While Mr. Brazer was prosecuting our inquiries concerning a 
second fort, and a church, that had been mentioned to me by 
Mrs. Butler, he received a letter (1819) from Mr. Andrew Slg- 
ourney, informing, that captain Humphrey, of Oxford, says, his 
parents told him, there was a fort on the land upon which he 
now lives, and also a French meeting house, and a burying 
ground, with a number of graves ; that he had seen the stones 
that were laid on the top of them, as we lay turf, and that one of 
the graves was much larger than any of the others ; that they 
were east and west, but this, north and south ; and that the 
French mau who lived in this place, named Bourdine, had been 
dead but a few years. 

In May, 1825, I visited captain Fbcnezer Humphrey, and ob- 
tained from him satisfactory information concerning the place of 
this second fort, and the meeting house, and the burying ground. 
Captain Humphrey was in his eighty-fourth year. He told me, 
that his grandfather was from England, and that his father was 
from Woodstock, and came to Oxford to keep garrison. He 

appendix. ;;j 

himself now lives where his father lived, about half a mile \\< -,t 
from Oxford village. His house is near a mill, standing upon a 

. stream Ijnit runs on the left near the great road lea 
to Norwich. About fifty or sixty, rods from his house, in sh 
me th .here the fort st >od, anil, near it, the lot upon which 

were the meeting house and burying ground. No remains of 
either were visible. He pointed to an excavation of the earth, 
where, he said*, was a well, which had been filled up* it was at 
the place of the fort, rod had been, probably, within it. In the 
lot there were apple trees, which, he told me, he heard hi 
ther say, "the French set out.*' His lather must have be< 
compu-iu witness; for he was seventy years old when lie told 
him this, and lie himself was then twenty years of age. The 
field was under fine cultivation: but I could not forbear to ex- 
press my regret, that the memorials of the dead had not ; i 
pre^ervcl He said, an older brother of his had ploughed up 
the field, and it was in this state when it came into his possession. 
He told me, that one of his oldest sisters said, she remembered 
the old horseblock, that stood n ear the French meeting hou c. 
He said, he had seen the blood on the stones of the Johnson 
house ; and that Mrs. Johnson, on the night of the massacre, went 
to Woodstock. Bourdi!!e* (so he pronounced it) lived near the 
brook, which runs b} his house. The land of captain Humphrey, 
upon which were a French fart, and church, and burying ground, 
lie near the foot of M iyo"s hill, on the summit of which stood 
th : i at Fc ft, "'■ hose i emn in .. : re s ill to be ■ e n. 

OJ this interesting piece we feel reluctant to take leave, with- 
out some token of remembrance, beside the mere recital oi I 
some of which are dry in the detail, while many others are but 
remotely associated with it. Were any monumental stone to be 
found here, other memorials were less necessary. Were the 
cypress, or the weeping willow, growing here, nothing- might 
seem wanting, to perpetrate the memory of the dead, .Any 
contributions of the living, even at this late period, towards sup- 
plying the defect, seem entitled to preservation. The inquiries 
ami researches of visitants from abroad drew the attention of the 
villagers at home. In 1822, the writer of the Memoir received 
a MS. Poem on the French exiles, superscribed "Oxford;-* 
anonymous, but apparently from a female pen. It was of con- 
siderable length, arid not equally sustained througmout^ bat the 
tender and re-pectiul regard shown by the writer to those excel- 
lent pilg-iln.-. who left -* inA a stone to toll where they lie,"" and 
her just reflections upon the value of religious liberty, and the 
iniquity and horrors of tyranny, entitle her to high estimation. 
Many lines do honour to her genius, and all of them to her sensi- 
bility. 1/ -he i^ a descend tnt from the Huguenots, this is a trib- 
ute of filial piety; if not, it is an oblation of generous sympathy. 

Mr. Sigourney wrote it :; Sourdine." The spelling ami pronunciation of 

some French n^rne*, it is probable, are irrecoveiably lost. 


82 APrT.NDl.Y. 

The same year, a letter was also received from a Lady, well 
known in our literary community, enclosing a poetical tribute to 
the memory of the Huguenots of Oxford, which is not less wor- 
thy of her pen, than of her connexion.* Her marriage with a 

worthy descendant of one of the first French families tha 
tied in Oxford, fairly entitled her to the subject, which her pen 
will perpetuate, should the Memoir he forgotten. A leaf of the 
grape vine was enclosed in the letter, which has this conch- 
" We '-received great pleasure from our visit to Oxford, and as 
we traced the rains of the. first rude fortress creeled by our an- 
cestors, the present seemed almost to yield in reality to the past. 
I send you a leaf from the vine, which still flourishes in luxuri- 
ance, which, I am sorry to say, resembles our own natives of the 
woods a little too strongly, Something beside, I also send you, 
which savours as little of the Muse's inspiration, as the vine in 
question does of foreign extraction : but if poetical license can 
find affinities for the latter, 1 trust your goodness will extend its 
mantle over the infirmity of the former." 

0>: visiting a Vine among the ruins of the French fort at Oxford (Mas.-;.) — 
supposed to have been planted by the Huguenots, who made settlements at 
tiiat place, when they fled from their native country, after the Revocation of 
the Cdict of Nantes, in 1685. 

Say. clid thy germ e'er drink the fostering- dews 

Of beauteous Languedoc ? — Didst thou unfold 

Thy latent fibre 'neaih the genial skies 

Of smiling Rousilion ; — or fragrant hang 

In purple cluster from some fruitful vine 

Of fair Rochelle ? — Perchance thy infant leaves 

Have trembled at the bitter sigh of those 

Whom Tyranny oppressed, or shuddering caught 

That silent tear which suffering Virtue sheds 

In loneliness, — that tear which witnesseth , 

To the high Judge. — Not by rash, thoughtless hands 

Who sacrifice to Bacchus, pouring- forth 

Libations at his altar, with wild songs 

Hailing his madden'd orgies, wert thou borne 

To foreign climes, — but with the suffering band 

Of pious Huguenots didst dare the wave, 

When the}' essny'd to plant Salvation's vine 

In the drenr wilderness. Tensive they mark'd 

The everlasting forest's gloomy shade, 

The uncultur'd vale, the snow-invested heath 

Track'd by the vengeful native ; yet to rear 

Their temple to the Eternal Sire, and pay 

Unfettered homage to his name were joy, 

*AIrs, L. Hvstixy SiGo.-rp.sEv. 


♦ » J 


Though on their hymn of praise the desert howFd. 
The savage arrow scatlvd them, and dark clouds 
Involv'd their infant Zion, yet they bore 
Toil and affliction with unwavering eye 
Fix'd on the heavens, and firm in hope sublime 
Sank to their last repose. — Full many a son 
Among (he noblest of onr land, looks back 
Through Time's long vista, and exulting claims 
These as his Sires. — They sleep in mouldering dust, 
But thou, fair Vine, in beauteous verdure blpourst 
O'er Man's decay. Wooing thy tendril green 
Springs the wild Hose, as if it fain would twine 
Wreaths for its native soil. — And well it may; 
For here dwell Liberty and laurelfd Peace 
Lending to life new lustre, and with dews 
Ethereal bathing Nature's charms. The child 
Of Poverty feels here no vassalage, nor shrinks 
From Persecution's scourge. The simplest hind, 
Whether he homeward °"uidc his weary team 
Beneath the evening star, or whistling lead 
To pastures fresh with morn his snowy sheep, 
Bears on his brow in deepened characters 
"Knowledge is Power,'" — He too, with filial eye 
Uncheck'd, undimm'd, marks blest Religion come, 
In simple mildness, binding on the heart 
Her law of love, gilding each gathered cloud 
Of varied sentiment, that o'er the dust 
Of Earth's low confine hangs. — with beams serene 
From that bright Sun which shall hereafter blend 
All fleeting shades in one effulgent smile 
Of Immortality. 


From their first National Synod in 1559 to St. 

Bartholomew Massacre in 1572 ... 13 years. 

From St. Bartholomew Massacre to the Edict 

of Nantes in 1 599 ... 27 

From the Edict of Nantes to its Revocation in 16S5 ... 86 

From the Revocation of the Edict to the com- 
mencement of the French Revolution in 1789 . . 104 

From the commencement of the French Re- 
volution to the present time 1826 ... 37 



History and Description of Cohasset, in the counts of 
Norfolk, Mass. Dec. 16, 1821. By Rev. Jacob Flint, 
minister of the town. 


The town of Hingham, which, till 1770, included 

Cohasset, was settled by the Rev. Peter Ilobart, 
with part of a church and congregation to which he 
had been pastor, in Hingham, County of Norfolk, in 
Great Britain. Debarred the free exercise of their 
civil and religious rights, they, like the pilgrims at 
Plymouth, fled to the wilderness in New England 
for the enjoyment of that freedom to which as ration- 
al beings they were entitled, and that religious liber- 
ty wherewith Christ had made them free. Their ar- 
rival was in the year 1(335 ; and having obtained 
from the natives, deeds of land to form their town ; 
on September 18, the same year, they held their first 
meeting for civil purposes, which they called a town 
meeting ; and their town, from the name of that they 
had left, they called Hingham.* 

Their pastor was respectable for his talents and 
Christian piety. His descendants have been many, 
a considerable number of whom have been graduated 
at Harvard University ; and some of them eminent 
preachers of the Gospel. The Hingham company 
preserved, generally, a good standing with the na- 
tives. And, excepting a dispute on the subject of 
military election and liberty of conscience, which in 
1645, interrupted the harmony of the town, and 
made some difficulty in the province, f and a violent 
contest in regard to the placing of a meeting-house, 
in which the interference of the general court was 
required ; the social order of the inhabitants has been 

* See Manuscript of D. dishing, 2d T. Clerk, Hing. 

f See Hubbard's History of New England, and papers in the Cabinet of the 
Historical Society. 


good. The constant and liberal provision, which 
the}' made for the support of public worship and 
schools for the young, with their general attention to 
the ordinances of religion, for a hundred and seventy 
years, furnish good evidence that the first settlers 
were wise and good men, that they educated their 
children in such principles and habits as rendered 
them usei id and happy citizens and rational Chris- 

By the descendants of these men, with Others of 
virtuous character, the town of Cohasset was first 
settled. The names of seven, viz. Gushing, Lincoln, 
Tower, Beal, James, and Sutton, found among the 
first Bingham company, with those of Bates, Pratt, 
Kent, Orcutt, Stoddard, and Nichols, from other pla- 
ces, were the names of those dauntless and worthy 
men, who first laboured to subdue the soil in this 
place, which was then called Conohasset, an Indian 
name, signifying a fishing promontory. 

The parts of the town first improved, were those 
which have received the names, Rocky -nook, Jeru- 
salem, Mill street, extending to the harbour, tlie Plain, 
and Beechwood street. They were, as well as 1 can 
learn, settled successively in the order above named. 
To these parts our progenitors came, the mo^t of 
them with their families ; and their perseverance and 
success evince that they possessed much Christian 
fortitude, patience of labour, and pious trust in the 
good providence of God. The greater part of the 
soil, though of a good quality, was so much inter- 
spersed with rocks, many from their size immoveable, 
as to render their prospect rather dreary and forbid- 
ding. But having Bingham on their west, and 
Scituate south, adjoining them, which were now nour- 
ishing plantations, with their shores abounding with 
fish of the best kinds, they were not discouraged. 
They took their stand ; and wrought with industry 
and patience, devoutly looking to God for protection 


and a blessing on tlieir labours. He crave them his 
blessing. lie gave them, by his providence and his 
word, health, supplies, and peace of mind, and ena- 
bled them to prepare a goodly heritage for their chil- 
dren, unto the third and fourth generation, as it is 
this day. 

How early some few families settled within the 
limits of this town. 1 cannot now ascertain with cer- 
tainty ; probably, iri the year 1670 : for about that 
time, Cotfohasset, from being all undivided common 
land of ffingfram, was divided among its proprietors.* 
All, however, who became residents here, till 1714, 
(when they obtained liberty to build a house of wor- 
ship,) considered themselves as belonging to the reli- 
gious society cf Hinghatn. With that town they 
acted in all civil and religious matters. Thither, bad 
and long as the roads were, they repaired to worship 
on the Lord's day, and there they buried their dead. 
But in the year last mentioned, their numbers and 
substance had increased to such a degree, that, they 
icli themselves able to support a minister, and pro- 
vide instruction for their children. Accordingly, in 
the year 1714, they petitioned the town of Bingham 
to remit 'to them their ministerial and school taxes. 
But their petition for this object, however just and 
reasonable, was twice rejected ; nor could they ob- 
tain the privileges of a parish, till the next year, when 
for purpose they made a successful petition to 
the general court. 

Having a house of worship, they probably had 
preaching in it before they invited the candidate whom 
they settled as their first pastor. Mr. Nehemiah 
Hobart came to preach to them on July 13, 1721 ; 
and as the custom was, before the forming of a 
church, he " preached a fast," and continued with 
them, till December 13, of the same year, when the 

*5«>p Town Reeocds of Hiocrhain, 


church was organized, and the pastoral charge of it, 
b) solemn ordination, was committed to him. On 
that oceasidn the services were as follows : Introduc- 
tory prayer by Rev. Eben (hay of Hingham ; Sermon 
by Rev. Daniel Lewis of Pembroke ; Charge by 
Rev. Nathaniel Pitcher of Scituate ; Right Hand of 
Fellowship by Rev. Samuel Whitman of Hull. 

As a new society, they were weak in numbers and 
wealth. According to their ability, their first house 
of worship was small and without expensive orna- 
ments. It was, I have been told, about 55 feet long 
and 25 wide, with pulpit, pews, and seats of planed 
boards, of simple construction. 

At the formation of his church, Mr. Hobart drew 
us a well written instrument, not as a creed but a 
covenant, in which are recognised their obligations 
to God and Jesus Christ, and in which are made 
their solemn rows to live, by God's aid. in Christian 
obedience, brotherly love, and mutual assistance. 
After a preamble, expressive of their belief, that they 
were called oi God to unite together in the bands of 
Gospel communion and fellowship, it proceeds in the 
following words. " We do, in the name of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, in the presence of God, and the holy 
angels, explicitly and expressly covenant and bind 
ourselves in manner and form following, viz. We do 
give up ourselves to God, whose name alone is Jeho- 
vah, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. To God the 
Father, as our chief and only good : and unto our 
Lord Jesus Christ, as our prophet, priest, and king, 
and only Mediator of the covenant of grace ; and un- 
to the Spirit of God, as our only sanctifier and com- 
forter. And we do give up ourselves one unto an- 
other in the Lord, covenanting and promising to walk 
together as a Church of Christ, in all ways of his 
own institution, according to the prescriptions of his 
holy word, promising that with all tenderness and 
brotherly love, we will with all faithfulness, watch 


over each other's souls, and that we will freely yield 
up ourselves to the discipline and power of Chri 

his church, and attend whatever ordinances Christ 
hath appointed and declared in his word : and where- 
in we fail.. and come short of duty, to wait upon him 
for pardon and remission, bes6eching him to make 
our spirits steadfast in his covenant, and to own us 
as his church and covenant people forever. Amen." 
This was subscribed by Nehemiah Hobart, John Or- 
cutt, Stephen Stoddard, Thomas James, John Jacob, 
Ebenezer Kent, Joseph Bates, and Elijah \ T iual jun. 
Soon after, followed the. names of eighteen other per- 
sons, who were admitted to their communion. 

In the call and settlement of Mr. Hohart, there 
seems to have been a perfect, agreement of the whole 
society. There is no account, either from record or 
tradition, of opposition by any one. And this har- 
mony appears to have continued during the nineteen 
years of his ministry. In him was found an excellent 
spirit. His character, which I early obtained from 
aged persons, who knew it, end from some of his 
writings which I possess, app< ars to have been that 
of a truly devout, enlightened, and liberal divine. 
He had talents as a preacher; and virtues as a Chris- 
tian, which would have rendered him instructive and 
ptable, in a learned and more numerous society. 


His worth was not much known abroad, but was 
justly and highly appreciated by his early instructer, 
neighbour, and constant friend, the excellent Gay. 
Whatever be a preacher's talents and worth, his rep- 
utation will depend much on the celebrity of the 
situation in which he is placed, and of the characters 
with whom he is connected. The celebrated Cotton, 
Mathers, and Mayhcw, were, it is believed, great 
and good ; but they were spurred by the hope of 
fame, as well as the love of God and their fellow- 
men. Placed in a populous and distinguished town, 
thev were connected with men eminent la theliterarv 


and political world, who assisted to spread their fame. 
Conohasset, far in the bay, had little connexion w ith 
societies, or men, who had made much advancement 
iu letters and taste. It was seldom visited bv stran- 
gers ; and its inhabitants, though respectable for 
their natural powers and Christian virtues, had neither 
leisure nor means to record and publish their preach- 
er's worth. 

The Rev. Nehemiah Hobart was born in the first 
parish of Hingham, and was the son of David 1 lobart 
Esq., and grandson of Rev. Peter Hobart of that 
town. He was graduated at Harvard College in the 
year 1714. He died in 1740, in the 43d year of his 
age. As he had lived beloved, he died much la- 
mented by the people of his charge. He sleeps in the 
centre burying ground, and has a decent stone to tell 
where he lies. He was twice married, having seven 
children by his first wife, and none by his last. 
Three of his children he buried in their infancy, and 
left one son and three daughters. These ail continu- 
ed to a good old age, respectable for their understand- 
ings and Christian habits. The son moved to Con- 
necticut, two of his daughters married in Cohasset, 
and one still survives, at the age of 87, and is wife 
of the venerable Deacon Kent, now in his 92d year. 
During Mr. Hobart's ministry, 77 persons were ad- 
mitted to the church, 277 children and 27 adults 
were baptized, and 80 couples were united in mar- 
riage. The number of deaths was 116 : 70 of this 
number were children under 8 years of age, 30 of 
whom died of an inflammatory sore throat. 

The first deacon was John Jacob, a man whose 
memory ought to be dear to the church and society. 
He was the society's agent in procuring their paro- 
chial privileges. The husband of one wife, a worthy 
woman ; without children ; with a benevolent mind 
and considerable property, he seemed to adopt the so- 
ciety as his particular charge. He possessed their 



confidence, and used it in all respects, for their bene- 
fit. His care for his own spiritual improvement, and 
for the reputation of the church, was manifested by 
his constant attention to public worship and the sa- 
cred ordinances of religion, and by a handsome do- 
nation of plate, which he made to the table of com- 
munion. I received his character from the late 
Thomas Lothrop Esq., whom the deacon educated 
and made his principal heir ; and into whose mind, 
naturally strong, he early instilled that love of reli- 
gion, knowledge, and usefulness, which under God, 
qualified this nephew, to discharge acceptably, in 
mature years, the duties of every important office in 
the gift of the town, and respected as a legislator and 
magistrate of this Commonwealth. 

The second deacon was Joseph Bates, a man of 
some distinction, from his piety and useful acquire- 
ments. He was the first treasurer and clerk of the 
society. The third deacon was Lazarus Beal, a de- 
vout man, and of good report among all who knew 
him. He commanded his children and household 
after him, that they should keep the way of the 
Lord. The two deacons, who now officiate, in the 
church, are his grandsons. 

The early condition of the society here was, in 
some respects, preferable to that of the settlers in 
many other new places. They were generally well 
inured to the climate, having been borh in Hingham, 
or some place in New England. Most of them, either 
from patrimony or industry, possessed a competent 
property, with which to begin their improvements, 
without the fear of immediate want. Looking above 
the log-house,* they framed their houses of hewn 
timber, and covered them decently, making them 
generally two stories in height. The house of their 
pastor, now in its hundredth year, built of the firmest 

♦A log-house was, I believe, never built ii) Conohasset. 


oak, is a large and still a handsome, valuable house ; 
and with proper care, may remain so, it is thought, a 
century to come. The wild men and beasts of prey 
had generally retired from their promontory. The 
inhabitants early built vessels and convenient landing 
places, by which they availed themselves of the 
treasures of the sea, and profitably transported to 
market, in the metropolis, their redundancy of wood. 
Having roads barely passible, and leading through 
their own to no place but the bay, they were little 
connected with elder societies. This led them to 
draw more closely the bands of their own. Their 
marriages were generally among themselves ; so that 
a large portion of the members became connected by 
blood ; and continue so, in an uncommon degree, to 
the present day. Truly, neighbours to each other, 
they had innocent social enjoyment.' Places of 
temptation to excess, were then unknown, as places 
of common resort. After the labours of the day, un- 
ceremonious visits were frequently made at each oth- 
ers houses, where they would talk of the good prov- 
idence of God to New England, the ways of promot- 
ing the welfare of their church and society, and make 
common stock of useful or entertaining anecdotes, 
which any one had acquired. Having the bountiful 
cow, and the bees tamed from the forest, their dwel- 
lings flowed with milk and honey : and they could, 
with the ' broiled fish and a little honey-comb,' with 
other materials which the house afforded, furnish a 
social repast, far more friendly to health, virtue, and 
cheerfulness, than can be found in the luxuries which 
load the fashionable boards of modern conviviality. 
Speaking of the early state of society here, it was 
remarked to me by an aged member — " They had 
every thing that heart could wish." 

Feeling that public worship, with attention to 
Christian ordinances, was necessary, no less to their 
social prosperity, than their spiritual improvement and 


comfort, the church and society lost no time, after 
the death of Mr. Hobart, before they took measures 
suitable to fill his place 1 with another well educated 
and respectable pastor. They employed candidates 
of good character ; but they did not immediately find 
one in whom they could unite. They beard Mr. 
Adams, Hancock, Gay, and four others, before they 
gave their call to Mr. John Fovvlc, who became their 
second pastor. In regard to him, indeed, they were 
not of one mind. To hear many candidates is not 
well in any parish. It tends to division. They 
should learn well the character and qualifications of 
a preacher before they employ him, and then hear 
with a view to approve and ordain. The opposers of 
Mr. Foule, however, after some time, appear to have 
consented to his ordination, which took place De- 
cember 31, 1741. On that occasion, Rev. William 
Smith of Weymouth began with prayer; Rev. Hull 
Abbot of Charlestown preached ; Rev. Nathaniel 
Eelles of Scituate gave the charge ; Rev. Ebenezer 
Gay of Hingham gave the right hand of fellowship. 
Mr. Fowle felt a deep sense of responsibility in his 
office. He was allowed, by good judges, to be a 
man of considerable genius, and handsome acquire- 
ments ; and for two or three years was a popular 
preacher. But he was doomed to have a thorn in 
the flesh, a most irritable nervous temperament, which 
rendered him unequal in his performances, and at 
times, quite peevish and irregular. His infirmity in- 
creasing, increased the number of his opposers, till it 
caused the dissolution of his pastoral relation in the 
fifth year of his ministry. 1 do not learn that any 
immoralities were charged upon him ; but that he 
had too little self possession, to be useful in the pas- 
toral office. His failure should be attributed rather 
to physical, than moral defect, rendering him not an 
object of reproach, but of commisseration. 


While here, he married a wife, and had two child- 
ren. He recorded the names of 12 persons whom 
he admitted to the church, of GO children whom he 
baptized, and 22 couples whom he united in marriage. 
He was born in Charlest,own, near Boston, and was 
graduated at Harvard College, in the year 1732. 
After his dismission he returned with his family to 
the place of his nativity, where, it is expected, the 
disorder of his mind increased so much as to incapa- 
citate him for usefulness to society. But the manner 
of his life towards the close, and the time of his 
death, I have not been able to learn. 

At this period, the numbers and wealth of the 
church and society had increased so much, that they 
found their first house of worship too small for their 
accommodation, and felt themselves able to build 
another, more commodious as to its size, and more 
expensive and respectable as to its appearance. Ac- 
cordingly, I find, by the parish records, they com- 
menced the work near the time of Mr. Fowie's dis- 
mission, and in the course of the ensuing year, erect- 
ed the house* in which we are now assembled. This 
house covers an area of 60 feet, by 45. On the 
northerly end of the roof, was a belfry. Two flights 
of stairs, leading to the galleries, were placed on the 
inside of the house. The large front porch, into 
which the stairs have been removed, and the steeple 
in which the bell now hangs, have been since erected. 

The disappointment of the church and society in 
Mr. Fowle, seems not to have lessened their attach- 
ment to the Christian religion, nor to the benefits, to 
be derived from Christian teachers. While engaged 
in building their new house, they employed candi- 
dates of good character with a view to unite in one, 
who might regularly feed them with knowledge, and 
break unto them the bread of life. Among them was 

♦The cost, according to the Society's Treas. was £1522, 19=. 9d. 


Lawrence, Torrey, May hew, and Brown; to the 
last of whom they gave their united call* to become 
their pastor. He accepted their call, and on Sep- 
tember 2, 1747, before their new house was quite 
completed, was ordained to the pastoral office. The 
services on that occasion were — Introductory prayer 
by Rev. William Smith of Weymouth ; Sermon by 
Rev. Ward Cotton, text, " make full proof of thy 
ministry ;" Charge by Rev. Nathaniel Eelles ; Right 
Hand of Fellowship by Rev. Josiah Cotton ; conclu- 
ding prayer by Rev. Shearjashub Bourn of Scituate. 
The talents of the Rev. John Brown were con- 
siderably more than ordinary. In a stately person 
he possessed a mind whose perceptions were quick 
and clear, and his sentiments were generally the re- 
sult of just reflection His voice was loud and 
smooth. He thought for himself: and when he had 
formed his opinions, he uttered them with fearless 
freedom. The son of a respectable divine, f he was 
early well grounded in the rudiments of literature. 
Acquainted, from a child, with the Holy Scriptures, 
from them he formed his religious opinions. He be- 
lieved the Son of God when he said— -" The Father 
is greater than I ;" and although he believed that 
mankind was sinful, yet he did not attribute their 
sins to his immediate act, who is the Author of all 
good. His sermons, a number of which I possess, 
are fraught with striking thoughts, suggested by his 
subjects ; and presented in such a style, as would 
render them acceptable and impressive even to mod- 
ern hearers. Till advanced in life, he was fond of 
social intercourse, and was able always to make so- 

♦It is said there was one opposer only, whom Mr. Brown reconciled by a 
stroke of good humour. Calling to see the opposer, he inquired the cause of 
opposition. 1 like your person and manners, said the opposer, but your 
preaching, sir, 1 disapprove. Then, said Mr. Brown, we are agreed. My 
preaching I do not like very well myself; but how great the folly for you 
and I to set up our opinion against that of ihe whole parish. The opposer 
felt, or thought he felt, the folly— and was no longer opposed. 

+ Rev. John Brown of Haverhill. 


cietv innocently cheerful. He would sometimes, it 
is said, descend to that jesting, which an Apostle has 
told us, is not convenient. He was never prone to 
labour much with his hands, nor to intense applica- 
tion of mind, in abstruse subjects. 

A warm friend to the interests of his country, he 
zealously advocated its civil and religious freedom. 
By appointment of government, he served one cam- 
paign as chaplain to a colonial regiment, at Nova 
Scotia, and for his acceptable service a tract of land, 
now Liverpool, in that province, was granted to him 
by the crown. Taking a lively interest in the 
American revolution, he encouraged, by example and 
preaching, his fellow citizens, at home and abroad, 
patiently to make those sacrifices which were de- 
manded by the times; predicting, at the same time, 
with the foresight of a prophet, the present unrivalled 
prosperity of his country.* Although he zealously 
advocated the cause of freedom, he considered the 
appropriate duties of his sacred office paramount to 
all others. He was constant and careful, till pre- 
vented by the infirmities of age, in his preparations 
for the Lord's day, and regular and acceptable in the 
discharge of parochial duties. During his long min- 
istry, the people of his charge were generally atten- 
tive to his instructions in the house of God, and pro- 
fited by his administration of the ordinances. He 
inherited a firm constitution ; and although within a 
few years of his death, he was much enfeebled, from 
want of exercise in the. open air, he still continued to 
preach, with diminished effect, until the last sabbath 
of his life. He died in the 67th year of his age, and 

*See his excellent sermon in manuscript, delivered to some companies of 
New England soldiers, under tlie wide spreading elm in Hingbam. He pub- 
lished a Thanksgiving discourse, in rhe year of the massacre at Boston, in 
which that event is ably discussed. He published a discourse from Jeremiah 
xvii. 9, in which an ingenious comment is given upon the words — " The heart 
is deceitful above all things" he. He published aiso a discourse, occasioned 
by the death of Dr. JVJ^yhew. 


45th of his ministry. He sleeps with the first pastor 
in the centre burial ground. To those who knew his 
worth, his memory is precious. While here, he bu- 
ried two wives and two children, and left a widow 
and one son. The name of his first wife was Jane 
Doane, that of his second, Ilepzibah vVmes. 

He recorded the names of 136 persons whom he 
admitted to the chinch, of 221 children and 25 adults 
whom he baptized, and of 225 couples whom he unit- 
ed in marriage. Of deaths I find no record. 

The persons elected, during his ministry, to the 
honourable office of deacon, were Jonathan Beal, 
Isaac Lincoln 3d, Amos Joy, Abel Kent, Isaac Burr, 
and Job Gushing. All these, except one, have been 
released by death or age, from their official duties, 
and with the thanks of the church for their faithful 
services. Deacon Kent and his wife, still survive, 
full of days, and of good fruits, having long been of 
that class to whom the hoary head is a crown of 

Although the society, during Mr. Brown's ministry, 
made some accession to their numbers, they made 
little improvement in their modes of agriculture, 
building, or education. Living so near the sea, no 
small portion of them thought it easier to plough the 
deep for bread, than to plough their rugged soil. 
Many engaged in the fisheries and in foreign voya- 
ges. And both in the French war, and that of the 
Revolution, being more exposed to enemies on the 
seas, than in most other places, a greater proportion 
of their young men, here, than elsewhere, bore arms 
in defence of their country. 

When the approaching difficulties, between the 
American colonies and Great Britain, caused frequent 
town meetings, and the society here found it burden- 
some to transact their civil concerns with Hingham ; 
feeling at the same time adequate to perform their 
own business among themselves, they made applica- 


tion to the government, to be separated from the ju- 
risdiction of that town, and to he incorporated as a 
town, by the name of Cohasset. Accordingly, in 
1770, they became a town, with all the powers and 
privileges appertaining to such corporations. Since 
that event, the affairs of the town have been manag- 
ed with a good degree of harmony and regularity. 
The revolutionary war, however, greatly embarrassed 
them, as it did the whole country. But small im- 
provements were made, until after the establishment 
of the federal government. Since then their improve- 
ments have heen as great as those of most towns of 
their age and size. 

After the death of Mr. Brown, the church and so- 
ciety immediately directed their attention to that pro- 
vision for religious instruction, with the administra- 
tion of the ordinances, without which no society will 
long experience social order and prosperity. They 
were supplied six sabbaths, by the pall bearers, at 
the funeral of their late pastor, and then employed 
Mr. losiah C. Shaw, as their first candidate. With 
him the society w T ere generally pleased, and soon 
united in giving him a call to settle with them in the 
ministry. He accepted their call, and was ordained 
October 3, 1792. On that occasion, Rev. Elijah 
Leonard of Marshfield, began with prayer ; Rev. 
William Shaw of that town preached ; Rev. Simeon 
Williams of Weymouth made the consecrating prayer; 
Rev. John Mellen of Hanover gave the Charge ; 
Rev. Daniel Shute, D. D. of Hingham gave the 
Right Hand of Fellowship ; Rev. Henry Ware of 
that town concluded with prayer. 

The Rev. Josiah C. Shaw was a native of Marsh- 
field. His ministry was commenced with fair pros- 
pects of tranquillity to himself, and usefulness to his 
flock; but was abruptly terminated June 3, 1706. 
The church and society, to their great honour, and 
notwithstanding the unhappy circumstances in which 



they were placed, soon took (he proper steps to sup- 
ply themselves with another pastor. After hearing 
a number of candidates, well recommended, they 
gave a call, without opposition, to their present pas- 
tor. With a deliberation due to its solemnity, he 
accepted the call ; and on Jan. 10th 1793, was or- 
dained to the pastoral charge of the church and so- 
ciety in Cohasset. 

The services on that solemnity were, — Introducto- 
ry prayer by Rev. Caleb Prentiss of Reading ; Ser- 
mon, by Rev. Eliab Stone of that town ; Ordaining 
prayer by Rev. Daniel Shute, D. D of Hingham : 
Charge by Rev. Gad Hitchcock, D. D. of Pem- 
broke ; Right Hand of Fellowship by Rev. Henry 
Ware of Hingham ; Concluding prayer by Rev. Da- 
vid Barns, D. D. of Scituate. The present pastor (au- 
thor of this article) was born in Reading, north parish, 
in the county of Middlesex, and was graduated at the 
University in Cambridge on the Commencement of 

Since his ordination 87 persons have been admitted 
to the church, 78 have owned the covenant, 425 
children and 38 adults have been baptized, and 120 
couples have been united in marriage. There have 
been 356 deaths. 

The present deacons of the church are Abel Kent, 
Uriali Lincoln. Thomas Bourn, and David Beak 
The two first, by reason of age, have been relieved 
from their official duties, with the unanimous thanks 
of the church for their able and faithful services. 
Dea. Dineoln has recently conferred a lasting memo- 
rial of his pious regard to the table of the Lord, by 
a donation of two large, well wrought, silver cups. 
It is due to the deacons still officiating, to say, they 
magnify their office by their discharge of its duties. 

Within the century the town has educated at Cam- 
bridge University, seven of its sons. These are all 
still living, except one, namely Benjamin Pratt Esq. 
who died in 1763. He was son of the first Aaron 


Pratt of this place ; and received the honours of Col- 
lege in 1737. His talents were of the first order. 
He studied the profession of the law ; and after high- 
ly distinguishing himself at the courts of justice in 
this Commonwealth, was promoted to the bench, as 
chief justice, in the state of New York. The others 
of this place, who have been graduated at our Uni- 
versity, sustain characters which reflect honour on 
the place of their nativity, and on this eminently dis- 
tinguished seminary. All except one, who is provi- 
dentially deprived of a sound mind, are now filling, 
or preparing to fill, stations in which they may be 
useful to society and benefactors to their country. 
Eleazer James, in the county of Worcester, is highly 
respectable as a citizen and attorney at law ; Joshua 
Bates, S. T. D. is president of Middlebury College 
in the state of Vermont ; Isaac Lincoln is an eminent 
physician in the state of Maine, and member of the 
medical society ; T. Stephenson and J. B. Flint are 
now engaged in the study of their respective profes- 

During the last 25 years, the improvements in this 
town, in education, building, navigation, roads, and 
bridges, have been laudable. More has been done 
in these particulars, it is believed, than was done in 
twice that number of years preceding. The present 
house of worship, built by your fathers, has received im- 
provements, as to its appearance and accommodation. 
Since my connexion with the society, it has been 
painted, and there have been added to it a decent 
steeple, a number of pews, and the dress for the pul- 
pit, furnished by the ladies.* 


Cohasset, a post town, in the county of Norfolk, 
is in extent, from north to south, about four and an 

* Since the above was written, the house has received a stove, suitable 
sufficiently to warm it. 


half miles ; and from cast, to west, about four. It is 
hounded on the west, by Hingham and Hull ; on the 
north and northeast, by Massachusetts Bay ; and on 
the southeast and south, by Scituate. 

Surface and Soil. 

The part next to the sea, a few rods above high 
water mark, and in some places bounding the water, 
is a chain of rocky hills and precipices, forming a 
rampart against the invading waves, almost from one 
end of the town to the other. This chain is in some 
places broken, leaving spaces for a few small streams 
to run into the sea ; and the sea, flowing at flood tide 
into their mouths, covers the iovv lands, forming a 
number of salt marshes. 

The most northerly division, about a mile in width, 
including the part already described, abounds with 
rocks and hiils. Little of it is suitable for tillage : 
some parts are covered with wood, oak, walnut, and 
upland cedar. A considerable part of it, however, 
furnishes good pasturage. 

A second division, about one mile in width, in- 
cluding the common, on which stands the meeting- 
house, furnishes an excellent soil ; and, except some 
places, rather too rocky, is well adapted to all the 
purposes of agriculture. It is a deep, black soil, 
sparingly intermingled with gravel. The common is 
a pleasant plain of about ten acres, dressed, in the 
season of vegetation, with a garment of deep verdure. 
In the southeasterly part, near the meeting-house, is 
a handsome little pond of fresh water, about eight 
rods in diameter, round as a basin, and never dry. 
Through this division, runs the principal road, lead- 
in^ from Hingham to Scituate. 

On the southwest part of. this division, is a fine 
swell of land and moderate hills, extending the whole 
length of the town. Its soil may be classed with 
that of the first quality ; producing grass, corn, grain, 


and vegetables in great abundance. Although it has 
yielded its increase for a hundred years, its strength 
still remains. The hills are no where so steep, as to 
prevent the plough running to their summits. On 
the south side of this swell, is a fresh pond of ninety 
acres, abounding with pike and other fish, common 
to fresh water. A third division for a mile in width, 
is wood land, yielding walnut, beech, oak, maple, and 
pine, and is so loaded in many parts, with ponderous 
rocks, as forever to baffle the hand of culture. A 
fourth division, in width about a mile, extending to 
Scituate line, consists partly of soil similar to that of 
the second division, and partly of a light soil of easy 
tillage. Through this division runs the beech-wood 
street, and through a part of it, flows the principal 
stream in Cohasset, which is respectable enough to 
be called a river ; but in Hutchinson's history of 
New England, is called Conohasset rivulet, forming, 
anciently, the boundary line between Plymouth and 
Massachusetts colonies. 

Agriculture and Produce. 

A considerable number of the inhabitants of this 
town, from their situation, depend more on naviga- 
tion, for their support and wealth, than on agricul- 
ture. There are a considerable number, however, 
bred to husbandry ; a number of persons also engag- 
ed in other business, have large and well cultivated 
farms, and almost every householder possesses a por- 
tion of land, which he cultivates. In the town, there 
are, deducting for roads and water, 5633 acres ; 141 
of which are tillage, producing on an average, 2822 
bushels of corn, 457 bushels of rye, and 223 bushels 
of barley. Of upland mowing ground, there are 466 
acres, producing 345 tons of English hay ; of fresh 
meadow, there are 301 acres, producing 211 tons of 
fresh hay ; of salt marsh, there are 62 acres, pro- 
ducing 32 tons of salt hay. The pasturage, 2562 


acres, is peculiarly sweet and nourishing, enabling 
the farmers to raise and fatten some or the finest 
cattle and sheep, that are seen in the market. 

Navigation and Fisheries. 

There are 41 vessels of different tonnage, owned 
in Cohasset. Of these J 067 tons are employed in 
the mackerel fishery. They take, in a season, 2420 
barrels ; 200 tons are employed in the codtishery ; 
taking 2590 quintals of codfish.* The fishing vessels 
employ 223 men and boys. Some of the largest ves- 
sels, are employed in foreign trade. After the season 
for taking fish, a number of the fishing vessels are 
employed in the coasting trade with various parts of 
the United States, and some in trade with the West 
Indies. Cohasset harbour, at the east part of the 
town, is formed by a small bay, nearly a mile inland, 
into which the sea and vessels pass, through a con- 
siderable channel. The channel was probably creat- 
ed, and is still kept open, and the harbour made 
deeper and wider, by the flowing into it, on the 
southeast, of Conohasset river, and that on the south- 
west, of another small stream, sometimes called 
James' river, from its crossing the street, near the 
dwelling house of the late Christopher James. The 
water of the harbour is not any time sufficiently 
deep for vessels of large burthen, when laden ; but is 
very commodious and safe, for those from eighty to a 
hundred tons. 

To conduct vessels with safety into the harbour, 
requires the skill of seamen well acquainted with the 
entrance. About the entrance, extending to the east 
and west, and some at two miles from the shore, are 
scattered those deadly enemies to mariners, long and 
far known by the name of Cohasset rocks. The 

•The estimate of the fisheries, may not, perhaps, be correct tor any one 
year, but may be coiiiblereJ as an average for a number of years 


spaces, now water, between these rocks, were proba- 
bly, at some very ancient period, tilled with earth, 
softer than that on the present shores, rendering the 
promontory commensurate with the outermost rock. 
The attrition of the waters, pouring into, and from 
the Bay, may have removed the softer earth, till they 
came to those solid ramparts with which nature lias 
lined the present shores. These, nothing short of 
Almighty power can remove. They have always 
said, and will forever prevailingly say to the invading 
ocean, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further, and 
here shall thy proud waves be stayed. 

A good knowledge of the Cohasset rocks, and the 
Graves oil the shores oi Nahant, is requisite to navi- 
gate with safety the waters of the Bay. If in the 
night, or bad weather, the commander or pilot be ig- 
norant of his situation, or sleep at his post, like Pali- 
nurus of old, he will be in the utmost danger of ship- 
wreck and death, from a Scylla on the one hand, 
and Chary bdis on the other. The rocks have been 
so well surveyed and marked, that their situation is 
sufficiently known. There is one circumstance, how- 
ever, which I fear has not been sufficiently observed 
by mariners sailing from the southern cape. The 
flood lide ordinarily sets in towards the rocks, with 
considerably greater force than that with which it 
ever sets out. Consequently, if there be not, in run- 
ning, a correspondent allowance made for leeway, the 
ship will he in danger of falling on the entering rock, 
or some rocks above it. 

The people of this town have had frequent calls 
for their compassionate exertions in behalf of suffering 
seamen. That they have been prompt to answer 
these calls, is manifest from the number of medals 
and other rewards of merit, which they have received, 
not only from the society whose name* designates its 

* Humane. 


heavenly purposes, but from gratitude expressed in 
distant countries. Among the many instances of 
distress by shipwreck, in which the kindest assist- 
ance and relief have been given, one only will be here 
noticed, the circumstances of which do equal credit 
to those who gave, and to those who received relief. 
On February 12, 1793, the ship Gertrude-Maria, of 
400 tons, bound from Copenhagen to Boston, with a 
cargo, estimated at $40,000, and commanded by 
Hans Peter Clien, was wrecked on a small island, 
among Cohasset rocks, called Brush Island. Having 
entered the Bay, the commander knew not the dan- 
ger of his situation. Clouds obscured the light of 
the sun by day, of the moon and stars by night, and 
no small tempest with frost and snow lay upon them. 
In the awful war of elements, the ship was at the 
mercy of the fierce winds and mountainous biilow\s.* 
These threw her first upon a small ledge, where she 
suffered but partial injury ; then on the Island, just 
named, whose sides are covered with pointed ledges. 
On these the angry surges raised and depressed her 
with violence, till they broke her asunder. Death 
now staring every man in the face, trial was made by 
two men with a boat to reach the shore. The boat 
was dashed to pieces. One was drowned, the other 
left to recover the wreck. At length, by extending 
a spar from the stern of the wreck, the survivers all 
got upon the Island, where the waves could not reach 
them. Here they tarried in the tempest, chilled with 
wet and frost, without fire or house to shelter them, 
till discovered early the next morning by the inhab- 
itants of the town. Means for granting relief were 
immediately adopted. A boat was quickly brought 
to the beach, a mile over land. She was manned 
without delay, and plunged into the agitated surf, at 

* Conlinuo venti volvunt mare raagnaque surgunf, 
/Equora : di-peiVi jactarnur gur^ite va^-to. — \ irg. 


the imminent hazard of the lives of the adventurers. 
She reached the Island, and brought off three of the 
sufferers. Another attempt was immediately made, 
but the storm and the tumult of the sea increasing, it 
was frustrated by the destruction of the boat against 
the rocks. Two other boats were soon brought from 
a distance, and the dauntless exertions of the boatmen 
were renewed, till the sufferers, twenty-one in num- 
ber, were all safely landed on the shore. Thence 
they were conveyed to the houses of Elisha Doane, 
Esq. and other gentlemen, where they were care- 
fully warmed, clothed, and fed, as their frozen and 
perishing condition required. At these houses they 
remained, imbibing the wine and the oil, ministered 
by the hand of compassion, till their wounds were 
healed, and health restored. In the mean time, due 
attention was paid to their property, now the sport of 
the waters. An account of articles of the smallest, 
as well as of greater value, was given to the master 
of the ship ; insomuch, that when all was collected, 
that could be saved, and sold at auction, its amount 
was 12,000 dollars. When the Captain and his men, 
(all it is said of the royal navy of his country,) were 
provided with another vessel, and ready to leave the 
town, their hearts were swollen with grateful emotions 
toward those, who, under God, had delivered and 
cherished them in their perils and distress. The Cap- 
tain, a man of much respectability, unable to utter his 
feelings, told his benefactors they should hear from 
him again. He sailed from Boston, and touching at 
St. Croix, published there an affecting account of the 
compassion and hospitality he had experienced from 
the people of Cohasset. When arrived in Denmark, 
he gave to the king such a representation of the peo- 
ple here, as induced his majesty to order the College 
of Commerce to send, in his majesty's name, four large 
medals of gold, and ten of silver, with the likeness of 
himself impressed on one side, and with Danish words 



oa the other, importing, Reward of Merit — Noble 

With the medals of gold came directions ; one for 
Rev. Josiah C. Shaw ; one for Elisha Doane, Esq. ; 
one for Capt. John Lewis ; and one for Capt. Levi 
Tower. The silver medals were designed for other 
citizens, who had been most active, in giving relief to 
the sufferers. Honourable notice was likewise taken 
by the Humane Society, of the commendable humanity, 
here manifested to strangers in distress, and a pecuni- 
ary donation was granted to the deserving agents. 
The Governor of the Island of St. Croix manifested, 
also, the high sense he entertained of the benevolence 
of the people here, by his extraordinary kindness, on 
that account, to a gentlemen from Boston. Mr. Dan- 
iel Hubbard, a respectable merchant of that town, was 
- taken dangerously sick, on his passage home, from 
abroad, and put into the harbour of St. Croix, with a 
view to obtain medical aid and other assistance, which 
his perilous condition required. At first he was re- 
fused admission, prohibited by the laws of the place, 
lest he should communicate his sickness. Rut as soon 
as it was made known to the Governor, that he was 
from Boston, he was removed on shore, and the best 
medical aid, and every assistance and courtesy granted 
him, till he was recovered ; for which, all compensation 
was refused, the Governor alleging, that he was war- 
ranted in his conduct, by the humanity and great kind- 
ness Capt. Clien and his crew had experienced, when 
shipwrecked at Cohasset, near Boston. 


The Village stands partly on the common, and part- 
ly below it. The street through it runs in a south- 
easterly direction to the end of the common, and then 
bends to the eastward, till it comes to the harbour. 
There are 44 houses in the village. Of these, 26 


have two stories ; one has three. Near the center is 
the meeting-house. A few rods from it is a two-sto- 
ry building, erected for an academy. It has a huge 
! front porch, two large school-rooms on the fust floor, 

with a spacious hall over them, extending the whole 
length of the building. 

Climate and Diseases. 


CohasseJ is in Lat. 42° 13' N. about 17 miles south 
bv east from Boston. Its situation is healthful. It 
has a salubrious atmosphere, excepting at times in 
March and April, when the northeast winds, corning 
direct from the sea, are very chilling, and trying to 
lungs, unaccustomed to them. Consumption is the 
most prevalent disease. No epidemic, proving very 
mortal, has for many years been experienced. — For 
deaths, see second division. 

Manufactures and Trade. 

A quantity of woollen and cotton cloths are manu- 
factured in almost every family ; and with utensils, 
needful in their several callings, the inhabitants are 
mostly furnished by their own mechanics. Vessels of 
good construction are built at the harbour. There are 
in the town two grist-mills and one saw-mill. At 
the mouth of the river is a flour-manufactorv, on a 
large scale, with complicated machinery, having four 
pair of imported stones ; one pair, however, are used 
as a grist-mill. There are in the town a number of 
extensive salt works, at which about 5500 bushels of 
salt are annually made. The trade of Cohasset is 
considerable. Beside the trading vessels alreadv men- 
tioned, there are five retail stores invested with con- 
siderable capitals. , 


Near the base of a large mass of solid rock, on 
Cooper's Island, so called, is a curious excavation, 


which has the name of the Indian Pot. Its cavity is 
as round, smooth, and regular as a well-formed seeth- 
ing pot ; and will hold about 12 pails full. On the 
same mass of rock, is another excavation, called the 
Indian Well. The inside of the well, from the bot- 
tom about four feet upward, is a circle, the rest of it, 
about six feet, more, is semi-circular, opening to the 
east. The pot and well were nearly in their present 
state when the town was first settled. The former, 
it is conjectured, was made by the Indians for the two- 
fold purpose of pounding their parched corn, and boil- 
ing their food. Heat was probably communicated to 
water in it, by heated stones, after the manner of the 
Islanders in the Pacific Ocean. The latter might 
serve as a reservoir ui fresh water, received from the 
clouds ; as there is no stream very near. In the 
ground near the well have been found axes and other 
tools, made and used by the natives, which prove the 
place to have been once the residence of many of that 


In 1797 a number of gentlemen united and erected 
a handsome building for an Academy. It had a pre- 
ceptor and was sufficiently supplied with scholars for 
a number of years ; but having no permanent funds, 
it is not now in a flourishing state. There are in the 
town, four district schools, taught in the winter by 
male instructers, and in the summer, by well educat- 
ed females. Beside these, there are, generally, pri- 
vate schools, in one or more of which are taught Eng- 
lish grammar, composition, geography, and the lan- 
guages. In the village is a social library, of about 
200 volumes of valuable books. 

Houses and Population. 

Cohasset contains 160 dwelling-houses. Those in 
the village, generally, and many in other parts of the 


town, have two stories. A considerable number are 
built after the best modern style, and are handsomely 
painted. Whittington's Hotel, now owned by Mr. 
John J. Lathrop, jun. is a large, roomy house, situated 
at Sandy Cove. Its situation commands some of the 
finest water prospects, and much of very pleasant ru- 
ral scenery. It has been, in the hot seasons, a favour- 
ite resort for gentlemen and ladies from the metropo- 
lis. In the town are 1100 inhabitants. 

Roads and Bridges. 

The town w 7 as originally laid out, as near as might 
be, in squares, whose sides should be one mile. It 
was divided into four parts, called divisions, by lines 
running nearly east and west, the whole length of the 
town, each division being a mile in width. These 
divisions were separated into parts or squares, by lines 
one mile from each other, running at right-angles with 
the lines of divisions. It was intended by the propri- 
etors of Conohasset, that roads, if possible, should run 
with the lines which marked the divisions and squares, 
and spaces of land for that purpose were accordingly 
left. But when the roads were really made, it was 
found necessary to vary much from the original design, 
owing to the immoveable rocks and other obstructions, 
falling in the way. The roads in every part of the 
town have, within a few years, been generally much 
improved. When the valuable new road, mostly made 
the last year, through the swamp and plain, shall be 
completed, the road will be good and pretty straight 
from Hingham to Cohasset harbour. To facilitate the 
communication with Scituate and the country below, 
two valuable bridges were, the last season, thrown 
over Conohasset river, one of stone at Lincoln's mill, 
and one of timber well constructed, near the flotir-fac- 


New-Englands Salamander, discovered by an irreligious 


cast up at London, &c. owned hy Major Iohn Childe, 

but not probable to be written ijv him. 

Or a satisfactory Answer to man// Aspersions cast upon New-Eng- 
land therein. Wherein our Government there is shared to bee 
legall and not arbitrary , being as i\eere the Law of England as 
our Condition will permit. 

Together with a bricfe Reply to what is written in Answer to ccr- 
taine Passages in a late Booke called Hypocrisie Unmasked. 


London, Printed by Ric. Cotes, for John Bellamy, and are to bee 

, 11 - * 1 :_ CJ1,.-.. „f il O- - r .1 .1 Vi i i -r • 

SQui tit ins OllOp u-t me Oigiie ui ulc tmcc Viuiucii JUIUIIS ill 

« Cornehill neare the Royali Exchange, 1047. 

To Major John Childe in Answer to his Preface. 


I am sorry for your owne sake, being a Gentleman 
reported to bee peaceable in your conversation, that 
you should bee thus engaged in other mens quarrells ; 
especially to father other mens falshoods and irreli- 
gious jeeres and scoffes, whose spirits if you were so 
Well acquainted with as my selfe and some others that 
came lately from New-England, as well as thousands 
in the Countrey, you would bee more wary then to 
engage as you doe. 

But first for answer to your Preface, and then I 
conceive 1 have answered every word of yours in your 
seeming Treatise : And yet I would not bee mista- 
ken that any should thinke 1 judge you unable to 
write such a pe€ce, for there is no solidity in it : but 
I am so well acquainted with this language and such 
proceedings before ever I saw your face, as no man is 
or ever was be Iter acquainted with the phrase or writ- 


iri^s of another, then I am with your chief animator to 
this undertaking, whom J call New-Englands Sala- 
mander, because of his constant and many yeeres ex- 
ercise, and delight in opposition to whatsoever hath 
been judged most wholesome and safe for the weale- 
publick of the country (from whence hee last came) 
either in Politicks or Eeclesiasticks, being ever will- 
ing to enjoy the common benefits of peace by govern- 
ment (which maintaines every man in his proper right) 
but never willing to beare any part of the charge m 
supporting the same, as appeared by his constant cav- 
illing thereat when ever any rates came upon the 
country though never so easie and just. 

But to come to the occasion of your printing the 
following relation, which you say " are the sufferings 
that not onely my brother Robert Child Doctor of 
Physick, with some Gentlemen and others have suff- 
ered in their persons and estates by fines and impris- 
onment in New-England, and false reports and feigned 
miracles here," &:c. For answer, that your brother 
was in prison, and for what I certified you at my iirst 
comming over ; though to you grievous in regard of 
naturall affection, (which I honour where I finde in 
any :) Then also being occasioned thereunto I freely 
imparted to you the countries colorable grounds of 
suspecting his agency for the great incendiaries of 
Europe, besides the matter of fact for which hee was 
committed, yea that the very yeare hee came over, a 
gentleman in the country (Mr. Peters by name) was 
advised by letters from a forraign part that the Jesuits 
had an agent that sommer in New-England. And 
that the countrey comparing his practise with the 
intelligence were more jealous of him then any ; 
(though to mee he was a meere stranger) and there- 
fore I marvell that Major Chilctc should give me occa- 
sion, and force mee to publish these things which I 
neither affect nor intended : but I shall forbears in 
that kind because I would not provoke. 


As for " their estates being weakned by fines," that 
is jet to prove : for though they were fined, yet the 
fines were not levied, nay so gentle was the censure 
of the Court, that upon the publike acknowledgement 
of the offence the fine was to bee remitted to all or 
any one of them so doing. " And for false reports and 
feigned miracles fomented here to colour their unjust 
proceedings," as you terme it ; I answer, your book is 
the first reporter, of many things I here meet with, 
especially as you lay them downe, as shall appeare 
more particularly. 

In the next place you say, " they give out that my 
brother and others desire a toleration of nil religions : " 
This is the first time that ever I heard it so reported 
of them. 

Secondly, whereas you say " they are accused to bee 
against all government both in Church and Common 
weale : " This I know to bee false * for I heard them 
demand in Court the Presbyterian government, and it 
was granted them. Besides, before this demand in 
Court, at a private conference with an eminent person 
(who well hoped to have satisfied them) hee demand- 
ed of the petitioners what Church government it was 
they would have ? One of them answered, he desired 
that particular government which Mr. John Goodwin 
in Colemanstreet was exercised in. Another of them 
said, hee knew not what that was : but hee for his 
part desired the Presbyterian government. A third 
of them said hee desired the Episcopall government if 
it might bee, if not, the Presbyterian : And a fourth 
told mee himselfe that hee disclaimed any thing in the 
petition that was against the government of the 
Churches in New-England, &c. resting and liking 
what was there done in that kind. Now the former 
three passages (and not without the latter) were all 
told mee by grave persons in New-England, such as I 
beleeve. And therefore if any so accuse them I must 
needs cleare them : but with all testific I never met 


with this accusation against them before J read it in 
your booke. 

Thirdly, for their "petitioning the Parliament; 5 ' 
take notice Wee hold that no subject ought to bee re- 
strained this libertie, and therefore count it no offence 
nor ever did. and therefore they were not. committed 
for that. 

A fourth false report you terme, is, " Their Petition 
brought from thence to bee presented to the Parlia- 
ment (which they had named Jonas) in a ship called 
the Supply : being in a storme neere Silly, out of hor- 
rour of conscience the petition was torne and throwne 
over board : and that then the stornie immediately 
ceased, and they miraculously saved." To this f an- 
swer, I was not in the ship (I praise God) and there- 
fore what I say in it must bee from others whom I 
judge truely godly, and of the most grave and solid 
persons amongst them ; and, Sir. let mee tell you, 
and the world in answer to you, I have heard the pas- 
sage from divers, but nexev as you print it ; and doe 
thinke verily your informers belie themselves that they 
may have somewhat to cavil! at. But though I had 
not thcoght to have entred upon a large answer to 
any particular : yet it being one of the heads of your 
Treatise, I shall bee larger in answering that then, any 
other thins;; partly to vindicate Mr. Cotton, who is 
much abused in your booke : and partly from their 
owne pen to shew the prophane carriage of their partie 
in the ship by their fearefull provoking the Almightie 
to follow tfyem with his terrours throughout the voyage 
from New-England to Silley, where they had a great 
deliverance, and yet neverthelesse to shew how they 
goe on still to abuse Gods mercy, patience, and. long 
suffering by this prophane title and story colored by 
your selfe. And thus much for answer to your 
Preface. As for the foure heads of your book and the 
Postscript, I shall answer them as they arise. 



An Answer to the imperfect Relation of the Hingam Case. 

Were 1 not so well acquainted with our Ncw-Eng- 
land-Salamanders waves, and what a puther hee made 
in the Countrey about this businesse, 1 should stand 
amazed at the malice of men to see this brought 
against the government. To answer either this case 
or the next at length would ask so much paines, and 
bee so great a bulke, as their booke being but a two 
penny jeering Gigge, penned rather to please the fan- 
cy of common understandings, then to satisfie any solid 
judgements; would goe much further then ever the 
answer would bee like to follow, that so he might be- 
mirp lis with a wituesse. And if he can cause any 
reproach to lie upon us (whether just or unjust, that 
matters not) then hath hee hit the marke hee shoots 
at. And therefore to avoyd the many particulars 
would fail in a distinct answer by giving an account 
of the whole businesse, I shall desire the Reader to 
accept this general!. 

The inhabitants of Hingam were knowne to bee a 
peaceable and industrious people, and so continued for 
many veers ; the Lord supporting them in the midst 
of many straights in their first bepinnin^s. crowning 
their iudeavours with his blessing, and raising them 
up to a comfortable and prosperous outward condition 
of life, and such is their state through Gods mercy 
and goodnesse this day, living very plentifully. But 
Satan envying their happinesse (the Lord permitting 
as it seems) on a suddaine cast a bone of division 
amongst them, which tooke mightily, to the great 
griefe and admiration of their neighbours on every 
side ; which controversie indeed arose about the 
choyce of their Captaiue as is related. But our Sala- 
mander living too neere them, and being too well ac- 
quainted with them, blew up this to such an height by 
his eontimiall counsel! and advise which the major 
part of the Tow lie followed to their owne smart, and 


the great griefe and trouble of Church and Common- 
weale, as they not onely filled their Court with com- 
plaints against each other, and wearied out the ehiefe 
Magistrates in place, but complained openly against 
one of them, viz. the Deputie Governour, who upon 
hearing the Case thought good to bind some of them 
over to the Court. : some submitted and gave bond, 
others refused, and were sent to prison, &c. This 
Gentleman, as on all other occasions so in this particu- 
lar much honored himselfe, by leaving his place upon 
the Bench and going to the Bar, and would not bee 
perswaded to cover his head or take his place till the 
case was heard and ended, winch continued many 
dayes, partly by reason of the great liberty the Court 
gave the Plaintiffes in regard it reflected *tpon one of 
themselves, (and I thinke the first case that ever be- 
fell in that kind :) but more especially because our 
Salamander was got to Boston, where though hee 
would not openly shew himselfe, yet kept close in a 
private roome where they had recourse "unto him many 
dayes, yea many times a day for advice, and followed 
it to the utmost, to the great charge of the Countrey 
(which came to much more, as I have heard, then the 
hundred pounds fine which was laid upon them) in 
providing the diet of their Court. 

But the Court finding for the Defendant after much 
trouble in many dayes agitation fined the Plaintiffes 
in an hundred pound, and laid it upon sundry of them 
in particular amercements according to their several! 
demeanours in the action, and left the Deputie Gov- 
ernour to take his course with them, who onely rested 
in the vindication of his name ; which the Countrey 
so farre cleared, as not long after, their election day 
falling by course, they chose him their Governour. a 
place not strange to him, in which wee left him, having 
more often borne it then all others in that govern- 
ment. And for the differences which befell them in 
their Church ; whether the Court or the Churches 1 


know not, but the one entreated divers of the Elders 
to goe unto them, who through Gods mercy and bless- 
ing upon their endeavours prevented a division amongst 
them, though they could not at first settle things so 
well as they desired. And thus much for answer to 
the Hingam case which may bee sufficient to.satisfie 
any judicious Reader : and for those whose hearts arc 
fraught with malice, the Lord onely can convict such, 
to whom I leave them. 

An Answer to the second head, namely the Petition of Doctor 
Robert Childc, fyc. 

This Remonstance and Petition of theirs which 
hath made so great a sound in other placer as well as 
here, notwithstanding their golden pretences of respect 
and reformation, was no sooner delivered, but before 
they could possibly exspect an answer from the Court 
(notwithstanding the largenesse of it) copies were 
dispersed into the hands of some knowne ill affected 
people in the several! governments adjoyning, as Plym- 
oth, Conectacut, New Haven, kc. who gloried not a 
little in it ; nay the petitioners spared no paines, for 
before our comming away wee heard from the Dutch 
Plantation, Virginia and Bermudas, that they had them 
here also, with such expressions in their letters as 
the present Governour of Burmudas was bold to afrirme 
to a Gentleman from whom I had it, w r ho was then 
bound for New-England to get passage for England, 
that hee was confident hee should fmde New-England 
altogether by the eares as well as England ; which 
hee well knew by a petition and remonstrance which 
hee had received from thence, &c. Now had a peace- 
able Reformation beene the marke they aymed at, 
they would not have gone about thus to make the 
government so much despised farre and neare, by cast- 
ing such contempt upon them as they have endeavoured 
before ever they knew what, acceptation their reckon- 


strance and petition would fmdo ; which was taken 
into consideration till the next general 1 Court, where 
they were answered at large, charged with manifold 
falsehoods and contempts and fjned for the same, after 
a solemne hearing of the cause. 

But however I shall forbeare to give a particular 
answer in print to the said Remonstrance, not because 
I cannot, for I have the whole case, the Courts de- 
fence against it, &c. which would bee larger then 
both these bookes, being as I said before too lar^e 
in regard of the price of the buyer ; and therefore 
shall give such a generall answ*er as may satisfie the 
indifferent and equal! minded reader, and thereby de- 
ceive also our Salamanders expectation to draw out 
from mee the whole which befell sii^ce his comnung 
aw 7 ay, that so he might fmde more fewell to baske 
himselfe in, and satiate his contentious humors to the 

But for answer, good reader, take notice as well of 
the quality of these Petitioners as of their demeanour 
before expressed, and then thou shalt fmde divers of 
them to bee inconsiderable in regard of proprietie with 
us ; who might bee justly suspected to draw in the 
rest who are much bewailed by many of us : and in 
so doing it's possible thou may est as well bee jealous 
of their good intents as those in the countrey : For 
three of them, namely Doctor Childe, John Smith and 
John Dand, they are persons that have no proprietie 
or know'ne proper estate in the government where 
they are so busie to disturbe and distract : and for Mr. 
Thomas Fowle (who whether drawne in or no I know 
not) hee joyned with them in this Petition and Re- 
monstrance at such a time when hee was resolved to 
leave the countrey, and since hath done, and sent for 
his wife and family, as 1 heare. As for Doctor Childe 
hee is a gentleman that hath travelled other parts 
before hee came to us, namely Italy; confessed! hee 
was twice at Rome, speaketfa sometimes highly as 1 


have heard reported in favour of the Jesuites, and 
however he tooke the degree of Doctor in Physick at 
Padua, jet doth not at all practise, though hee hath 
beene twice in the countrey where many times is 
need enough. At his first camming to New-England 
he brought letters commendatory, found good accepta- 
tion by reason thereof with the best ; fals upon a dilli- 
gent survey of the whole countrey, and painefully 
travells on foot from plantation to plantation ; takes 
notice of the havens, situation, strength, churches, 
townes, number of inhabitants, and when he had fin- 
ished this toylesome taske, relumes againe for Eng- 
land, being able to give a better account then any of 
the countrey in that respect. Hee comes a second 
time, and not onely bestoweth some boerkes on the 
Colledge, as Sir Kenelme Digby and many others 
commendably did, but brings second letters commen- 
datory, having put in some stock among some mer- 
chants of London, and for the advancement of iron 
workes in the countrey, which through Gods good- 
liesse are like to become very profitable to them ; but 
hath no more to doe in the managing of them then 
any here who have other their Agents being expert in 
the worke. This gentlemans carriage is now chang- 
ed, and is not onely ready to close with such as 
are discontented, but to bee a leader of such against 
the government, affront the authoritie God hath hith- 
erto honored with his blessing, appeale from their 
justice, and thereby seeke to evade any censure : and 
if he might be thus suffered, why not others? and 
then wee must all give over ; for if we have not the 
power of government, and cannot administer justice 
seasonably on all occasions, well we may come back 
againe and take some other course, but we cannot 
there subsist. 

A second of these is Mr. John Smith, who form- 
erly lived about two or three yeeres in Boston, but 
before this remonstrance, himselfe and wife were 


removed to Road Hand, but never had any personall 
inheritance in the countrey, and was now at the 
Massachusets but as a stranger. 

A third is one Mr. John Dand, who hath lived in 
Boston as a sojourner since these warres in another 
mans house at board-hire, whose businesse and occa- 
sions there are unknowne unto us ; and whose car- 
riage till this present was seemingly faire, but all on a 
suddaine though no further interessed in the countrey 
he thus engageth himselfe against the authority of 
the place. Thus taking Mr. Fowle with them who 
was upon departure from the countrey as afore, you 
may sec the persons to bee such as have no conside- 
rable interest amongst us, at least foure in seaven * 
And all this being truA I have related, I suppose by 
this time the Reader may conceive, or at least suspect 
their faire pretences and great glisterings are not pure 

But besides all this take notice good reader, that 
our Salamander wintred many moneths amongst them, 
very gracious and frequent in their companies, and no 
doubt a great helpe in furthering their designe in their 
Remonstrance, which brake forth not long after his 
returne home the spring following : and indeed his 
company had beene enough alone to have produced 
such an effect ; and therefore for my part so well 
knowing the man I cannot wonder at it as many doe, 
assuring my selfe hee better knowes how to ripen 
such fruit then all the Costermongers in London. 

And now let mee goe to the title of the booke 
which hath its relation to the Petition aforesaid ; and 
after their Cigge called " New-Engiands Jonas cast up 
at London," they would make the world beleeve that 
" divers honest and godly persons are imprisoned in 
New-England for petitioning for government in the 
Common-weale. according to the lawes of England, and 
either for desiring admittance of themselves and child- 
ren to the Sacraments in our Churches, or else for 


leave to have Ministers and Church government ac- 
cording to the hest reformation of England and Scot- 
land." Now these charges are most notorious false, 
and so knowne, for I came not alone from New-Eng- 
land, but accompanied with an hundred persons at least, 
which I believe can testifie in the case. And there- 
fore Major CJiilde take notice how you are abused by 
them to father such devilish and slanderous reports as 

For the first. There were none committed for peti- 
tioning, but for their Remonstrance and the many false 
charges and seditious insinuations tending to faction 
and insurrections sleigliting the government, &c- And 
lest any should thinke (as I heare some doe) that ^ 
Court of the Massacrttisets hath dealt rigorously with 
them, and that the Petition is very faire and orderly, 
&x. let the reader know that such thoughts must eith- 
er proceed from great weaknesse in not understanding 
or discerning the many grosse charges in it, or else 
from partialitie or evill affection to the government 
which they neither love nor know ; for in their He- 
monstrance they not only defame the government, but 
controule the wisedome of the State of England in the 
frame of their charter which is under the broad scale 
of the kingdome by charging the government " to bee 
an ill compacted vessell." Secondly, they charge all 
the afflictions that have befallen the personall inhabi- 
tants either by sicknesses on the land, or losses at sea 
" upon the evill of the government." Thirdly, they goe 
about to perswade the people, that all the priviledges 
granted and confirmed, under the broad scale to the 
Governour and Company of the Massachusets belong 
to all freeborne English men ; which contrariwise be- 
long onely to the said Governour and Company, and 
such as they shall thinke meet to receive. Fourthly, 
they closely insinuate into the niindes of the people 
(as the jealousies of others) that these now in authori- 
se doe intend to exercise unwarranted dominion, and 


an arbitrary government abominable to Parliament, 
fce. foretelling them of intolerable bondage, which is 
enough alone to stirre up a people to commotion. Fiftly, 
how doe they goo about to weaken the authoritie of 
the lawes of the place, the peoples reverence of and 
obedience to them in this their Remonstrance, by pcr- 
swading the people that partly through want of the 
body of the English lawes, and partly that through 
the insufficiency and ill frame of those they hare, i; they 
can expect no sure enjoyment of their lives and liber- 
ties under them : " when as the state well knew the 
English body of lawes was too heavy for us, and 
therefore as libertie is granted in our patents to make 
our owne lawes, so it is with this proviso, that they 

Y~\ o r* oo *ionvr> f" V\ o lo* Tr '^p f\T * J r* T I #■> ••-» /-* *-».-» «->-* r* ■*•»• I-* *~\ *^ * -. • I . . , . U 
ui.^ cio hvjCIU Lilty luir uo v>t xju^iuuu do uju t »-<v-^, rViJlV/U 

wee understand as neei^e as our condition will permit, 
which I shall speake more of elsewhere. Sixtly, 
they falsly charge the government with denying liber- 
tie of votes where they allow them, as in choyce of 
military officers, which is common to the non-freemen 
with such as are free. Seventhly, their speeches in 
their Remonstrance are charged to tend to sedition by 
insinuating into the peoples minds, " That there are 
many thousands secretly discontented at the govern- 
ment, " &c. whereby those that are so may bee em- 
boldened to discover themselves, and know to whom 
to repaire ; and what greater meanes can bee used to 
unsetle a setled people, and to kindle a flame in a 
peaceable Common-weale, if the Lord prevent not, and 
authoritie should suffer such things to passe uncen- 
sured ? Eighthly, they slander the discipline of the 
Churches in the countrey, and the civ ill government 
also, by inferring that the frame and dispensations 
thereof are such, as :{ godly, sober, peaceable men can- 
not there live like Christians ; " which they seenie to 
conclude from hence, that "they desire libertie to re- 
move fromthence where they may live like Christians : " 
when as indeed our arnies are open to receive such 



both into Church and Common-weal, blessing Cod for 
their societie. Ninthly, they doe in effect charge the 
government with " tyranny in impressing their persons 
to the warres, committing them to prison, fining, ra- 
ting them, &x. and all unjustly and illegally," whereas 
no warre is undertaken, nor any presse goes forth, but 
according to law established ; but the thing they 
would have is that any English man may nolens volcns, 
take his habitation in any government, bee as free as 
the best, &c. thus breaking all order, charters, and 
peace of societies : for if he be English borne (by 
their principles) no government may refuse him be he 
never so pestilent, whether Jesuite or worse. Tenth- 
ly, they lay a false charge upon the Churches in af- 
firming "that Christian vigilancy is no way exercised 
towards such as are not in Church fellowship : " where- 
as they cannot but know the contrary. For however 
wee have nothing to cloe to bring them to the Church, 
and cannot cast out those that were never within, yet 
privately wee perfofme the dutie of Christians towards 
them, either in holding private communion with such 
as are godly, or reproving and exhorting the rest also 
as occasion and opportunity offereth. Eleventhly, 
that this dirt might stick fast, and men might more ea- 
sily receive these injurious charges against the govern- 
ment ; in the conclusion they proclaime, " That our 
brethren in England (meaning the Independents) doe 
flee from us as from a pest." When as for my part I 
beleeve that if our brethren were with us they would 
close with our practise, or at least wee should bee 
dealt more brotherly withall, and then wee should not 
only hearken to what counsel should be of God, from 
them or any other in Gods way but bee willing to re- 
forme any thing that is amisse either in Church or 
Common-weale. Twelfthly, that it may appeare 
these injurious charges are their owne apprehensions, 
and pretenses rather then jealousies of any others, they 
have publiquely declared their disaffection to the gov- 


ernment, in that being called to the court to render 
account of their mis-apprehensions, and evil! expres- 
sions in the premises, they refused to answer: but by 
appealing from the government they disclaimed the 
jurisdiction thereof, (what in them lay,) before they 
knew whether the court would give any sentence 
against them or not : when as indeed their charter 
injoyneth nor requireth any appeale, but have the pow- 
er of absolute government by^vertue thereof: but 
these seven petitioners, whereof three are fneere stran- 
gers and have no proprietie within the government 
(and a fourth then to depart and now departed from 
it) will not beare it as the rest. And for my part if 
these foure that were inhabitants were not drawne in 
b) the three strangers iu make up the number of sev- 
en to trouble the Commonweale, I should wonder 
(well knowing their abilities oiherwayes, especially of 
some of them) there being no want of fit persons if 
many thousands discontented as they say to put them 
upon such a straight ; but I looke upon this speech of 
theirs as tending rather to incite discontented persons 
to repaire unto them, then having any realitie in it. 
And for the matter of appeale from New-England hith- 
er, which is three thousand miles distant, it will bee 
found to bee destructive to them that there live : for 
no count rey can subsist without government, or re- 
paire so farre to it ; nor will any wise man accept a 
place in government where hee shall bee exposed to 
goe so farre to give account of his actions, though 
they bee never so just: But the best is, the parlia- 
ment is knowne (and it is their duty) to seeke the 
good of the subjects by all due meanes : and I doubt 
not ( if ever tendred to them) but they will soon dis- 
cover the mischiefe intended by our adversaries, or at 
least like to ensue (if they prevaile) by overthrowing 
those hopeful beginnings of New-England in straight- 
ning our priviledges at such a time, when Englands 
are restored ; but wee hope to share with them rather 


by enlargement, being wee went out in those evill 
times when the bishops were so potent being persecut- 
ed by them, and in that wee suffered since with the par- 
liament in adhering to them to the losse of ships, and 
goods, &c. But 1 shall rest on God in- what is said, 
hoping the reader will be satisfied in point of our inno- 
cency in regard of the evil-Is charged onus ; and there- 
fore to proceed. 

In the next place whereas they complaine of im- 
prisonment, one of them being to goe to sea just when 
things were to bee heard, was required to give bond to 
stand to the award of the court, leaving six partners 
behind him to pleade his cause ; also Mr. Smith being 
a dweller in another government and not there, being 
present at that same time was required to doe the 
like ; which order they withstood for an houre or there- 
abouts, and were that time under the marshalls custo- 
dy, but no sooner advised they with our Salamander their 
Counsell, but hee advised them to give security, which 
thev accordingly did, and so were dismissed ; now 
this I suppose was because hee was to goe to sea with 
them immediately, which they accordingly did. 

Secondly, take notice that before Doctor Childe, 
&c. were committed, the businesse of the Remonstrance 
was ended, and they censured by fine, every one 
according to his particular offence, and carriage in 
managing the whole, and it is not our manner to 
punish twice for one offence. 

Thirdly, take notice that the government they 
charge was proved in open court to bee according to 
the law of England, and therefore not committed for 
petitioning for that they had. 

Fourthly, let the reader know that the presbyterian 
government was as freely tendered them by the Gov- 
ernour in the open court without any contradiction of 
any the Assistants or other, as ever 1 heard any thing 
in my life, though it appeareth that our Salamander is 
not a little troubled at it, as I shall have occasion to 


touch in my answer to the Postscript, which I verily 
beleeve hee penned every word. 

Lastly, let the reader take notice that Doctor Rob- 
ert Childe, Mr. John Smith, and Mr. John Dand, were 
committed for certaine papers upon close search of 
Dands closet, there found the night before the ship 
came away, which were far more factious and seditious 
then the former. Doctor Childe bieing committed 
because one of the coppies was under his knowne 
hand, another coppy under Mr. Dands hand, and both 
in his custody ; Mr. Smith in that hee not onely offer- 
ed to rescue the papers from the officers that were 
sent to make search : but when hee saw that hee 
could not rescue them, brake out into high speeches 
against the government : and amongst other things 
said, hee hoped ere long to doe as much to the Gov- 
ernors closet, and doe as much to him as hee did for 
them, &c. or to the like purpose. And now Major 
Childe, let the world and you take notice together 
wherefore your brother and those honest and godly per- 
sons you pretend to speak of were committed. Nor 
doe I beleeve that any people under the heavens that 
kuow what belongs to government and have the pow- 
er of it, would doe lesse then the magistrates there 
did. But what the event will bee God onely knowes ; 
but this I know, they are in the hands of merciful] 
men, however they have been abused, or may by our 
Salamander (whose reports I often meet with) or by 
any other whatsoever. 

And for answer to their relation of the effects this 
petition produced, much of it is false and answered 
before, the rest not worthy the answering ; as con- 
cerning the elders, their long sermons to provoke the 
magistrates against them &c. no wise man will be- 
leeve as they relate. And thus much for answer to 
the second part of their booke concerning the Petition 
and Remonstrance. 


A briefe Answer to the third Head of their Booke, concerning 
the Cajntall Laivcs of the Massachusets ^-c. 

Here I finde the capitall lawes of the Massachu- 
sets reprinted, and the oath they administer to their 
freemen, which I suppose they arc sorry they can 
finde no more fault with : And all these capitalls 
rehearsed to shew the danger Doctor Childe is under 
by vertue of the last, which followeth in these words. 

" If any man shall conspire or attempt any invasion, 
insurrection or publique rebellion against our Common- 
wealth, or shall indeavour to surprise any towne or 
townes, fort or forts therein, or shall treacherously 

«-v .— A .^-MiCrl-in'K'llf r\ ■*■ *■ r* >>". *-\f f K -> < » I i- /-» t>'» + i .-> . » »»»-»<-? CI*K»/1V01/\1 
flUU UClllUUUUSiy UllV/llllH tlHy UltCiUHuU tiUCi DUUll/lOIUlI 

of our frame of policy or government fundamentally, 
hee shall be put to death, Numb. 1G, 2 Sam. 3. and 18. 
and 20." 

Now if together with this they had manifested a 
liberty the court gives to any notwithstanding this 
law, fairely and freely to shew their grievance at any 
thing they conceive amisse, and needeth either altera- 
tion or repeale, then they had dealt fairly indeed : but 
because they leave it out, I take it my dutie to put it 
in. I know our Salamander is not without some ex- 
ception at any thing wee can doe : but because I 
finde none more then as before, I shall passe to the 
next head of their booke. 

An Answer to their Relation concerning the throwing the Pe- 
tition overboard as a Jonas as they ierme it. 

I acknowledge that Mr. Cotton taught from that 
text they mention in 2 Cant. 15. " Take us the foxes 
the little foxes which destroy the vines," Sec. and let 
the reader understand that this text fell in his ordinary 
course of lecture in going through that book, and not 
taken on purpose on that particular occasion. The 


points hee delivered from hence as I remember were 
these two. The first was, " When God had delivered 
his Church from the danger of the beare, and the Ijon, 
then the foxes the little foxes sought by craft and policy 
to undermine the same." The second was this, 
" That all those that goe about by fox-like era ft and 
policy to undermine the state of the churches of Jesus 
Christ, they shall all be taken every one of them." 
The text as I take it hee shewed belonged to that 
time of the Church when they returned from Babylon, 
and were building the temple ; and proved the first 
point of doctrine, from that of Tobias and Sanballat 
that would have built with the Jewes ; the second was 
amplified by the history of Haman in the booke of 
Hester : and so brought many other examples, arid 
amongst others the story of the bishops in the dayes of 
Hen. the eighth, Edward the sixt, Queen Elizabeth, 
and to the beginning of these warres, who under a 
colour of building and beins; master builders in the 
Lords house laid heavie burthens upon the saints, 
corrupted the worship of God and lorded it over his 
heritage, and when they were come to the top of their 
pride the Lord Jesus could endure them no longer, but 
they were taken even every one of them in the same 
snare they had set for others. But 1 forbeare the am- 
plifying of it, and hasten to the application so farre as 
it concerneth this scornefull story by them penned of 
their feigned miracle, as thev call it. 

His use of exhortation was twofold. First, to such 
as lived in the countrey, to take heed how they went 
about any indirect way or course which might tend 
to the prejudice of the Churches of Jesus Christ in the 
same, or the governments of the land, which through 
Gods mercy was not onely in the hands of such as 
truely feared the Lord, but according to his revealed 
will so far as we can judge. And therefore if any 
(though never so secretly or subtilly) should goe 
about any such thing, the watchman of Israel that 


slumbereth not nor sleepeth will not take it well at 
their hands : For He that hath brought his people 
hither, and preserved them from the rage of persecu- 
tion, made it a hiding place for them whilst hce was 
chastising our owne nation amongst other the nations 
round about it, manifested his gratious presence, so 
apparently walking amongst his Churches, and pre- 
serving and prospering our civill state from forraigne 
plots of the late archbishop and his confederates, and 
the domestick of the heathen where wee live ; there 
was no question to bee made but Kee would preserve 
it from the underminings of false brethren, and such as 
joyned with them : And therefore, saitli hce, let such 
know in the foregoing respects it is the land of Em- 
manuel, a lanu that is pieuuua iii the eyes of the Lord, 
they shall not prosper that rise against it, but shall bee 
taken every one of them in the snares they lay for it. 
And this, said hee, I speake as a poore prophet of the 
Lord according to the word of his grace in my text, 
which however in the proper sense of the Holy Ghost, 
belonged to that age of the Church mentioned in the 
booke of Nehemiah, yet it is written for our example 
and instruction : for God is the same yesterday, to 
day, and for ever ; no lesse carefull, no lesse able, and 
no lesse willing to save and deliver his people by in- 
gaging himself in their case : and who can stand be- 
fore him ? 

In the second place, saith he, whereas divers our 
brethren are to goe for England, and many others to 
follow after in another vessell, let mee direct a word 
of exhortation to them also ; I desire the gratious 
presence of our God may goe with them, and his 
good Angels guard them not onely from the dangers 
of the seas this winter season, but keepe them from 
the errours of the times when they shall arrive, and 
prosper them in their lawful] designes, &c. But if 
there bee any amongst you my brethren, as 'tis report- 
ed there are, that have a petition to prefer to the 


high Court of Parliament (which the Lord in mercy 
goe on blessing to blesse as hee hath btfgun) that may 
conduce to the distraction, annoyance and disturbance 
of the peace of our Churches and weakning the gov- 
ernment of the land where wee live, let such know, 
the Lord will never suffer them to prosper in their 
subtill, malicious and desperate undertakings against 
his people, who are as tender unto him as the apple of 
his eye. But if there be any such amongst you that 
are to goe, 1 doe exhort and would advise such in the 
feare of God when the terrors of the Almightie shall 
beset the vessel! wherein they are, the heavens shall 
frowne upon them, the ' ' of the sea shall swell 
above them, and clangers shall threaten them, (as I 
perswade my selfe they will) 1 would have them then 
to consider these things: for the time of adversitie is 
a time for Gods people to consider their waves. I 
will not give the counsell was taken concerning Jonah, 
to take such a person and cast him into the sea ; God 
forbid : but I would advise such to come to a resolu- 
tion in themselves to desist from such enterprises, nev- 
er further to ingage in them, and to cast such a petition 
into the sea that may occasion so much trouble and 
disturbance. But it may be hardnesse of heart and 
stoutnesse of spirit may cause such a person or persons 
with stifle necks to persist, and yet in mercy with re- 
spect to some pretious ones amongst you, (as I per- 
swade my selfe there are many such goe in each ves- 
sell) the Lord may deliver the vessel! from many ap- 
parent troubles and dangers for their sakes ; but let 
such know, the Lord hath land judgments in store for 
such, for they are not now free (hee being the God ol 
the land as well as of the sea :) and if you turne to 
Numb, xiv. 36, 37, you shall there see how hee threat- 
ned to destroy such as brought a false report upon his 
laud with the plague : and truely (sou hath still plagues 
in store for such as bring a false report upon his Church 
and people ; nay said hee, I heare the Lord hath a 



destroying angell with the sword of pestilence in that 
kingdome, striking here and there, as seemeth good 
unto him, (though not vehemently, blessed bee his 
name) and who knowes what the Lord will doe ? 
and therefore I advise such in the feare of God, and I 
speak it as an unworthy Prophet of his according to 
that portion of his word 1 now speake from, to lay 
these things to heart, for it is the Lord Jesus hath said, 
"Take us the foxes, the little foxes, &c." or " let 
them bee taken." And beleeve it for a truth, all those 
that goe about by foxlike craft and suhtiltie to under- 
mine the Churches of Christ Jesus, they shall ail bee 
taken, even in the very snare and ginne they set for 

And thus much for what Mr. Cotton delivered on 
this Thursdayes lecture in Boston, Npvemb. 5, 1646, 
which 1 have shewed to many eminent persons now in 
England who were present at this lecture, and judge 
it not onely to bee the summe of his exhortation but 
his very expressions, and are ready to testifie it on all 
occasions against all opposers, as Mr. Thomas Peters 
and Mr. William Golding ministers ; Harbert Pelham 
Esquire, Captaine William Sayles, Captaine Leveret, 
Captaine Harding, Mr. Richard Sadler, &c. And 
take notice withal! good reader, that I never heard 
the good man deliver any thing with more earnestnesse 
and strength of affection then these things thus sleight- 
ed by our adversaries as thou seest. 

And for the second part of their story, viz. their 
passage, and the passages of Gods providence befell 
them in it ; take notice good reader, that however our 
Salamander turned things into a jest as soone as they 
were delivered, asking whether bee were a great fox 
or a little one; yet many others that were ingaged to 
goe but in the ship, their hearts trembled that they 
were to goe in such company. And Mr. Thomas 
Peters a minister that was driven out of Corner all by 
Sir Ralph liopton in these late wanes, and fled to 


New-England for shelter, being called bark by his 
people, and now in London, upon sight of what I have 
written save mee leave before manv, to adde this: 
that upon Mr; Cottons exhortation, having shipped his 
goods and bedding to have gone in the ship with them, 
amongst other arguments this was the maine, that hee 
feared to goe in their company that had such designes, 
and therefore tooke passage to goe rather by way of 
Spaine, &c. And to speake the truth, as the ship 
rode out many feareful stresses in the harbour after 
they were ready, before they could goe to saile, the 
wind being faire but overblowing-: so after they came 
to sea had the terriblest passage that ever I heard on 
for extremitie of weather, the mariners not able to take 
an observation of sunne or star in seven hundred 
leagues savling or thereabouts. And when they were 
all wearied out and tired in their spirits, eertaine well- 
disposed Christians called to mind the things delivered 
by Mr. Cotton before mentioned, and seeing the tem- 
pest still to continue, thought meet to acquaint such 
as were conceived to be meant by Mr. Cotton, and 
that had a purpose to persist in such courses, that they 
thought God called them now to consider of the things 
delivered by him ; and hereupon a godly and discreet 
woman after midnight went to the great cabbin and 
addressed her speech in sobrietie and much modesty 
to them, whereupon one of the two answered in these 
words, or to this purpose ; Sister I shall bee loath to 
grieve you or any other of Gods people with any thing 
I shall doe, and immediately went to his chest or 
trunke, and tooke out a paper and gave it her, and 
referred it to the discretion of others to doe withal 1 as 
they should see good : which the woman not in a dis- 
tracted passion (as they reported) shewed to Mr. 
Richard Sadler and others, who although they knew" 
it was not the right Petition but that they were de- 
luded, yet because they judged it also to bee very bad, 
having often seene it in New-England, but never liked 


the same, cut it in peeces as they thought it deserved, 

and gave the said peeces to a seaman who cast them 
into the sea. The storme for the present continued 
that night, say some, others say, some abatement of 
winde befell presently after, but all conclude tK abated 
the next day: but that they had divers stormes after- 
ward being then 2U0 leagues short of the lands end, 
is most certaine : And in one of these hideous 
stormes, having no saile abroad, the ship lying adrift 
with the helme bound up, the master conceiving hee 
was to the southward of Silley layed the ship to the nor- 
ward the night being very darke. In the last watch 
of the night one of the quarter masters going to the 
pumpe discerned rocks ahead within a cables length, 
and made such an outcry as the whole ship was awak- 
ened, and nothing but death presented them : there 
was much hast made to let loose the helme, and to come 
to saile ; but before it could bee done the ship was. en- 
gaged amongst the rocks of Silley* and nothing could 
bee discerned under water, but by the breaking of the 
waves, which was their best direction to cunne the 
ship: In this labyrinth the ship travelled for a quarter 
of an hower or more, in which time it was generally 
observed the ship readily obeyed her helme, (or rather 
the great Pilate of the seas) upon the word given, 
which at other times shee was slow in. At length 
the ship drove in and came a ground between two 
Hands, and could not be got off being ebbing water ; 
and it was the special! providence of God to place her 
there in much mercy and compassion on his poore 
afflicted ones, the vessell being full of passengers ; for 
on both sides and on head were desperate rocks, which 
were not discovered till the morning light, the siiip all 
this while lying last upon a bed of sand or owse ; when 
it was day the dangers which they had escaped in the 
night to their admiration presented themselves, nor 
durst the master worke the ship till hee had gotten a 
pi late from the shore, who undertook to bring her to 
an anchor neere Crowes Sound. 


The deliverance was so strange as the inhabitants 
of Silly were amased at it, some saying it was a mira- 
cle, another that God was a good man that should 
thus deliver them ; indeed all the Hand wondred, 
and the passengers themselves most of all when they 
saw the breaches at low water so farre off at sea neere 
which they passed before they knew the danger, and 
the rocks they sailed by after they found themselves 
involved as it were between Scylla and Carybdis. 
Much more might bee added to account the mercy, ' 
but this may suffice to let the world see 'lis no such 
trifle as is pretended in their prophane relation, who 
had then other thoughts, being passengers also in the 
ship, and seemed willing to joyne with the godly parly 
in the ship in testimony of their thankfulnesse, to cel- 
ebrate a speciall day of thanksgiving unto the Lord lor 
so great salvation, where Mr. Golding preached, being 
a passenger with them, and teacher to a Church of 
Christ in Bermudas. 

And now good reader what wilt thou judge of such as 
can turne such deliverances into a scoffe, witnesse their 
prophane title, " New-Englands Jonas cast up at Lon- 
don ; " the naked truth whereof thou hast heard related ; 
in all which Jonas was but once accidentally named, and 
that by way of direct opposition to any such counsell. 
The master of the ship never spoke to, no speech be- 
tween the woman and Mr Vassall that I can learne, 
but betweene Mr. Fowle and her, shee under no dis- 
temper of passion, but modest discreet and sober in 
her carriage thorow T out the whole. In briefe, all that 
I can meet with that were in the ship, especially the 
most eminent persons, affirme this relation of theirs to 
bee false, yea Mr. Fowle himselfe acknowledged it 
before Captaine Sailes late Governour of Bermudas, 
Captaine Leveret, and Captaine Harding all passen- 
gers in the ship, who all concurred in the falsehood of 
the same, and the three Captaines not a little offended 
thereat, and Mr. Richard Sadler and divers others are 
ready to testify the same. 


But put the case they had deluded a poore weake 
passionate woman by a shadow instead of a substance : 
Mee thinkes if any teare of God had been before their 
eyes, they might have trembled at so many and so 
great threatnings of the Almightie, who followed them 
from one land to another over the vast ocean with his 
terrours, and have shewed greater thankfulnesse for 
such a deliverance as before recited, then to carry them- 
selves as they doe ; labouring to delude the reader as 
well as themselves, and to ascribe all to the winter 
season, as if all our passages were ordinarily such (as 
appeareth by their note in the margent, page 12.) 
when as that is false also, witnesse some that came 
with them, who affirme they have bin in winter passa- 
ges, but never in the like ; (the master and his compa- 
ny all concurring therein) being confident also they 
fared the worse for their company. And thus much I 
can affirme, and at least an hundred more that came 
with me, who came away about the middest of De- 
cember (five weeks deeper in winter then they) and 
yet through Gods undeserved favour had a comfortable 
passage and landfall, which I through t good to adde to 
the rest that persons may not bee discouraged from 
the passage, though I must confesse the spring and 
fall are the best seasons. But let them go on, if noth- 
ing will reelaime them ; and i will waite and attend 
the word of the Lord in the mouth of his servant, and 
observe the dispensation of his providence towards his 
Churches, and the enemies of the same. And thus 
much for answer to the fourth head of their book pub- 
lished by IMajor Childe. 

An Answer to the Postscript. 

In this postscript which containeth more matter 
then the whole booke, I can trace our Salamander 
line by line, and phrase after phrase, in his accustom- 
ed manner to delude many simple ones, and weaken 

their respect to the government of New-England : 
where hee did a great deale more hurt by his pesonall 
presence, than hee can doe here by such slanderous 
invectives as he cither pinnclh upon others (witnesse 
this silly peece called New- Ei inlands Jonas) or any 
hee shall publish hereai'ter. To answer every partic- 
ular at length, would bee too tedious. But because 
hee pretendeth an answer to some passages in a booke 
written lately by my selfe, called " llypoerisie Un- 
masked," concerning the independent Churches holding 
communion with the reformed Churches ; at the re- 
quest of many I came to a resolution as to answer the 
former passages, so to reply to his malicious cavils in 
this; who indeed hath not answered any one tiling, 
but rattier raised some scruples that may cloud what I 
did, and cause such as are ignorant tc doubt where 
things are most cleare : but however I am prevailed 
with in this case not only by some of the Independent* 
but Presbyterian brethren, to answer; yet withali am 
come to a resolution not to write any more in this- 
kinde ; partly because the world is wearied with too 
many controversies of this nature: but more espe- 
cially because our Salamander so much delighteth in 
them, as appeareth by many yeares sad experience, 
being restlesse and endlesse therein. But for Answer. 

flee- begiuneth with the discovery " of a subtile plot 
against the lawes of England, and the liberties of the 
English subject, " Sec. And then secondly, hee would 
render mee odious to the world, as being " a principall 
opposer of the lawes of England in New-England.' ' 
Thirdly, hee would make our government of New- 
England to bee arbitrary. And fourthlyly, his malicious 
cavils and bitter indignation at any thing may tend to 
union betweene brethren, I meane the Presbyterians 
and Independents, but of these in order. 

And first, for the " subtile plot," Lc. which is con- 
trived, saith hee, " by writing agmnst Gorton, a 
man whom they know is notorious for heresie, that so 


behinde him they may get a shot at a bigger game," 
&c. Answ. It is well knovvne, and our Salamander 
is not ignorant, that however Gorton notoriously abus- 
ed himself and every government of New-England 
where hee lived ; yet when that country was grown 
too hot for him, hee came over here and complained 
against us, to that honourable Committee of Parlia- 
ment ; to whose care the well ordering the affaiies of 
forraigue plantations is referred. The Right Honour- 
able the Earle of Warwick, being Governour in chief e, 
and Chairman of the same ; who, upon Gorton and 
his companions complaints, sent over to the govern- 
ment of the Massachusetts, whom it most of all con- 
cerned to give answer to the same, &c. Whereupon 
they to shew their respect to the Parliament, sent mee 
to render a reason thereof, which I still attend till 
their more weighty occasions will permit them to 
heare. But when I came over, I found that Gorton 
had enlarged his complaints by publishing a booke 
called ;t Simplicities defence against Seven-headed 
Policy," &c. which being full of manifold slaunders, 
and abominable falsehoods ; I tooke my selfe bound in 
duty to answer it, as I did by that treatise he meti- 
tioneth, called " Hypocrisie Unmasked," which was 
but an answer to Gorton as this is to him, being neces- 
sitated thereunto in vindication of the country, whose 
agent I am, though unworthy. And yet our Salaman- 
der would blinde the ignorant, and make them beleeve 
wee tooke occasion to write such a thing to make the 
Parliament have a good opinion of us, as if none of 
all this had preceded. 

Next that hee might still turne our innocent sim- 
plicity into policy, hee takes advantage where none is, 
and layes hold on a request of mine, which I must 
still prosecute (maugre his malice) and 1 trust in God 
the Parliament, will be sensible of it, viz. That the 
Committee " would take into consideration how de- 
structive it will bee to the wel-being ; of our plantations 


and proceedings there (which are growing up into a 
Nation) here to answer the complaints of such malig- 
nant spirits as shall there bee censured Ivy authority, 
it being three thousand miles distant, so far as will 
undoe any to come hither for justice, utterly disabling 
them to prove the equity of their cause," &:c. Now 
if hee had set downe this request as it is, I would 
never have answered word to it, nor need at present 
to any, but such as are ready to burst with malice, 
and the more satisfaction I shall give, the worse they 
will bee. And for "the danger of the state of Eng- 
land is in by this plot," lie could not more clearely 
have expressed the unevennesse of bis spirit to any 
indifferent reader, then by such expressions, and there- 
fore need no farther answer thereunto. 

Secondly, whereas hee chargeth mee to be ".a prin- 
cipall opposer of the lawes of England in New Eng- 
land," &c. Hee dealeth with mee here in this par- 
ticular just as he did there. For our Salamander 
having labored two years together to draw me to his 
party, and finding hee could no way prevail e, he then 
casts off all his pretended love, and made it a part of 
his worke to make mee of all men most odious, that 
so whatever I did or said might bee the lesse effectu- 
al!. As for the law of Engand I honour it and ever 
did, and yet know well that it was never intended for 
New-England, neither by the Parliament, nor yet in 
the letters patents, we have for the exercise of govern- 
ment under the protection of this state : but all that is 
required of us in the making of our lawes and ordinan- 
ces, offices and officers, is to goe as neare the lawes 
of England as may bee : which wee punctually follow 
so neare as wee can. For our letters patents, being 
granted to such, and their associates : these Associ- 
ates are the freemen, whereof there are many in eve- 
ry town : Now take notice good reader that as every 
Corporation here send their Burgesses to the Parlia- 
ment upon summons : So divers times a yeere the 

vol. n. third series. 18 


Governour sending out his warrants, the towns choose 
their Deputies, viz. two of a towne out of these free- 
men, which meeting together with the Governour and 
his Assistants, compose and make or repeale such 
lawes and ordinances as they conceive our necessities 
require: And however wee follow the custome and 
practise of England so neere as our condition will give 
way : yet as the garments of a growne man would 
rather oppresse and stifle a childe if put upon him, 
then any way comfort or refresh him, being too heavy 
for him : so have I often said the lawes of England, to 
take the body of them, are too unvveldy for our vveake 
condition : Besides, there were some things support- 
ed by them which wee came from thence to avoid, as 
the hierarchy, the crosse in bapiisme, the holy dayes, 
the booke of Common Prayer, &c. All which I doubt 
not but this renowned Parliament will utterly abolish 
as they have done in part to Gods glory and their 
everlasting fame, (I meane whilst time shall bee.) 
But I have been so far re from sleighting the law of 
England as I have brought my owne booke of the 
statutes of England into our court, that so when wee 
have wanted a law or ordinance wee might see what 
the statutes provided in that kind, and found a great 
readinesse in our generall court to take all helpe and 
benefit thereby. And never did I otherwise oppose 
the law of England : nor ever stand against the liber- 
ties of the subject, but am ready to sacrifice my life 
for the same, when ever I shall bee called thereunto. 
Indeed this I have said in answer to his cavils, that 
if the Parliaments of England should impose lawes 
upon us having no Burgesses in their house of Com- 
mons, nor capable of a summons by reason of the vast 
distance of the ocean being three thousand miles from 
London, then wee should lose the libertie and free- 
dome I conceived of English indeed, where every 
shire and corporation by their Knights and Burgess- 
es make and consent to their laws, and so oppose 


whatsoever they conceive may bee hurtfull to them : 
But this liberty wee are not capable of by reason of 
distance, and therefore &c. And thus much for answer 
to that point, which will satisfie any equall minded 
man, but is nothing to him. 

Thirdly, he chargeth " our government to bee arbi- 
trary." Ansvv. I shewed before after what manner 
wee made our lawes ; and for the choyce of our offi- 
cers once every yeere they are either chosen or re- 
newed by election, and this is done by the Freemen 
who are the associates to the Governour, to whom all 
the power is granted. And these are to governc 
according to their lawes made and established, and 
not accord ins: to their wills. And however there are 
many that are not free amongst us, yet if understand- 
ing; men and able to bee helpefull, it's more their owne 
faults then otherwise oft-times, who will not take up 
their freedome lest they should bee sent on these 
services (as our Salamander and most of his disciples 
who are too many I must confesse) and yet it is the 
same with many thousands in this kingdome who 
have not libertie to choose : nor yet may the free- 
holders and freemen choose, any that are not free- 
holders, freemen, and gentlemen of such a rank or 
quality that are chosen. So that for my own part I 
see not but that as we go by the expresse of our let- 
ters patents, so we goe according to the practise of 
England ; the law made binding the maker as wei as 
any other, having one rule for all. 

As for our trialls between man and man, hee knowes 
wee goe by jury there as well as here : And in 
criminalls and capitalls wee goe by grand jury and 
petty jury. And where the death of any is suddaine, 
violent, or uncertaine, the crowner sits upon it by a 
quest, and returneth a verdict, &:c. and all according 
to the commendable custome of England, whom wee 
desire to follow. But their maine objection is, that 
wee have not penaii lawes exactly set downe in all 


cases ? 'Tis true I confesse, neither can they finde 
any Coin man wealth under heaven, or ever was, but 
some things were reserved to the discretion of the 
judges, and so it is with us and no otherwise, our 
General! Courts meeting together twice a yeere at least 
hitherto for that very end, and so continuing so long 
as their occasions and the season will permit : and in 
case any misdemeanor befall where no penaltie is set 
down, it is by solemue order left to the discretion of 
the bench, who next to the word of God take the law 
of England for their president before all other w hat- 
soever. And as I said before, if 1 would enter into 
particulars I could here set downe in a line parallel as 
as I received it in answer to the Petition of Doctor 
Robert Chiide, Lc mentioned in their booke, " the 
fundamentals of the Massachusets concurring with the 
priviledges of Magna Chaita and the common law of 
England at large." But as 1 said before, it would bee 
too tedious for answer to this worthlesse and mali- 
cious charge. And yet I dare afrirme that Virginia, 
Barbadoes, Christophers, Me vis, and Antiego have not 
all of them so many lavves as New-England, nor so 
many expresse penalties annexed. As for the uniting 
of the foure Colonies, I briefly shewed the reason of 
it in my former treatise, being necessitated thereunto 
by a secret combination of the Indians to cut us all 
off, as our Salamander well knowes and approved ; 
and if in America we should forbeare to unite for 
offence and defence against a common enemy (keeping 
our governments still distinct as wee doejtill wee have 
leave from England, our throats might bee all cut 
before the messenger would bee halfe seas thorough ; 
but hee that will carpc at this, what will hee not doe? 
And for not making of our warrants in the kings name 
which is another thing hee complaiueth of: Hee 
well knowes the practise of the countrey is various in 
that respect, some constantly observing it, others 
omitting to expresse it, but ali deriving our authority 


from hence. But if any wonder why I say so i"ch 
in answer to it as 1 doe, it is because I never purpose 
lor reply to any thing he or any other shall write in 
this kiude to him, for 'tis to no end to write many 
bookes, especially when wee have to deale with such 
an one as delights in contention and nothing else. 

[n the last place take notice good reader how lice 
cavil Is, and is vexed at, rather tl en answers any 
tiling I say tending to preserve peace and unitie be- 
tweene the Presbyterian and Independent brethren. 
And whereas hee saith " there is a fallacy in what 1 
have written," how can that bee? when I shew the 
very particular instances and persons that did and still 
do hold communion with us, and our Salamander 
knoweth most ui these persons, and I heieeve the very 
things also, and hath nothing to say against any one 
of the instances brought, onely hee asketh whether 
any of us the many thousands (a great word) that 
came from New England, doe communicate here with 
the Presbyterians. To which I answer by way of 
question to any rationall and indifferent man, whether 
a Church or Churches of ours, allowing and admitting 
any of the Presbyterians or their members into full 
communion with them, doth not more fully answer the 
question or his cavill, and prove communion of Church- 
es on our part, then for a particular member of ours to 
joyne in communion with some of the Presbyterian 
Churches which it may bee that Independent Church 
whereof hee is may never heare of? And sure enough 
if I should draw an argument from his proposition to 
prove it ; hee would bee sure to say your Churches 
allow it not, &lc. and therefore it proves no commun- 
ion of Churches at all. Secondlv, were I where I 
could not communicate with an Indepenoent congre- 
gation, and might with a Presbyterian, and they walk- 
ed orderly, I know nothing but I might comfortably 
partake in that ordinance of the Lords Supper with 
them : but 1 should not forsake that communion I 


more affected for that I lessc affected where I might 
enjoy either, nor I beleeve will any understanding 
Presbyterian brother on the other side. And so much 
for answer to that cavill, and the many branches of it. 
In the second place, heecavills at this, that J say in 
page 96. of my book called, " Ilypocrisie Unmasked," 
That the French and Dutch Churches "are a people 
distinct from the world, and gathered into an holy 
communion : " And then heeaddeth, (" hee should have 
said covenant which is his sense) and that the sixth per- 
son is not of the Church," meaning, " amongst them." 
And this, saith hee, wee have but his word for, and 
makes it a falsehood in me: but I returne it upon 
himselfe, whose bold spirit dare affirme any thing 
against tiie apparent light of the Sonne ; for however 
the Dutch baptize the children of all nations that are 
presented to them, as well as their owne, as 1 shewed 
in my former treatise ; yet this their practise stands 
not upon the Presbyterian bottome, nor doe I know, 
I confesse, what they take for their warrant in it ; yet 
I affirme, and that of my owne knowledge, having 
lived divers yeares amongst them, that their Church 
is a select people, gathered together into an holy com- 
munion, which holinesse hee scofTes at, and which 
they ( all the Chement ; and that many thousands of 
those whose children they baptize, never are admitted 
to the Lords Supper, which they account " Church 
communion ; " nor are ever brought before their Clas- 
sis, and there examined, admitted, occasionally admon- 
ished, yea, excommunicated if they submit not to the 
rule : and that all those that are admitted are such as 
tender themselves, and thereupon are examined, &c. 
in the Classis ; as before. And for an instance of the 
truth of it, a godly English Minister that had some- 
times lived in Rotterdam, told me (upon this very 
occasion) that the deacons of the Dutch Church at 
Rotterdam, told him, that although there were almost 
7000. houses in their city, and in many of them di- 


vers families, yet they had but 2000 persons in Church- 

And for the French Churches, who knows not that 
the nation, I meane, the hody of them are still Pa- 
pists, and yet (as blinde as Bayard) our malicious Sala- 
mander, whose tongue is known to be no slander from 
whence he came, doth charge me with falshood herein. 
? Tis true, through Gods mercy there are many thou- 
sand protestants amongst them, and I wonder that 
any man should bee so audacious, as to affirm these 
are not a distinct people from the rest that have un- 
dergone so many massacres and persecutions for the 
testimony of their faith, and witnesse they have borne 
against the abominations of Rome, and the Papacy, 

2>tiil su una (i ciuuiii tru in uicti Ucuuni uy uie uuu V Ol It. 

And as 1 said of Holland, the sixth person is hardly of 
the Church ; so in France, the tenth man for ou^ht I 
heare, is not a protestant. And how then they should 
be a national protestant Church I know not. 

As for his jeere about the Covenant, let him goe on 
in his way of scorn and contempt of the " Covenant 

between God and his people, and yet hee shall 
finde the Church in the Old Testament established by 
a covenant ; and after their greatest desertions and 
declinings, upon solemne dayes of humiliation, their 
Covenants a^aine renewed throughout the same. And 
the Churches under the New Testament are still the 
same, though the ceremonies and ordinances bee 
altered by the Lord thereof; yea, the Scottish Church- 
es, (which hee saith are national!, and so would make 
a breach in that respect between them and us) are sol- 
emne atid serious in their Covenant ; and the English in 
the late Reformation no lesse serious^ to Gods glory bee 
it spoken : when as there are many hundred thou- 
sands in both nations that will not take these their 
covenants, but remain in popish superstition, and 
wilfull ignorance. 

And for our tenders to the Scots to live amongst us, 


and enjoy their liberty in the exerci e of the Prcsbyte- 
rian government formerly, and the late tender of the 
court of the Massachusets to their petitioners for the 
enj \ment of it at present, themselves providing for it, 
'tis not so strange as true : But whereas they say, 
they hear not of the latter (being since they came 
awa< ) J Tis false ; I have told them, and they may 
hea -'■ it by many others: but they have not the spirit 
of peace in them, nor will they take notice of any 
thin? that tends thereunto ; but seeke, as appeareth 
by this Postscript, to blow up the coales of contention 
and division, so much as possible may bee, hindering 
peace and good agreement between brethren, by all 
the meanes and courses they can use. 

\„A f~~ urhn-t h#» ciith rrmr ^n& Mr Wnkhir^c 

censure; daring mee to say, " whether Mr. Hubbard 
were not punished directly or indirectly for baptizing 
some children whose parents were not members of the 
Churches in New-England." 

For answer, I doe and dare affirme in my conscience, 
that I am firmly perswaded bee was not; xVnd howev- 
er I doe not desire to meddle in the case, nor to en- 
£a°e in other mens controversies, but rather seeke to 
heale them by all due meanes, yet I thought good to 
answer his challenge in this particular, that so that 
cloud of jealousie might also be dispelled, so far as 
concerneth my own thoughts in the case ; and had 
hee but so much charitie in himselfe as becomes a 
Christian man, I am confident hee w r ould bee of the 
same mind with mee. And so much for answer to 
that particular, and the whole book, wherein the read- 
er may see more malice in our accusers, then policy 
in us, whose simplicity is branded with subtilty, falla- 
cy, and what not ? but blessed bee God, it is by such 
whose tongues are their owne, and will not bee con- 
trouled by any, and from whom I expect all that mal- 
ice can invent ; but am come to a resolution, that 
whatever our Salamander shal vent either in his own 


name, or by others (as at this time) I will leave him to 
God, and referre our vindication to the Lord Jesus 
Christ, who hath all power in heaven and earth com- 
mitted to him, in whose eves, I trust, we are precious, 
who undoubtedly will clear up our innoceney, when 
these our proud enemies shall bee scattered before him. 
And to whom with the Father and the Spirit, God 
over all, blessed for ever, be glory and praise to all 
eternity. Amen. 

[The original is a pamphlet of 29 8vo. pages. Ed.] 








The following l^ocabularv °f *b p Indian Ijaneua^e, in the 
Natick or Massachusetts dialect, is faithfully copied from a 
manuscript compiled by the Hon. Josiah Cotton, a respectable 
inhabitant of Plymouth, who died in 1756, aged 77. He was 
the second son of the Rev. John Cotton, pastor of the first 
church in that ancient town twenty-eight years, from 16G9 to 
1697. Josiah Cotton was graduated at Harvard College in 1698. 
His early years, after his leaving College, were spent in Marble- 
head, where he was employed as a schoolmaster; his studies in 
the mean time were principally in theology. He was never 
settled, however, in the ministry ; but, returning to his native town 
early in the last century, after some years of occupation in that 
place as a schoolmaster, he devoted himself to agricultural 
pursuits and to the discharge of several civil offices which he 
sustained. The offices which he held successively or in con- 
junction, were those of Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, 
Justice of the same Court, Register of Probate, and Register of 
Deeds. In the latter office he was succeeded by his son, John 
Cotton, who was succeeded by his son, Rossiter Cotton, the 
present worthy occupant of that office, to whose kindness this 
Society and the friends of ancient lore are indebted for a commu- 
nication of this manuscript, and of other documents eminently 
useful and acceptable for the elucidation of our early history. 
This respectable family derives its origin from the celebrated 
John Cotton of Boston. Josiah Cotton as well as his father, in 
addition to their other employments, performed the duties of 
missionaries to the Indians at Plymouth and other places in that 
vicinity. The father was eminently skilled in the Indian lan- 
guage, of which there are many testimonials ; the most conspicu- 

148 cotton's vocabulary. 

ous Is Eliot's Indian Bible. In the accomplishment of that 
laborious work Mr. Eliot acknowledges his obligations to Mr. 
Cotton, especially in the preparation of the second edition. 
Josiah Cotton, besides the advantages of much personal inter- 
course with the Indians, had the benefit of his father's informa- 
tion ; and his long continuance as a religious instructer to the 
natives, with the ready use of their language, of which he left 
numerous specimens in writing, may reasonably induce a reliance 
on the correctness of the present Vocabulary which he compiled. 
A copy of some of his other specimens will be found subjoined 
to the Vocabulary. . J. D. 

Notice of the Manuscript ; with Remarks on the Author's Or- 
thography and the Pronunciation of the Language. 

1. Of the Manuscript. 

The MS is of the small quarto size, and consists of sixty 
leaves composing the body of the work, with two other leaves 
containing a portion of an imperfect Index of English words, 
which occur in it. The volume is principally in the handwriting 
of the author himself; but there are numerous additions and 
corrections in the handwriting of his father. It bears the date 
of 1T07 and 170S, in two or three different places. 

In the present edition the paging of the MS is preserved in 
the margin ; by which means, if at any time it should be wished, 
recourse may be readily had to the original. 

2. Of the Orthography and Pronunciation. 

The orthography adopted by the author is, doubtless, the same 
with that used by the venerable Eliot in his Indian Bible and 
Grammar. The editor has therefore thought, that it might be 
useful to collect, in this place, all the observations of Eliot upon 
that subject. They are extracted from his Indian Grammar, and 
are as follows : 

"I therefore use the same Characters which are of most com- 
mon use in our English Books ; viz. the Roman and Italick Let- 

" Also our Ah/na-bet is the same with the English, saving in 
these few things following : 


" I. The difficulty of the Rule about the Letter c, by reason of 
the change of its sound in the i\ve sounds, ca ce ci co cu, being 
sufficiently helped by the Letters k and s, we therefore 
lay by the Letter c, saving in ch ; of which there is [p. 2.] 
frequent use in the Language. Yet I do not put it out 
of the Alpha-bet, for the use of it in other Languages, but the 
Character ch next to it, and call it chee. 

" 2. I put i Consonant into our Alpha-bet, and give it this 
Character j, and call it ji or gi, as this Syllable soundeth in the 
English word giant ; and I place it next after i vocal. And I 
have done thus, because it is a regular sound in the third person 
singular in the Imperative Mode of Verbs, which cannot well be 
distinguished without it : though I have sometimes used gh in- 
stead of it, but it is harder and more inconvenient. The proper 
sound of it is, as the English word age soundeth. See it used 
Genes, i. 3, 6, 9, 11. 

o. vV e give v Consonant a (itstiiict uUme oy putting lu^cuit;i 
uf or uph, and we never use it, save when it soundeth as it 
doth in the word save, have, and place it next after u vocal. 
Both these Letters (u Vocal, and v Consonant) are together in 
their proper sounds in the Latine word uva, a Vine. 

" 4. We call w 3 wee, because our name giveth no hint of the 
power of its sound. 

" These Consonants /, n, r, have such a natural coincidence, 
that it is an eminent variation of their dialects. 

" We Massachusetts pronounce the n. The JS'ipmuk Indians 
pronounce I. And the Northern Indians pronounce r. As 
instance : 

We say Anum (urn, produced) 

Nipmuk, Alum 

Northern, Arum \ So in most words. 

) So 

" Our Vocals are five, a eiou. Diphthongs, or double sounds, 
are many, and of much use. 

ai au ei ee eu eau oi oo co. 

" Especially we have more frequent use of o and co than other 
Languages have : and our co dolh always sound as it doth in 
these -.English words, moody, book, . . 

" We use onely two Accents, and but sometime. The [p. 3.] 
Acute (') to shew which Syllable is first produced in 
pronouncing of the word ; which if it be not attended, no Na- 
tion can understand their own Language : as appeareth by the 
uitty Conceit of the Tityre tu's. 


cotton's vocabulary. 

" 6 produced with the accent, is a regular distinction betwixt 
the first and second persons plural of the Suppositive Mode; as 
C Naumog, If v;e see : (as in J^og.) 
\ Naumog, If ye see : (as in Vogue.) 

"The other Accent is ( A ), which I call Nasal ; and it is used 
onely upon 6 when it is sounded in the Nose, as oft it is ; or 
upon a for the like cause. 

" This is a general Rule, When two (o o) come together, ordi- 
narily the first is produced ; and so when two (oo) are together. 

"All the Articulate sounds and Syllables that ever I heard (with 
observation) in their Language, are sufficiently comprehended 
and ordered by our Alpha-bet, and the Rules here set down. 













gee as in geese 




ji as in giant 



























m em 

Remark. The venerable author above quoted observes, that 
" all the articulate sounds and syllables," that he ever heard 
" (with observation) in their language, are sufficiently compre- 
hended and ordered by our Alphabet and the Rules here set 
down." Every one who studies the several dialects of the fami- 
ly or stock to which the Massachusetts language belongs, that is, 
the Delaware or Lenape Stock, will be surprised, that Eliot 
says nothing of any guttural or strongly aspirated sound in the 
language of his day. A question then arises, whether the .Massa- 
chusetts language had the guttural, or aspirate, which is found in the 
modern dialects of that family. In the Delaware language, for 
example, the word nooch, my father (as written by the German 
missionaries), is a guttural or strong aspirate ; and so in the Mo- 
hegan, in which Dr. Edwards writes ii, according to the English, 
or rather Scottish orthography, nogh. In Eliot's and Roger 
Williams's Vocabularies, we find the corresponding word written 


nosh or noosh. Now from the difficulty which the English al- 
ways find in expressing foreign gutturals or aspirates, and from 
their common practice of corrupting this sound into that of sh, it 
is probahle, that the words of this class in Eliot and the other 
old writers were in fact gutturals. If so, we shall, by attending 
to this circumstance, be able to trace out affinities between the 
ancient and the existing dialects, which would otherwise elude 

J. P. 




(by the editor.) 

[The paging here referred to is that of the margin of the work.] 

Of Arts. Page 3 

Of Beasts. 


Of Birds. 


Of Rational Creatures. 


Of the Human Faculties. 


Of Fish. 


Of Garments or Clothing. 


Of Herbs and Flowers. 


Of Husbandry. 
Of an House. 


Of Household stuff. 


Of Meat. 


Of Metals. 


Of a School. 


Of the Senses. 


Of Ships. 


Of Time. 


Of Trees and Shrubs. 


Of Virtues and Vices. 


Adjectives, alphabetically ar- 






Verbs, alphabetically arrang- 


Colloquial Phrases. 8G 

Participles, alphabetically ar- 
ranged. 87 

The Creed. 99 

A Talk between two. 100 

Adverbs, alphabetically ar- 
ranged. 103 
(See also p. 109.) 

Pronouns (repeated in part.) 1 01b. 

Colloquial Phrases. 107c. 

A letter in English and In- 

Adverbs, additional list. 
(See also p. 103.) 


! Interjections. 



A Dialogue, between an In- 
dian and the Author of the 

A second Dialogue ; on learn- 
ing the language. 122 










[The two first pages of the MS are wanting. The asterisks denote a de- 
ficiency in the MS, and the Roman letters between brackets are supplied by 

Of Arts. 

[p. 3.] 

An art, arts, 

A comedy, or witty thing, 
A tragedy, or sad thing, 
An act, 

A history, 
Astronomy, or skill 

Heaven, heavens, 
The highest heaven, 
The starry heaven, 

The misery of hell, 
A number, 

A trumpet, or music, 
A secretary, 
A smith, 
A divine ordinance, 
Heathenish gods, 

An idol, 

An idolater, idolaters, 

The state of innocency, 




Author of life, 

Nehtohtoonk, -ash. 

Manittooe kuk ** himwehteaonk : 

or Wuttinsue.manittooonk 

Pogkodcheteooilk, pollkonchti- 

Pahke, Woshwunumooonk. 
about the Nehtuhtoonk papaume annogsqs, 

Kesuk, kesukquosh. 

Anue quanonkquohk kesuk. 

Annogssue kesuk. 



Awakompanaonk chepiohkomuk. 

Nutteasscoonk, (my company.) 





Negonne kuhquttumooonk. 


Manittooe kuhkoovvaonk. 


Pen oo we, or Pencowohteaog ma- 


Ninnukontonkoh, waussumont. 

Pahketcahae wuttinniyeu. 



Ompeh * * * aonk, an old In- 
dian word, that signifies obedi- 
ence by giving any * * * * 

Pomantam * * *. 



Of Beasts. 

[p. 4.] 

Living creatures, 

Pomantamcoe, oowaasineg. 

A labouring- beast, beasts, 

Anakausue puppifishum, -wo£. 

Cattle, (how many do you kill,) Netassuog (tohtohsoog kunnish.) 

A hide, a horn, 

Oskon, weween. 

A tail, 


A hoof, hoofs, 

Moohkos, -sog. 

A bear, honey, 

Moshq, honnc. 

A sting, a worm, 

Chohkuhhco, oohke. 

Bees, worms, 

Ohkeommoosog, oohkquaog. 

Flesh, a fox, 

Weyaus, wonkussis. 

A beaver, beavers, 

Tiimunk, -quaog. 

A cat, cats, 

Poopohs, poohpoohsuqg. 

A deer, a dog, dogs, 

Attiik, annum, -wog. 

A flea, fleas, 

Poppek, poppequog. 

A frog, frogs, 

Tinnogkohquase, -suog. 

A grasshopper (jumps,) 

Chaiisops, (qucoshau.) 

A Kull £o^v 

Nofflpashiin netas ushquashimwe 


A horse, 

Nahnaiyeumooadt, or a creature 

that carries. 

Wool ; a snake, snakes, 

Weshakinash ; askook, -og. 

A squirrel, squirrels, 

Mishannek, -wog. 

A toad, toads, 

Tinnogkohteas, -suog. 

Wolves, a wolf (kills,) 

Naltoohqussuog, mukquisshum ; 


Of Birds. 

A bird, birds, 

Psukses, Pissuksemesog (Psuk- 


A goose, geese, 

Wompohtuk, -quaog. 

A duck, 

Scsep, or qunusseps. 

A hen. a cock, 

Mooish, nampash. 

A wing, wings, 

Wunnuppoh, -whunash. 

A feather, feathers, 

Meegk, mcekquinog. 

* * * * eagle, 

Wewes, wompsukook. 

A brant, 

Mcnuks, -sog. [p. 5.] 

A crow, 


An egg-, egofs, 

Wou, wowanash. 

A shell, 

Wohhogke, (a body,) or Anna. 

A quill, quills, 

Pohquemek, -qunog. 

A nest, nests, 

Woddish, woddishash. 

A fowler, fowlers, 

Adchaeniu, -nuqg. 


Rational Creatures. 

A man, a woman, 

Wosketomp, rnittamwossis, or 


A boy, 

Nonkup asuh, nonkumpaes. 



A girl, 

A young man, 
A child, children, 

An old man, 

An old woman, 

Childhood, manhood, 

A body, a soul, . 

Thy body, my body, 

Our bodies, 

The seed, (issue,) of the woman. 

A testator, 

A witness, 

A nation, 


A great skin, 

Corrupted flesh, or rotten, 

Corruption of the flesh, 


A broken bone, 

The marrow of divinity, 

The hair, the eye, 

The ear is nigh the forehead, 

A nose, a check, 

A most handsome face, 

A lip, a tongue, 

A language, 

A tooth, a mouth; 


A shoulder, an arm, 

A finger, fingers, 

Head, belly, 


Elbow, hand, 

The right 

The left 


The breast, and bosom, 

The back, 

A big belly, 

A crooked knee, 

A knee, 

A leg, a shin^ 

A foot, a toe. 

The great toe, 

A rib, bowels, 

A hip, a thigh, 

A heel, a chin, 



Wusskennin, wisskisqua, nonk- 

Wiiskcnin, nunkomp. 
WuiHiechanyog, mukkoies, muk- 

Kehchius, nukkonne wosk. 
Papequanne mohtunt. 
Mukkoiesuonk, wosketompco. 
Mohhoff. keteahogkau. 
Kohhog, nohhog. 
Mittamwossisse, coskanneem. 

Missinnin, or Missinninnuog. 
Muttonnonquat, wahihquep. 
Pussoqua weyaus. 
Weyausue aninncoonk. 
OOueyausue, nemunumooon[k]. 
(Wishkon) pooksha weshkeen. 
Ween wutch manittooo[nk]. 
Mesonk, muskesuk. 
Mehtouog passoocheahta misk*** 
Mutchon, wonnunou. [p. 6.] 

An wunnissue muskesuk. 
Missustoon, menan. 
Meepit, muttcon. 
Mittik, mehpit. 
Muppuhkukquanitch, -cash. 
Muppuhkuk, misshat, (missluit.) 
Meesk, menutchecr. 

Unninuhkoe ) 
Menatche ) 



Mohpanneg, and uppoochcnou. 



Wonke, kittuk. 


Muhkont, mississikkoshk. 

Misseet, muppuhkukquaset. 


Mehpeteak, munnogs. 

Oapwas, mehquau. * 

Mogquon, rnishoon. 



A throat, 


A wise brain, 

A stomach, 

A weak stomach, 

A womb, 

•x- # * # * ■%■ # 

North, south, 


Warm ( ,, 
^ ■ > weather, 

Fair f ' 

Calm \ 

Cold weather, 

A southerly storm, 

A tempest, or northerly storm, 


Wind, winds, 

East wind, 

A shower, 

A shower of rain, 


Slippery ice, 

Dew, snow, hail, 


Lightning, or thunderbolt, 

Earth, earthquake, 

A mountain, pi. 

A valley, valleys, 

Dirt in the street, 

Dust, rocks, 

A bank, a way, 

[p. 7.] 

Of the II 

Of the understanding, 
Will, and affections, 

The soul, 


A reason, (of a thing) 

Appetite, or desire, 

Faith, wisdom, 

Judgment, a mistake, 
Love, hatred, 
Joy, their joy, 

Munnaonk, nashaonk. 
Waantam wuttup. 




Nannumiyeu, sowanlyeu 







Uhquohquat, nashquittin. 


Wapan, mishetashin. 

Wutchcpuoshe wittin. 


Nogkosse, sookenon. 


Toonukquesiie, kuppat. 

Nehchippag, koon, missegkon. 

Nimbau, padtohquohhan. 


Ohkee, qucquan. 

Wadchu, -ash. 

Oonomvohkoai, -yeuash. 

Pissugk ut toumayog. 

Pupplssi, qussuk, -anash. 

Wussappinuk, may. 

uvian Faculties. 

Wutchwatamooonk, wohwo- 

etamcoonk, unatamcoonk, 


Unnommai, ennomaiyeuon [k.] 
Wunnomwahiteoonk, wutcheai- 

Kodtehteamooonk, kodtantamoo- 

Wunnamptameoonk, waantam- 

Wussittumcoonk, puhtantant * * * 
Jishontamcoonk. [p. 8.] 

Womonlttuonk, sekeneadtuonk. 
WekontamcDonk, cowekonta- 




Joy, or gladness, 


Sadness, mourning. 

Fear, our fear, 






My pleasure, 
Thy pleasure, 
His pleasure, 
Our pleasure, 
Your pleasure, 
Their pleasure, 
My pleasures, 
Thy pleasures, 
His pleasures, 
Our pleasures, 
Your pleasures, 
Their pleasures, 
Our own pleasures, 

Thy own pleasures, 




Fish, fishes, 

A fisherman, -men, 

A net, nets, 

A line, 

A hook, hooks, 

Codfish, an eel, 

An oyster, 

A whale, whales, 

A sturgeon, 

A bass, an herring, 

A hadduck, a trout, 


A garden, gardens, 




Wabesuonk, ncowabesuonkanun. 

Kenompan, unkqussuonk. 

Papain antameoonk. 



Mat-anncoosuonk, wuttaman ta- 
rn cuonk. 














Nchenwonche, mittappencamco- 

Nehenwonche, kuttupeneamco- 
ongash ; 
et sic dcinceps. 




Of Fish. 

Namas, namassooog. [p. 9.] 

Nattcohquinnuaenin, -nuog. 
Ashap, ashappog. 
Peminneaht, ome. 
Uhquon, -quanash. 
Anishamog, queques, nequttika[t] 
Chunkoo, apwonnah. 
Pcotab, pootabaog. 
Kopposh, kaskohat. 
Qunnammag, ommis, -suog. 
Pakonndtam, mishqushkou. 

Of a Garden. 

Tannohketeaonk, -ash.. 



A bank, 

A wall, 

A hedge, a fence, 

An orchard, 

WussappTnuk, -quash. 

Chippinnutunk, wokcunoos. 
Ahteuk, mctukque. 

Of Garments or Cloatlihu 

A dress, 

A garment, 

Linen cloth, 

The thread of life, 

An hat, stockins, 

An iron chain, 

An English shirt, 

A thin pair of breeches, 

A coat, a neckcloath, 

Shoes, a shoe-string, 

Auk coon k. 

Monak, ashuppauneg. 
Tuppun poinantamroonk. - 
Onkqueekhco, muttassash. 
Mowashak sausakkintumuuk. 
Choquog wittishataneck. 
Wirssappineesaog petappiyaeo*** 
Petushquishauonk, kehkishin*** 
Mohkissonash, rnattokquonnape. 

An herb, 
A flower, 
Watermelon, 1 
Cucumbers, > 
Muskmelon, j 
A rose or lilv, 

Of Herbs and. Flowers. 

Ahketeamuk, moskeit. 

C Ohhosketamuk. 
or a raw thing, < Mconosketarnuk. 
£ Quinoskctamuk. 


[p. JO.] 

Of Husbandry. 


Work, (or office,) 


A laborious husbandman, 

Ground, soil, 

A field, fields, 

Dung, a meadow, 

Grass, hay, 

Seed, harvest, 

Stubble, rubbish, 

A whip, a barn, barns, 

Straw, chaff, 

Bread, corn, 
An Indian bean, 

A spacious house, 
A little house, 

Anakausde ohkehteaenin. 
Ohke, ahteuk. 
Ahteuk, ahteukkonash. 
Annohke, wossoskeht. 
Oskosk, mosketuash. • 
Wuskannemineash, kepenumeo- 

Sequssnnkash, anosketiiash. 
Sauwiipponk, mechimukkomuk, 

Seekpoghonkash, wasadteami- 

Pctukquineg, eachimmineash. 
Kehtohteae monasquisseet. 

Of an House. 

Wunnenoukquat wetu, 



A meeting house, 

A stone, a wall, 

A door, doors, 

Out of doors, 

A chamber, 

A cedar post, 

A window, windows, 

A glass window, 
A tower, towers, 
An high tower, 
A board, a tavern, 
A shop of goods, 
A shop, and goods, 


Ilossun, nutonk, mat sampwi. 

Usquont, -tatnash. 

En poquatchit. 


Utchikuppemis appas. [p. 1 1.] 

Kunnatequanick, kenag'kinneg, 

Qunnuhquekomuk, -qash. 
Passconog, wuttattamwakomuk. 
Momachiukkomuk, and moma- 


T etoaomwc, Auicohteaojigasfi. 

AppGonk, qucnappuonk. 
Ahpappuonk ut taspcoonganit. 
Puppoohkshog, sogkisstuiute. 

Quosoht wannachkemmuk. 
Penoht, auhtanneeshnimmuk. 
Ohkuke, eteaussonkash. 
Kuhpohhonk, quonnam, kunnam, 

Checonnachatoonk, togkong. 
Appin, matasquas. 
duancp-wask, sabuck. 
Pinaquet, qunnnnnonk. 
Nootattamwaetch, -uash, 
Wunnonk, mconaeech. 
Tohquinnlttue, wetanatue wus- 

Of Kindred. Papaume Ouwatyonk. [p. 12] 


Womasue omvasekkien. 

Chashiyeuonk, mittumwussis. 





Of Household Stuff. 

A chair, or stool, 

A seat at the table, 

A chest, a hand basket, 

A vessel, 

A smoaky chimney, 

Soot, an oven, 

A kettle, knives, 

A ladle, or spoon, 

A broom, an ax, 
A bed, a mat, 
A key (my), 
A bottle, powder, 
A blanket, 
A light, or candle, 
A candlestick, 
My cup, cups, 
A dish, or tray, 
A needle, or pin, 
A sharp knife, 
A rasour, 

A marriage, 

A good condition'd husband, 

A family, a wife, 

Your family, 

A virgin, 

Our virgins, 

A wooer, 





A great portion, 

A widower, a widow, 

A kind heavenly father, 

Thy father, fathers, 

Her mother, 

A mother, a son, 

My daughter, 

A daughter, a brother, 

Your son, thy sons, 

A sister, 

A grandfather, 

A grandmother, 

An uncle, a cousin, 

Ancestors, forefathers, 

First parents, 

i», ..*„ *j.„ 

JL uatui iljr , 

A bastard, 

Comfortable food, 


An high table, a trencher, ccc. 

Bread, crust, 

Milk, flesh, 

Pipes and tobacco, 

The elements in the sacrament 

Oyl, a dinner, 

Breakfast, supper, 

The Lord's supper, 

Metal, metals, 

A digger of gold and silver, 


Of a School 

A schoolmaster, 
A scholar, 
Learning, teaching, 

A little book, 

A pen, a letter or word, 

The word of institution, 

Mohkodtaenin, sekauishq. 

Womasue kesukque wuttcoshl- 

Koosh, kooshshooog. 

Wuttookasin, wunnaumonien. 

Wuttonnin, oowemattin. 
Kenomon, kenaumonog. 
Wetompasin, asuh netat. 
Ooshesin, wodtonkqsin. 
Kehche, negonne wutchettuon- 



l n ooa h , pom e t i Tor k . 

Of Meat. 

Winne metscoonk. 
Mat metsuongash. 
Quinuhqui auhottashpumuk. 
Petukqumeg, koshklttake. 
Sogkodonk, weyaus. 
uhpuconkash and lihpaj- 

onk. , [p. 13.] 



Pumme, ) Pohshequae metsu- 

Sammee, ) onk. 

Nompoae metsuonk, wunnonkup- 

Soutimoe mishadtuppoonk. 

Of Metals. 

Unnehtchoookkod, -ash. 
Natoohtehash, or nahnatoohtte- 





Kodnehtohtoonk, kuhkcotumweh- 

Meek, kuttooonk: 
Kuhquttcomooe wuttinncowaonk. 



God's word, 

A sentence, proposition, 

A command, 

An hard lesson, 

llule, rules, 

An exercise, pi. 

Proverb, proverbs, 

A story, stories, 

Sense or meaning, 

'A prophet, 


The sight of the eyes, 
A quick hearing, 
Smell, taste, 

A fine taste, 

The touch, 

A colour, a stink, 

A sweet smell, 

A sound, 

A loud sound, 

A pleasant laughter, 

A weeping, a sigh, 

A strong fancy, 

A good memory, 
Much sleep, 
Long watching, 
A dream, 

A vessel, or ship, 
A boat or canoe, 
A sail, a mast, 
An anchor, a cable, 

Head, stern, 

A pilot, or master, 

A passenger, passengers, 

A ship carpenter, 



Time, times, 

Wuttinnoowaonk God. 
Siokke kodnehtantooonk. 
Kuhkehheg, kuhkehhegash. 
Kuhkootumwehteuonk, -ash. 
Nupwovvaonk, -ash. 
Unnehtongquat, -ash. 
Chippaiyeuut, chippenukkenoon- 

Of the Senses. [p. 14.] 

Naumooonk muskesukquash. 
Tiatche ncotamuonk. 
Munnauntamooonk, qutchehta- 

Unnissuonk, machumonquat: 
Wechimooquat, or wetimunkqut. 

Winne tahansha, or ahanshaonk. 
Mooonk, mishannaumcoonk. 
Menuliki tunnantom, or unnanta- 

Wunnegen mehquontamuonk. 
Moocheke kaueonk. 
Seepee askoowheteaonk. 

Of Ships. 

Kehtoonog, -wash, pi. s 

Peontaem, musshoan. 
Sepakhunk, quonnohtake. 
Kussuppanunkquank, peamen- 

Negonut, wutchitut. 
Ncottohtamwaenin, -nuog. 

Of Time. 

Ahquompi, -yeuash. 

[p. 15] 



A quarter of an hour, 
A day, days, 

Next day, or two days hence, 

(or ago), 
Three days hence, 
Four days hence, 
Seven days hence, 
Break of day, 
Market day, 
Our days, 
AH the day long, 
Sun rising, 
Sun setting, 
Morning, noon, 
Night, nights, 

A week, or one part of a month, 
Lord's day, 
Sunday, Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, 
A year, years, 
Ages, spring, 
Fall, summer, 
Winter, childhood, 
Old age, an age, 
A month, 

Of Trees 

A good plant, 

A tree, trees, 

Wood, woods, a log, 

A bough, boughs, 

A leaf, leaves, 

The burk of a tree, 

The root, 

The fruit, 

A nut, nuts, 


A strawberry, 

A blackberry, yl. 

Wood , 

Oak wood, 

White oak, red oak, 

A walnut tree, 

Cedar, pine tree, 

Yauwe chippag hour. 
Kesukod, -ash. 
Kesiikkfittae ahquompi. 

> Nesqunnoh, nesukquinogkod. 

Saup. (Vide page 102.) 
Nesasuk tashikqunnohquod, &,c. 
Oattehchae ukkesukodum. 
Maumsse quinne kesukod. 
Upposhpishaonk nepaz. 
Oowayaonk nepaz. 
Nompoae, pohshequae. 
Nukkon, -ash. 
Quilt u h q u o h qu a . 
Nequt chippi pasuk keessoocht. 
Sontimcoe kesukod. 
AssunnTtta, nesikquiushunk. 
Nishikquinlshonk, yauqulnishonk. 
Nesasuk tahsheke sukod. 
Pasukkodtummo, -ash. 
Ahontseongash, sequan. 
'Ninnauwaet, nepinnae. 
Poponae, mukkiesuoonk. 
Kehchehi, mohtontamcuonk. 

and Shrubs. [p. 16.] 

Mehtuk, mehtukwash. 
Touohkomuk, -qut, quttow. 
Pohchatuk, -quinash. 
W 7 unnepog, -wosh. 
Mehtukque wunnadteask. 
Wutchappehk or wottapp. 
Mehtukque mechummuoonk. 
Annahchim, -inash, 
W'uUoohqunash, or mishash. 
Pohkuhtiniis, wesattimls. 
Utchukkuppemis, kcowas. 



Of Virtues and Vices. 

Virtue, virtues, 




Wickedness, sin, 



Sobriety, civility, 

Valour, chastity, 


Podgodchewunnegen, -ash. 

Matchetcoonk, matcheseonk. 

Maninniyeuonk, umukquompO- 
- onk. 
Kenompaonk, kohkonantainco- 

Qutchuhuwaon£? t sh. 

Justice (done by a private person ), Wussampweusseonk. [p. 1' 

( by a magistrate,) Sampwewussittarncoonk. 

A justice, justices, 
Modesty, or shamefacedness, 
Humility, truth, 
Liberality, or bounty, 
Industry, or diligence, 

Duty, or obedience,- 
Patience, constancy, 

A friend, friendship, 
An enemy, 
Peace, pity, 




Godliness, un- 




Craft, or guile, 

A knave, knaves, 

From a knave, 






A whore, whores, 

Nanauunnuaemn, -nuog. 
Unninanumdoe, mauiinissuonk. 
Hohpoooonk, wunnomwaonk. 
Nauauvve, aninumoadtuonk. 
Menehkenitteae, wowuttooussii- 

Maninnissuonk, nagwutteaeyeu- 

Netomp. oowetompooonk. 
Wunnohteaonk, nohteontcanittQ- 

Matfittcoonk, mat-* 
Mishe womosuonk. 
Aiontogkoie, ompuwussuonk. 
Aiontogkomp, -aog. 
Wutchiyeuoo, aiontogkomput. 
Tapeneamcoonk. (Vide, p. 8.) 
Mamosue, nanvvunncodsquawa- 

Nanwunnootsquauaenin, -nuog. 

Mat is equivalent to the negative im, in the English column. Edit. 



A lie, lies. 
A liar, liars, 

A busybody, 






A coward, 





War, wars, 

A drunkard, pi. 

A thief, thieves, 

Pannoowaonk, -ash. [p. 18.] 

Panncowaenin, -nuog. 

Eiiske, or wussaume kogkehtii- 

Weogkchteunkik onkatoh unni- 

Wenauwettie, unuhkommiaonk. 
Mogke, mogkooe pomantamoo- 

Tiadche usseonk. 
Menuhke cheketamooonk. 
Aiyeutiionk, -ash. 
Kogkesippamwaenin, -uuog. 
Kummootowaenin, -nuog. 

In God's behalf, 
Ordinary generation, 


A mystery, 

A lawgiver, 

In the power, 





A notable mean, * 

Circumstanstials of our life, 

Every minute, 


A sabbath-breaker. 



A covenant of works, 

Conversation, or behaviour, 



On the cross, 

The distance, 

God ne papaume. 

Wosketompae wunnaumoniyeu- 

Siogkpk, -kish. 
Ut menehkesuono-anit. 
Papane anwohchaonk. 
Pomantamooonkane, nuttisseon- 

Nishnoh chohki. 
Pooliqunnussabbath dae- 

nin. [p. 19.] 

Wosketompae pomiishaonk. 
Anakausuongane wunncowaonk. 
Us-huwaonk, usseonk. 




A right end, or purpose, 

Our interest, 


A mediator, 


Power of the sword, 

Provision, supply, means, 


A sign, or seal, or character, 


My nerval. t, my servants, 

Thy servant, servants, 

His servant, pi. 

Our servant, 

Our servants, pi. 

Your servant, pi. 

Their servant, 

Their servants, 

A servant, 

A trick, 

An head, or point (in a sermon 

One, or a person, 


Several violations, 

Covenant of grace, 

Sampwi natwontamcoonk. 
Wosketompae unnissuonk. 
Menuhkesuonk togkod tegane. 
Nuttinninnuum, -og. 
Kuttinninnume, -og. 
Wuttinninnumoh, -mog. 
Kuttinninnum, -og. 
W u 1 1 i » i n i i i n u m o 6 o rr . 
,) Muppuhkubk, or chippi. 
Kussouosooe puhpooonkash. 
Monatash poohqunnumooonkash. 
Monanteae wunncowaonk. 


[p. 20.] 


Absolute (natural,) 

Actual, all, 

Let rne alone, 


All alone, 

I was alone, 

Another man, or house, 

Any body, 

Any man, any wood, 

Antient times, 
Approved of God, 
Too apt, apt, 
Squint eyed, 
Awry, or crooked, 
A bad, or evil sign, 
A bad man, 
A bald head, 

Wame manehkesit. 

Wuttinne pomantamcoongane. 

Usseae, wame. 



Nomsiyeue, wukse. 


Onkatog wosketomp, asuhwetii. 

Nanwe, howan, auwon. 

Nanwe wosketomp, nanwc mi- 


God cowowenomuh. 

Matchit kuhkinneasuonk, 
Matche wosketomp. 




Barren, base, 

A begging fellow, 
Below, beyond, 
Biir with young, big, 
Bitter (moan) 
Bitter water 
Black wolf, 

Black face, 

Blind wretch, 


Blue colour, 

Boiled meat, 


Both parts, 

Bowed or bent, 

Bountiful friend, 

Bright shining sun, 


In brief, 

Brute, beast, 

A calm season, 

A certain, 

Careful persons, 

Chaste spouse, (chast,) 


Cheap, cheerful, 

Chief, churlish, 

Civil, clean, 


Common people, 


Covetous lord, 

Crafty or cunning counsels, 

Crooked, cross, 
Cruel tyrant, 
Curled locks, 
Courteous dame, 
Dainty victuals, 

Dark night, 
De^f ear, 
Dear, loving, 
Dear price, 
Deep well, 
Delightful place, 


Mehcheyeue, matche. 

w'en.ushaonk, subs. 
Weenshae pukkiskattees, 
OhReieu, onkkouc. 
Wompfquo, mishee. 
Wesogke mcoonk. 
Mooi or rnowescjo mukquish- 


Paukinnumcoe kittumonkiese. 

Kestie weyaus. 

Neescoog chippissuog, 
Wonkkinno^ucn!:, sauappinncsi:. 
Womasue netomp. 
Pahke, wossumtue nepaz. 
Wahvvame, kishki. [p. 21.] 

Tiohque nissim. 
Mat watamoe, puppinanashim. 
Auwepue ahquompi. 

Nanauantamoe missinnuog. 

"Wunnoadtue, wekontamoe. 
Negonne, chenauosue. 
Pissaumatue, pohkoiyeue. 
Pahtipnippogadte, ur pakkeyeiie. 
Nanwe missinninnuog. 
Aiahchuontamoe sontim. 
Waantam, wunnupwowae ken- 

Wonkoi, chenauosue. 
Onkque neunkque ayeuteatnin. 
Wutchipattukque, mesunk, sonksq. 
Wekcrme metsuonk. 
Kogkopsae, mehtouog. 
Mishoadtue. . 

Quinonogkod wuttohhomong. 
Wunnegiii aiyeuonk. 



Different tempers, 
A diligent workman, 
Diverse sorts, 
Doubtfull matters, 
Dreadfull/ drunken, 

Dry, dumb, 

Dirty sluts, 


Each part, 

Each others, each other, 

Early ripe, 

Earnest in business, 

Easy disposition, 

An easy lesson, 

Ecclesiastical persons, 

Elect, election, 
Eloquent, eloquence, 

Empty handed, 
Endued with wit, 


Envious fools, 

Equal sides, 

Especial occasion, 

Everlasting, eternity, 

Every one, or man, 

Every thing, 

Evil (substantially,) 

Exact, right, 


Faint hearted, 

A fair girl, 

Faithfull, false, 

Famous for goodness, 
Far, fatherly, 

Fat cattle, 

Fat ground, 

Few such, 

Filthy communication, 

Firm trust, 

Fit for any thing, 


Chagchape nitteahhaongnsh. 
Menehteantamoe anakausuaenin. 
McochOke chippe niyeuash. 
Chan'intamoe teagnassinish. 
Oukqueneunkquat, wussomsip- 

Nunnapi, mat kakittooe. 
Nishkeae nattuppooaenuog. 

Naneeswe, chippag. [p. 22.] 

Nishnoh pasuk, aausiie. 
Kenuppe kesanncota. 
Chekeantam ut anakausuonganit. 
"Wunne maninissiionk. 
Nikkumme nuhtuhtoonk. 
Moeuwehkomungane nananuwa- 

Pe r> ena ,, .itche np feesjtnteiniGOOiik 
Tappencunkqussue, -onk. 
Mohchiyeue menitcheg, 
Mechimuhkonittii, nashpe nehto- 

Chokquog, chogqussuog, pi.; wa- 

tahkconog, such as wear coats. 
Ishkauaussue, nisquetue mat- 

Tatuppeyeu aetouwe. 
Papane wutcheaj. 
Michemohtae, michemeyeuooonk. 
Nishnoh pasuk, or wosketomp. 
Nishnoh teag. 
Sohqut teahhaue. 
Wunnetue nonksqua. 
Papohtanumukqussue, assooke- 

Wunnissu wutch wunnetoonk. 
Nauwutf noadt, wultcoshimmau- 

Wunnogque netassuog. 
Ogkosso5og netatuppe. 
Matche keketcokaonk. 
Menuhke annunohqutonk. 

unauwohkon, nanweteag, 





Flat nosed, 

Foolish whelp, 
Forcible, or violent, 
Former chapter, 
Former doings, 
Foreign news, 

Foul, or dirty, 
Free, liberty, 
Free born, 
Frequent, fresh, 

A fruitful! summer, 


A full burn, 

A man full of envy, 

A house full of goods, 


Gentle or tame, 

A gentleman, 


Glad enough, 

Glorious, godly, 

Good men, 

A good house, 

Good commandments, 

It is all for good : subst ; 

He is gray before he is good, 

Let your speeches be good, 

Good, better, best, 

Gray headed, gray, 
Great God, 
Greatest evils. 

A great estate, 

A great man, 

A great beast, 

Greatness, weightiness, inoinen- 

Greedy gut, 

Neneque mutchan. [p. 23.] 


Assootue wuskosshum. 


Negouneycue cap. « 

Chenohkomue usseongash. 

(Nussitpngquot) nowadtit wut- 

Nishkeneunkquat, or ukkohkeai. 
Nanauwe, nanauweyeuonk. 
ChippmniiiTfue. netu, -onk. 
Nagwut.teae unninuhpukquan 

Mussegkittede kissittooo. 
Nurhwae, pahsnanne. . 
Numwametchmu mechimukko- 

Wosketomp numwae ishkauus- 

Wetu numwohta momatchiash. 
Nanwe mamusseyeue. 
Wekontamcoonk tapi. 
Sohsuniooe, manittooe. 
Wuunetoue wosketompaog. 
Wunnegen, (or) wunne wetu. 
Annooteamooongash wunnegun- 

Ne wame wutche wanegkuk, (or) 

wanegik. . 
Noli wompequau, asqunwunne- 

Kuttinnohquatumooongash wun- 

Wunne, auwannegen. 
Wunnit [things.) 
Wunnissu (persons.) 
Wompontuppaonk, w r ompishockL 
Mussikkentoe God. 
Mohsag (sing.) mogakish 

matchukish. [p. 24.1 

Mussi wenauwetuonk. 
Missugken wosketomp. 
Mishee puppunnasshim. 

Wussomuppoe menogks. 



Green apron, 

Gross, or horrible, 


Hairy bear, 

Haifa bushel, 

Happy, happiness, 

Our happiness, 

Hard, or difficult, 

A hard stone, 

Haughty, or proud, 

High, and mighty, w 

An high house, 

An high man, 


A hoarse voice, 

An hollow thing, 

Holy exercises, 

The holy bible, 

Hoiy, or religious seeds, 

Holy rest, 

Consecration, or making holy, 

Honest labour, 


How many men, 

How many days, 

How great, how good, 

Humble beggars, 


Imperfect creatures, 







Inward delight, 
In tire, or whole, 
Joyful feast, 

Just, jusj so, 
Kind husband, 
A knowing ladd, pi. 
A lame creature. 

Last year, 
This year, 

Askosque attoh. 
Pohquinumoe, keessantamoe. 
Ukkeesshae moskq. 
Pohshe qiittohhumuoonk. 
Wunniyeu, -onk. 

Menuhki qussuk, (hussun.) 
Quinuhqui metah, petuanumoe. 
Quinuhqui, and menehkesu. 
Quinuhqui wetu. 
duinukquesu wosketomp. 
Tanne ontowaonk. 
Puppuhkc teag. 

Wunnetupantamwe wogkoueonk. 
Manittooe wussukwhonk. 
i eaiitani vve usoeuugdsii. 
Wunnetupantamwe arivvohsinnoo- 

Sampwe anakausuonk 
Tohtohscoog wosketompaog. 
Tohtohshinnash kesukodash. 
Uttoh missi, uttuh en wunnetoo. 
Hohpooe wenshaeninuog. 

Mat pahkesue oaasineg. [p. 2o.] 
Mat panuphettuonk. 
Mat nuppcoe. 
Matta asscokekedteamoe. 
Matta wehquishinnojc mat, 

Unnomuttcahae wekontaniooonk. 
Yoowame, or mamusse. 
Miskouantamoe mishodtuppco- 

Mat wunnohteae. 
Sampwi, tatuppeyeu. 
Wunnenehhuae wasukkien. 
Watamoe wuskenin, wuskenesp, 7. 




Large, late, 

Latter part, 
Late at night, 
Lawful authority, 
Lazy folks, 
A lean person, 
Learned physicians. 
A thing- left, 
Left handed, 
Light heeled, {or footed,) 
A light burden, or heavy, 
Like men, 
Like-unto, like, 

They are made like, (conforma- 
And the like, 
Limber cloth, 
A little lisping, 
A little man, 
A little house, 
Little, least, 
Your little legs, 
A little heaven, 
A little time, 
A little trouble, 
A very little bird, 
Loathsome hole, 
Long legged, 

Long time, 

Long experience, 
Long way, 
Lonely town, 
Loose tongued, 
Low barn, 
A low man, 

Lusty and tall, 
Mad, maimed, 
Manifest folly, 
Many men, 
Many deaths, 
Many bears, 
Mean parentage, 
Mere dunce, 
A meet season, 

Mummcshki, nauohqomptumukup 

Momiches, chippi. 
No uttippohkod. 
Namatue nanawnuucowaonk. 
Segeneamoe missinnin. 
Onauwussue missinnin. 
Norftohlogik pouaskehtuaeninuog. 
Neteag nogkodtumuk. 
Nonkke sittont. 

Nrnkke weanun, or tuhkequan. 
Tatuppe, tatuppeneankquat. 
Tahlppeyeu, -oog. 

Kah nish nc annakisk. 

Nnohkie nio7iao-e. 

Ogkosse sekontoowau. 

Peasissu wosketomp. 


Peawe, nanpehpeawag. 

Papewe kuhkonttash. 

Peamese kesuk. [p. 26.] 

Tiahqui ohquompi. 

Ogkulise wuttaniehpunnionk. 

Nanpch peississu pussuhkis. 

Nehehanumukquat wonog. 


Quinni } x 

Seeppe \ "H" " 1 !"- 

Seeppce pahkontamooonk. 

Noadit may. 

Nonsee ootan. 

Puppogque menan. 

Tiohquohque wechumukkomuk. 

Tiohquohqassu wosketomp, 

Netachquohquohk, tiohqu6nk- 

Papassununkqussu, quinuhqussu. 
Kogkeae, noochimwe. 
Watouwahuau tohnoocheyeuuk. 
Monaog wosketompaog. 
Monatash nuppcoongash, 
Monaog moshquog. 
Kittumongke wutchiyeuonk. 
Webe, or papaquanne assrotii. 
Wunnohkommiae ahquompi. 



Merciful, middle, 

A mild speaker. 

Mindful of sin, 

Mindful be of the, 




Much, more, most, 

Most of the things, 

Too much, so much, 

How much shall I give you, 

Much longer, 

Narrow compass, 

Naughty, near to, 

Death is near, 

Neat manners, 


Beings, or things necessary. 

Neither he, nor she, 
Neither of them, 
New, news, 

Newness of life, 

Noble man, 
None, nothing, 
Obscure, or hidden, 
Other, or another, 
Other men, 
Another way, 
Old ways, 
Old birds, 
Original, outward, 
Original, pagan, 

Pale, a pale man, 
Particular, adj. 
Perpetual motion, 
Plain way, 

It is plain, or manifest, 
The thing is very plain, 
Pleasant company, 
Pleasant weather, 
Pleasant walking, 
Plentiful harvest, 

A plentiful table. 

Monanitteae, nanasshouwe. 

Maninnekek kuttoohkaenin. 

Nanauantamooonk matcheseonk. 

Nanauantash wutche ne. 



Mat osoowunnamcoe. 

Mcocheke, kooche, anue. 

Anue mcocheke teaguassinish. 

Wussomme, tohshe. 

Toh kittcashshinnumauish. 

Kooche wonk. 

Tottodchi aiyeuonk. [p. 27.] 

Matche, passcocheyeu-ut. 

Nuppcoonk passwappu. 


Quenauhikkcoe, quenauok. 

TeanteaguassiiHsli, quenauhua- 


Matta nag pasuk. 

Wuske, unnuhtamcoonk, ach moo- 
won k. 

Wuske pomautamcoonk. 



Matta pasuk, monteag. 

Piussukke, attohtossu. 

Onkatog, onkatogig, pi. 

Onkatogig wosketompaog. 

Onkatog may. 

Mcochekit, nompe. 

Nukkonne mayash. 


Nukkonne, woskeche. 

Wadchaubukkue, matta peuhtam- 

Wompekisheeae wosketomp. 


Na^wutteanumoe workout on k. 


Pahke unni. 

Ne pogkodche pahkneunkquat. 

Wunnegen wechiyeumitchik. 



MisshimmechTmue kepinuraco- 

Mishimmechumtoe tashpooonk. 



Poor, poverty, 

Present trouble, 
Present to, 
Pretty well, 
A pretty fellow, 
A pretty thing, 

Secret ) 

-r, . > revenge, 

Private ) - ' 

Prodigal son, 

Profane villain, 
That is proper, or right, 
Prosperous gale, 
Prosperous men, 
Proud rogues, 

-n , i- -i ° 

Jl UUllCK, 1 

Pure trade, 


Quick witted, 


Rare apples, 

Rash talk, 

Raw as a piece of meat, 

Ready to do good, 

May be prepared, or ready, 

Reasonable, rebellious, 

Red, regular, 

Religious administration, 


The rest of the men, them that 

are left with some gone, 
Rich, right, 
Right handed, 
Ripe soon, 
Roasted round. 
Rude behaviour, manner, 

way, state, condition 

Sad, sorrowfull, 
Safe, or secure, 
The same, 
Savage, heathen, 
Saucy, seasonable, 
Severe master, 


Matehek Tie, kitlumungeneyeuoo- 

Poswohtae wuttamantamo:)onk. 
Anaquabhettit, [p. 28.] 

Wunnissue missinnin. 
Mosunnoquat teag. 
Negonneytjue negonneyeuuk, pi. 


Kerne annotaonk. 

Mohtompashacninnue wunnau- 

Papaquanne aiontogomp. 
Wunnohteai, (or) ne unm. 
Wunnopkommiae wuttin. 
Wunnohkommiae wosketompaog. 
Pehtuanummoe aiontokkoiog. 

l*u uquae, jJttiiptnjauuLaiiiuk. 

Wunne teagvvassinnu. 
Tiadche, a kenuppe. 
Chitchikque kuttooonk. 
Askin neane kodchukhi weyaus. 
Pahtsu wunnenchhuonat. 
Woh quaquashweeog. 
Enomaiyeue, cheketamoe. 
Mishque, kuhkuhhegane. 
Mar.ittcoompae usseonk. 

Sequishonchik wosketompaog. 

Matta anwosunooe. 
Weenauwetu, nenih, (or) sampwi. 
Kuttinnohkoune menitcheg. 
Kesanntohta teanuk. 
Apwosu, petukqui. 
Ponniyeue unniyeuonk. 
Nuttlnntyeuonk, nuttinohkommia- 

Noowontamuoe. [p. 29.] 

Nenan, nnih, nont nee. 
Matche missinnuog. 
Mat quaquttamnico, wunne. 
Onkeneunkque sontim, 



Shallow, shamefaced, 

Short breeches, 
In short, 
A short man, 
A short day, 

A shrill tone, or noise, 
Very sick, 
Sinfuli, slavish, 
Well situated, 
Soft, soft wool, 
Small, * 

Solemn assembly, 
Some men, some stones, 

Sound wind and limb, 

Sovereign, sovereignty, 

Sour beer, 


Spreading sail, 

Special, still, 

Stooping for age, 

Straight path, 

A strange thing, 

A stranger, 

Strong, and subtil, or cunning, 

Our strong arms, 

Such glory, 

Such differences, 

Such, as such men, 

Such a man, 

Such a day, 

In a man, 

Sudden change in a man, 

Sudden change in a thing, 


Sure or certain, 

Certainty, assurance, 

Surviving, sweet, 
Swift feet, or men, 
Tall, and tender, 
Terrible thunder, 

Pongqui, akodchuc nissuonk. 
Mat akodchue, keni. 
Tiohqui, or tiohkeosue ogkorj. 
Nultiohquem, or Ilcowam. 
Tiohkoosuc vvosketomp. 
Tattauyu, kukesukod tattauyu- 

quiyeuash kesukodtash. 
Poketche mochnog. 
Matcheseae, missinncoe. 
Noohkie, noohkeshakanash. 
Peasik, peawy. 

Qushae or miyae («//) moconk. 
Nawhutche wosk, and qussuk- 

Mat woskesuonk, mat chenesu- 

Wussontimcue, sontimcoonk. 
Seane wuttattamcoonk. 
Keteahogkoune, naashanittiie. 
Sepakinnumooonk monag. 
Nanahsiyeue, aspeh. 
Coskinuk mohtontamcoonk. 
Sampwiyeue may. 
Wuilnoh ne teag. 



MenehkesOe, wunninnupwoo. 
Menuhke nuhpittenonnonash. 
Neanag sohsumooonk. 
Neanagish chadchaboaongash. 
Neane, ne neanesitcheg woske- 

NeahanTssit wosketomp. 
Ohunnag kesukod. 
Tiadche penaSadt. [p. 30.} 

Mat anncoteamcoe. 
JMat chanantamoe, wunnamuhku- 

Wunnamuhkutteyeuuk, pahkon- 

tamoe annoosooonk. 
Menehteantamhuae, wekonne. 
Kenupshae misseet. 
Qunnohquat and noochumwi. 
Unkquinneunkque pattohquoh- 




Thankfull for any thing, 

Thick, thin air, 
Torn coat, 
Treacherous dealers, 

Trembling jovnts, 

True, trusting unto, 

A twin, 

Vain endeavours, 


Visible representations, 

Unable, and unwilling, 

Unmarried, man, 



Upwards, heavenwards, utterly. 

Uttermost, or utmost, 

Wandering wanton, 


Wealthy citizens, 

Weary travellers, 

Weighty matters, 

Wet and stormy, 

What manner, 

Whether, or no, 

A white wall, 

Whole time, 

Without, within, 


Whosoever, and whatsoever, 

Wicked, wide, 

Wicked men, 

Wild, pi 

Wise, and witty, 

"Wonder full counsellor, 

Worse than the other, 




Worthy receivers, 

Wounded in fight, 

Yearly payment. 

Tabattantamooe, wutche nanwe, 

Kohpoghi, wuss.ippi woppinnok. 
Tannoghi, petasquishaonk. 
Wnnompukohteae onnaquisshaa- 

Ninukshae, onaquesuongash. 
Sampwee, papahtantamrnun. 

Togquos, Ogquos, -SLlOg. 

Tahucoche, missontamcoongash. 

Nogqiissue, ogqueneunkqussuon- 

Mat tappinummco, mat wekon- 


IMat mittumwusslsuenin. 
WetGiiadtead, enin. 

Mat pakodtattinnekontamcoe. 

Kesukquiyeu, papaquanne. 


Wawonchik, poniyeue. 


Wenouwetu, wuttcotannieog. 

Sauwinumoe ponussbaenuog. 

Missiyeue pissaumatuongash. 

Wuttapohquot and nashquittin. 

Uttoh unni. 

Uttokau, asuh matta. 

Wompi sassuppokomuk. 

Mamlsse ahquompi. 

Poquatchiiniyeu unnomralyeu. 


Tokod, howan, and uttohkodteag. 

Matchetou, kishkoh 

Matchetcowog, matchetukeg. 


Waantam, and wowunnohteawau. 

Mohtchantamwe kencoscoaenin. 

Mat chit onk onkatog. 

Anue matchit. 

Wowussummuae, qutti'antamwe. 

Tapinumoe, tapeneunkqVissue. 

Quagquashwehtamwe, attumunu- 

Noochimwuttohwhussu, ut ayeu- 

Kogkodtumwae, oadtehteaonk. 




Rulers in an inferior capacity, 

Loose principles, and practices, 

A fancy, 
A rack, 


Unity, one, first, once, 

Two, second, twice^ 
Second persons, causes, 

Three, third, thrice, 
Three commandments, 
Four, fourth, four times, 
Four houses, 
Five, fifth, five times, 

Six, sixth, seven, 

Eight, eighth, eight times, 
Nine, ninth, 

Ten, tenth, 

Ten commandments, 

Eleven, twelve, 

Twenty-one, thirty-two, &,c. 
The twentieth company, 

Thirty, forty, 

Fifty, sixty, 

Seventy, eighty, 


Oue hundred, 

One thousand, 

One hundred houses, 

One hundred men, 

Ninety men, 

Ninety houses, 


Wuskuntam ; wuskcto, a creature 

not a man. 
Nanawinuaeninuog nag ohkeiyeu 

Piahchummooe unnantamog, and 

Tannauwohkumpunnaonk, au- 

Unnogketamooonkash. [p. 32.] 
Pasukcoonk, pasuk, nequt, negon- 
ne pasCikqut ; pasuk annu, one 
Nees, nahohtoeu, nesit. 
Nahohtoeu howanooongash, enno- 

Nish, nishwe, nishwut. 
Nishwe annooteamcoongash. 
Yau, yaue, yauwut. 
Yauunash wetuornash. 
Napanna, napannaut, napanna- 

Nequtta, pi. nequttatassuog ; ne- 
quttaut, nequttatashut, nesasuk. 
Sliwosuk, or nishwo, nishwosut. 
Paskoogit, or paskcogun paskoo- 

Piog, poioggut. 

Piogquttash annooteamcoongash. 
Piog nabo nequt, piog nabo nees, 

Neesneechag nequt, nees, Slc. 
Neesneechagehtunk wechiyeutii- 

Nishwinnechak, pi. suog, yauwin- 

Napannatashinnechak, pi. suog, 

Nesasuktasshinnechak, nishwo- 

Paskoogit tasshinnechak. 
Nequt passukoo, or passu koog. 
Nequt muttannonganog. 
Nequt pasiikcoash wetuornash. 
Nequt pasukcoog wosketompaog. 
Paskookin tasshinnechakodog 

Paskookin tashinnechakodash 




The fifth particular, 
The sixth, 

1, thou, he, him, 

We, us, ye, you, 

They, them, 

These men, these things, 

This man, this thing, 

In him, with him, her, 

My, mine, 

My God, my friend, 

My house, my grass, 

Thy, thine, your, yours, 

His, hers, whereby, 

Our, ours, 



Napannant chippag. 

Ncqutta ut, &x. 


[p. 33.] 

Nen, ken, noh, nagum. 

Nenauwun, kenau. 

Nag, nahog, or nagumau. 

Yeug, yeush, nish. 

Yeuoh, yeu. 

Ut noh, nashpe nagum. 

Ne, neen. 

Nuk Godum, netump. 

Neke, nummosketiimash. 

Kenayeu, yeu kenau. 

Nobne, nish, or yeu nasbpe, 

Yeu, nenauun. 

Howan anantam. 

Uttuh, uttlyeu, sing, uttiyeusk, jjL 

No wosketomp. 

Howan wunnaumonut yeuhoh. 


Howan ken. 

That man, 
Whose son is that, 

Who are you, 

I love God whose commandments Ncowaman God noh, or neg wut- 


are good, 

Whose, or of whom, 
Whose book is that, 
What you think, 

What manner you think, 

What life do you live, (how,) 
What trade are you of, 
What do you want, 
What is your name, 
W r hat do you say, 
What did you hear, 
Thy self, him, herself, 

Our selves, 

Your selves, 

Themselves, your self, 

I my self, 

You your selves, 

He himself, 

Their goods, 

Their own, 

For his own, 

The kingdom thine, 


Howanikyeu, or wutchehowan. 
Howan ootuhsjuohhonk ne. 
Toh kuttinantam, (when a man 

does not speak.) 
Teagua kuttinankam, (to know a 

man's opinion.) 
Toh kuttinne pomantam. 
Toh kittinanokautuaena. 
Teag kukquenauehhik. 
Toh kittistooes, 
Toh kittinnoowam. 
Toh kuttonenohtam. 
Piuhsukkeken, piuhsukke 

Vv r uhhogkawoh, kuhhog. [p. 
Nen nuhhog. 
Kenau kuhhogkawoog. 
Noh wjohoguh. 
Momatchiash wutche nahog. 
Nehenwonche wuttahtoonk. 
Ketassootamujonk kutahtauun. 






[p. 35.] 

I am able, 

Thou art able, 

He is able, 

We are able, 

Ye are able, 

They are able, 

I was able, thou wast, 

We were able, 

Be thou able, 

Let him be able, 

Let us be able, 

Be ye able, 

Let them be able, 

Art thou able, 

To be able, 

Endued him with ability, 


I abound, thou, 

To abound, 

I did, we did abound, 

I adorn, we adorn, 

He adorneth, 

To adorn, or make handsome. 

To be adorned, 

I will give an account, 

You must give an account, 

To give an account, 

I advise, or did, I well consider, 

We advise, 

To advise, 


To be advised, 

I afford, 

We afford, 

To afford, 

I did, we did afford, 


I affright, or did, 

We affright, 

To be affrighted, 

J am afraid, or I fear, 

We are afraid, or do fear, 

To be afraid, or to fear, 
God can make us afraid, 
I amend, 


Ken kuttappmum. 

Nagum tappfnnum. 



Nag tappinumwog. 

Nut, kuttappiniimup.. 

Kutt apinnumumunnonup. 

Ken tapinish. 

Nok tapinetch. 




Sun kuttapinnum. 


Toppenumwaheau, aiyeuwanta- 

Nummcochukkohtou, kum-. 

Nummis, nummissetimunonup. 
Noossin, noottinuuontamumun. 
Noh wussinnu. 
Wussinnu, wussinninneat. 
W u ss i n n u o n t a m u n a t. 
Nont nissampoowaontam. 
Nont pish kissampoo wain woo. 
Wunnompagunu muriate, (reckon 

when in debt.) 
Noonatwontam, -up. 
Nenauun nunnatwontamumun. 
Nuttinne, magun. 


Nen nummag nummagumunonup. 


Nikkitcheesahteam, -ap. [p. 3C] 

Nenauun nikkitchesshateamun. 



Ncowapantamumun, or novvabe- 

God woh noowabesuwahikqun. 
Nuppencowuneunkus, usseonk. 



We amend, 

To amend, (Sampweteauunat,) 

I am angry, 

We are angry, 

To be angry, 

To make angry, 

Dont be angry with me, 

I am angry with you, 

I am angry with him, 

His slow anger, 

Ahque mosquanumeh. 
Ummanunnee musquanittamco- 

Here the prefix Um, is remo 

His anger, 
Our anger, 
Their anger, 

T „ _. n : - . 
X Unvjilit, 

We anoint, 

To anoint, 

To be anointed, 

I answer, or did, 

We answer, or did, 

To answer, 

Why dont you answer me, 

To be answered, 

I appear, we appear, 

To appear, 

Appearance, or looks, 

A pretence, 

How does this appear, 

I appease, or did, 

We appease, or did, 

To appease, or pacify, 

To be appeased, 

I arise, (numos,) 

We arise, to arise, 

I arise out of my bed, 

God arises me from sleep, 

I arrive, to arrive, 

I am ashamed, 

To be ashamed, 

Make me ashamed, 

I was ashamed, 

It ashameth me, 

It makes them ashamed, 

ved from the Substantive to the Adjec- 











Toh wutch mat nampcohumoog. 


Nunnogquis, -sumun. 



Woskeche nogqussuonk. 

Yeuoh toh unnoowasheau. [p. 37.] 





Nuttomuhkem, or noowabeem. 

Nuttomukkemun, omuhkenate. 

Nuttomuhkem wutch nuttappin- 

God nuttomuhkinuk wutch kaue- 

Nootuhtohkom, wuttuhtuhkomu- 




I ask nothing, 

Thou askest, 

He asks, he did ask, 

We ask, ye, 

They ask, 

To ask, 

I assure you, 

To assure, 

I attempt, to attempt, 

To avouch, 

I awake, we awake, 

To awake, 

To be awake, I did awake, 

I aim at, 

To aim at, 

I bargain, to bargain, 

We have bargained, 

We bargain, 

To bark, 

The dog barks, 

To be, that is, 

I be, thou art, he is, 

We are, ye are, they are, 

He is my friend, 

Let him be my friend, 

Let us be friendly, 

He was, we were, 

Ye were, they were, 

As they were before, 

Oh that we were, 

I beat, 

I am beaten, 

We beat, to beat, 

To be beaten, 

A stick, 

I am become a man, 

I am become, we are become, 

To become, 

I beget, we beget, 

To beget, 

To be begotten, 

I begin, we begin, 

I did begin, 

Do thou begin, 

Let us begin, 

To begin, 

To be begun, 

I behold, we behold, 

Nunnattootumwehteam montcag. 


Nohattpotumwchtean, -up. 






Nen nukkodussep, kodussenat. 

Wan won at. 

Nuttoohkern, un, nuppagis. 







N n ttoro matti tnu n . 

Wohwokkonnat. [p. 33.] 

Anum wohwohteau. 

Aiinneat, nenih. 

Nen nont, ken nont, nohne. 

Kenauun yeu, kenauna, nag, na. 


Unnannumnoh noowotompainne. 

^ _- ( unniittuh 

Uowetomuae { .... , 
r ( tittcauh. 

Nagum nont, neriauun nee. 

Kenau ne, nag ne. 

Nish neanakup. 

Napeh nont ne unnioog. 

Nen nuttattagkom. 

Nen nuttattogkomut. 

Nuttattadteamun, tadtagkonat. 
* * # # # 



Nuttinni, yumun. 


Nconaumoni-yeum, yi-mun. 



Nenkitche, nukkittcheussem, -un. 






Kussehnunnaurn, nunnaumumun. 



I believe, or did, 
We believe, 

To believe, believe thou, 

To be believed, 
Faith, Infidels, 




To bellow, or make a noise, 
I bend, we bend, 

To bend, bending, 

To be bent, 

I beseech you, 

I beware, we beware, 

To beware, 

Beware of men, 

Beware of the sea, 

He was betrayed, 

I bind, we bind, 

To bind, 

To bind, or engage us, 

Obligation, or binding, 

To be bound, 

I bite, we bite, 

To bite, 

I blame, we blame, 

To blame, 

To be blamed, 

I bless, we bless, 

To bless, 

To be blessed, 

To blot out, 

I blow, we blow, 

To blow, 


The wind bloweth, 

I boil, 

To boil the pot, 


I am born, 

Namamptam, -up. 
NcDnamptamumun, wunnamp- 

Wunnamptamunah, wunnamp- 

tash ken. 
Wunnamptamcoonk, pan- 

noowohtogig. [p. 30.] 

Mat wunnamptoggeg. 
Mat wunnamptoggeeg, neanak 

wussukwhongane, wunnouiwa- 

Noowonkunum, -un, or ncono- 

Wonkunumnnat, noowanumoo- 

Nun nunnukqus, -sumun. 
Nunnukqusuoat wosketompaog. 
Nunnukqussuontash keitah. 
Nukkishplnno, -mun, 
Kishpissuonk, or mohttomattuonk. 
Nen nussogkepcowam, -un. 
Nen noochum, -comun. 
Nen ncDnanum, nconanummQ- 

Jishkhamunat, jeshkhash nuru- 

NuppcopootontOvvam, -un. 
Waban ootshon. 
N u nu u in m attc h kuhquam . 
Nrochkuwaenin. [p. 40.] 

Nummahche neetti. 



We are born, 

To be born, heirs, 

To bear a child, 

To brag, or swagger, 

I break, we break, 

To break, 

To be broke, 

I break a law, 

A law is broken, 

To break a limb, 

I breathe, or did, 

We breathe, or did, 

To breathe, 

I bring, or did, 

We bring, or did, 

To bring, 

To be brought, 

Bring him with you, 

Bring my coat, 

Bring thou, bring ye, 

Let him bring, 

Let us bring, 

Let them bring, 

Dost thou bring, 

Dost he bring, 

Do we bring, or not, 

To bring thee, 

To bring up any thing from 

To be educated, 
I build, or did, 
We build, or did, 
To build, to be built, 
I burn, or did, 

We burn, or did, 

To burn, 

To be burnt, 

I bury, or did, 

We bury, or did, 

To bury, 

To be buryed, 

I buy, or did, 

We buy, or did, 

To buy, 

To be bought, 


I call, or did, 

Nummahche nettimun. 
Nekinneat, ayuskotturnauomuk- 

Nechanat mukkoies. 
Nuppcokukkom, -umun. 
Nuppoohqun naumatluonk. 
Naumatuonk pohehokossu. 
Pohchohkomunat, pohchatuk. 
Neri nunnassham, or -nont. 
Nunnasshcomun, -nont nunnash. 
Nairn ashanat. 
Nen nuppatton, -up. 
Nuppattoman nonup. 
JNoh pasoo nashpe ken. 
Patauish nuppetohkos. 
Patunishken, patoooook. 
Pattauitch nagum. 
Neg patauehhittich. 
Sun ken kuppato. 
Sun noh patou. 
Sun nuppatomun asuh mat. 

Wunne nehtuhptkheonat. 
Ncowekltteam, noowekitteop. 
NcDwekitteamun, nonup. 
Wekukkonat, w^ekukkoadtinneat. 
Nutchikkos, nutchikkos- 

sumup. [p. 41.] 

Nutchikkossumun, -nonap. 
Nuppoosukin, -nop. 
Nuppaosekinnuwomun, -nonup. 
Nuttottowam, nuttottowap. 
Nuttaphumumun, -nonu[). 
Noowequtteam, -up. 



We call, or did call, 
To call, 
To be called, 
What you call Table, 
What you call a Wolf, ) 
in Indian. j 

I do care, 
I dont care, 
To care, 

I carry, we carry, or did, 
To carry, 
To be carried, 
I carry a man, 

I carry a stone, 

Do thou carry me, 

1 will carry thee, 

Do thou carry him, 

Do ye carry us, 

I cast, we cast, 

To cast, or be cast, 

I catch, or did, 

We catch, or did, 

To catch, 

To be caught, 

I cease, or did, 

We cease, or did, 

I charge (a gun,) 

We charge, 

To charge, or order, 

I am charged much, 

I charge thee, 

I change, we change, 

To be changed, to look 

another manner, 
Change thou, change ye, 
Let us change, 
I chastise, or dm 1 , 
We chastise, or did, 
To chastise, 
To be chastised, 
I cheat, or did, 
We cheat, or did, 
To cheat, 
I chase, or did, 
He has chose, 
Choose thou, 

Noowequtteamumun, -nonup. 
Toh katusscowetam Table. 
Tohkitteuhin nattoohqus ut Indi- 
an ut. 
Ncn nunnanajiantam. 
Mat tohtiittintupantunmoo. 
Nutt'tshun, -nuwamun, -nonup. 
Nukkfmnum (nukkunun) wos- 

Nappummunneeteam hussum. 
Pish kuppumminnegkonish. 
Ken pumminnegkos noh. 
Kenan pumminnegkoshinneat. 
Nussohwhoteam, -on. 

Nuttohquinummun. [p. 42.] 

Nuttohquinumumun, -nonup. 
Nummahteaim, -ep. 
Nummahteaemun, -nonup. 
Nuttasscoweeimis, -sumun. 
after Penoovvinneunkqusspinneat. 

Penoowinnunkqusish, -seg. 



Nussohsamatohwhamun, -nonup. 


Sasamatahu hittinneat. 









To cherish, or to nourish, 

I cherish, or I nourish, 

To be cherished, or nourished, 

I chide, or scold, 

We chide, or did, 

To be chid, 

I am choked, or was, 
We are choaked, or were, 
To be choaked, 

I am choaked, with an halter 


I claim, or did, 

We claim, or did, 

To claim, 

1 clap, 

To clap, 

To be clear, or manifest, 

To be cleared, or acquitted, 

I cleave to, we cleave to, 

I climb, 

To climb, 

I cloath, 

To cloath, 

To be cloathed, 

I am cold, or was, 

We are cold, or were, 

To be cold, 

The dog is cold, 

The earth is cold, 

I do come, or did, 

We come, or did, 

To come, 

Thou comest, ye come, 

He comes, they come, 

Thou didst, he did come, 

Ye did come, 

They did come, 

I would come, 

When did you come from home, 

Men come, 

The goods are come, 

Come in, come hither, 


Future, or to come, 

The comforter, 

I comfort, or did, 

We comfort, or did, 


Sohkom moon ittin neat. 

Nen nun nishqu<~ warn. 
Nun nishque warn un. 
Nuppashoon, -nup, (wutche we- 

Nuppasshoonumun, -nonup. 
Nukkechiquabes peminneat. 
Nukkechlquapinit penin- 

yoh. [p. 43.] 

Nummosogquetam, -umun. 
Nukquosquatch, or nussonkqucs. 
Nukquosquatchumun, -nonup. 
Annum quosquatchoo. 
Ohke sonkqui. 
Nuppeyom, nuppeyop. 
Nuppeyamun, -nonup. 

Kuppeyam, -woo. 
Peyau, peyauog. 
Nont kuppeyomp, peyop. 
Nont kuppeyainwop. 
Woh nuppeyom. 
Tohhunnco koom kekit. 
Wosketompaog peyauog. 
Momatchiash peyomcoash. 
Peetitteash, nauwin. 

Tapehoowaenin. [p. 44.] 

Nuttappeh, -heornp, neawau. 
Nuttappehuamun, -nonup. 




To comfort, 

To be comforted, 


I command, or did, 

We command, or did, 

To command, 

He commands you, 

He commands me, 

He commands him, 

He commands us, 

He commands you, 

He commands them, 

Command your man, and do the 

thing your self, 
I commit, or did, 
We commit, or did, 
To commit, \ 

x commit cvi*, 
To commit to prison, 

To compass sea, and land, 

I compass, 

I compell, or did, 

We compell, or did, 

To compell, 

To be compelled, 

I complain, or did, 

W 7 e complain, or did, 

To complain, 

Did you complain of me, 

I condemn, or did, 

We condemn, or did, 

To condemn, 

To be condemned, 

I confess, or did, 

We confess, or did, 

To confess, 

I sick, 

I consume, 

We consume, or did, 

To consume, 

To be consumed, 

I am convinced, I acknowledge, 

I convince, or convinced, 

We convince, or did, 

To convince, 




Nuttannooteam, -up 

Nuttanncoteamumun, -nonup. 







Wutanonuk neh. 

Annoos kittinninnum, and 

ne teag usish ken. 
Nuttohtossoowam, -vvap, 
Nuttohtossoowamun, -nonup. 
Nuttissqm n&chuk. 
Ahtosoowonat en kuppishshag- 

Pannupshonat kehtoh, kah ohke. 
N utchekeyeuwae. 
Nutchetimuwamun, -nonup. 
Ncotuowam, nootowap, 
Ncotowamun, -nonup. 

Sun kootoowam nuhhog 
Nupgogkodtowam, -wap. [p 45.] 
Nuppogkodtowamun, -nonup. 
Nussampoowam, wap, nussara- 

pcDwauun nuhhog matches. 
Nussampoowamun, -nonup. 
Nuhbog chippohtooonk. 
Nummahcheem, or nummohtup- 

Nommohtupaemun, -nonup. 
Nummahche, wunnomwahit. 
Nuppoiikodcimm, -omp. 
Nuppogkodchumomun, -uonup. 



I cover, or did, 

We cover, or did, 

To cover ones nakedness, 

I counsel], or advise, 

We will counsell you, 

Thou shalt counsell me, 

Counsell, or advice, 

A counseller, 

To create, 

To be created, 

I creep, or did, 

We creep, or did, 

To creep, 

I cry, we cry, 

I did cry, we did cry, 

To cry, 

We curse, or did, 

To curse, 

To be cursed, 

A curse, 

I cut, or did, 

We cut, or did, 

To cut, 

Cut thou me, 

I dance, or did, 

We dance. 


To dance, 

Dont dance, 

I dare, we dare, 

To dare, 

I deceive, or cheat, 

We decieve, 

To deceive, 

Dont you decieve me, 

To dedicate, 

To be dedicated, 

I defend or did, 

We defend, or did, 

To defend, 

Defend thou me, 

I defile, or did, 

We defile, or did, 

To defile, 

To be defiled, 

I delight, or did, 

We delight, 

To delight, 

Nuttonkhurnun nuhhog, nupput- 

Futtoghumuuat poshkissuonk. 
Nont kukkogkatirnuinun. 
Nont kukkogkahtlmmc. 
Nuppumcotashomun, -nonup 
Nummome, nummomun. . 
Nummoup, nummomunn6nup. 

x^i uiriiTmliaiiiiiacarri. ip. 4o.j 





Nuttummlssum, nuttummissup. 

Nuttummissimumun, -nonup. 



Nuppumukkom, p. 

Nuppapomukkomun, -n6nup. 


Apque matwakesh - 

Mat noowapsu mun. 

Mat quttamcounat. 

Nattassookekoditeam, kommoo. 



Ahque asscokekoinme. 

Magunat en Godut. 

Magittinneat en Godut. 

Nukkinhtmom, p. 

Nukkinhamomun, -nonup. 



Ninnesketeoh, -up. 




Noovvekontamcoontam, -up. 





To be delighted, 
I deliver, or did, 

We deliver, or did, 
To deliver, 
To be delivered, 
Delivered, or spoken, 
Deliver me good Lord, 

I demand, 

To demand, 

I deny, or did deny, 

We deny, or did, 

To deny, 

To be denyed, 

Deny if you dare, 

I ufcpait, or did. 

We depart or did, 

To depart, 

Dont depart, 

It dependeth not, 

I deserve, or did, 

"We deserve or did, 

To deserve, 

I desire, or did, 


To desire, 

To be desired, 

I despise, or did, 

We despise, or did, 

To despise, 

To be despised, 

I cannot devise what to do, 

To devise, 

I, we devour, or did, 

To devour, or to be devoured, 

I shall dy, 

You must dy, 

We must all die, 

He died last week, 

He died for me, 

I make hole. 

I dig, or did dig, 

We dig, or digged, 

I did dig, 

To dip, 
To dispatch, 

Nuppohquohuhussuwam ; 


momatchiash, (from), [p. 47.] 
Pohquohwhusse wunneton son- 

Nukqueutowam, nukquencovvap. 
Nukquenoowamun, -nonup. 
Quenoowash mat quaquetamoo. 
Nuttamaemun, -nonup. 

Ahque amaehtash or amaish. 
Matta kenantamoomoonoo. 
Nuttappehkom, -up. 
Nuttapehkomumun, -nonup. 
Nukkodtantam, -up. 
Nukkodtantamumun, -nonup. 
Nutjishantarnumun, -nonup. 



Mat nunnattooontamoouttuh woh 

Nummahchip pumun, -up. 
Pish nunnup. [p. 48.] 

Nont pish nunnuppumun. 
Nont wame nenuppumun. 
Noh nupwoi ut nattea weekqsi. 
Noh nunnappoonuk. 

Ncowonteam, noowonteap. 
Ncowonteamun, -nonup. 
Nont noowonteap. 



I dispatch. 

I dissemble, or did, 
How do I dissemble, 
We dissemble, 
To dissemble, 
To be dissembled, 
A pretence, 
1 divide, or did, 
To be divided, 
To divide, 
I do, or did, 
We do, or did, 
Thou doest, or didst, 
He doth, .or did, 
Ye do, or did, 
They do, or did, 

X bftyp rlone. 

To do, to be done, 

My doing, 

I dote, or grow foolish, 

To dote, 

I doubt, or did, 

We doubt, cr did, 

To doubt, 

To be doubted, 

I draw, or did, 

We draw, or did, 

To draw, 

To be drawn, 

To draw out, 

I drink, or did, 

We drink, or did, 

Thou drinkest, or didst, 

He drinks, or did, 

Ye drink, or did, 

They did drink, 

I would drink, 

Drink no more, 

To drink, 

To be drunk, 

Dont be drunk, 

I ease myself, 

To ease a man of his Burden, 

I eat, or did, 
We eat, or did, 
To eat, 

Nummohtshattauun, anakansn- 

Nuttompuwus, -sup. 
Uttuh nittinomppuwissin. 
Nuttompuwussumun, -nonup. 
Webe oqquenunkqussina. 
Nutchadchapfinum, -up. 
Nuttusscn, -up. 
Nuttusscmun, -nonup. 
Kuttussen, -nap. 
Nagum, wuttoussen, -nap. 
Kutussemwoo, -wop. 
Nag wuttussennaog, -op. 
Nunam&bche usaem. 
Ussenat, kod-ussenat. 
N utassookenunkqe. 
Nutchanantam, -up. 
Nutchanantamumun, -nonup. 
Nootonchittom, -up. 
NootonchiUornun, -nonup. 
Nootattam, ncotattammup. 
Nootattattamumun, -nonup. 
Koottattam, -unap. 
Nagum wuftattam, -up. 
Kootattamumwoo, or -wo. 
Nag wuttattamupanneg. 
Nen woh nootattam. 
Ahque wonk wuttattash. 
Wussaumsippaminneat, or kog- 

Apque kogkesupamwish. 
Nuttannuwossumweh nuhhog. 
Nonketeauun wosketomp cowea- 

Nummechin, -nap. 
Nummechlmun, -nonup. 



Eat heartily, 

I embrace, or did, 

We embrace, or did, 

To embrace, " 

I empty. 

To empty, to be empty, 

I encourage, or did, 

Thou encouragedst, or did, 

We encourage, or did, 

To encourage, 

To be encouraged, 


I endure, or did, 

We endure, or did, 

To endure, 

To be endured, 

T cnior r>v f\-><\ 
- ~"j~j > Ui U1U 1 

We enjoy, or did, 
To enjoy, 
To be enjoyed, 
I enquire, or did, 
We enquire, or did, 

To enquire, 

To be enquired after, 


I enter, or did, 

We enter, or did, 

Enter if you dare, 

I entice, or did, 

We entice, or did, 

To entice, 

To escape, 

I establish, or did, 

We establish, or did, 

To establish, 

To be established, 

I esteem, or did, 

We esteem, or did, 

To esteem, 

To be esteemed, 

He esteems him, 

I esteem you, 

Let him be esteemed, 

I excell, or did, 

We excell, or did, 

To excell, 

He exposeth, he supposeth, 

Nukkehchikquan, (I hold by the 

Nussekqtinum, nootattamwaetch. 
Nen ncotaV'iitam, -up. 
Ken kcotco'intamhuam. 
Nummfnehteantam, -up. [p. 50.] 
Nummenehteantamumun, -nGnup. 
Nco-'ckcni^nicoontam, -up. 
Nunnattcotumwehteam, -up. 
Nunnattootumwehteamun, -non- 

Nattootumwehteaonk, -ash. 
Nuppetitteaontam, -up. 
Nuppetitteaontamumun, -nonup. 
Napeh petitteash. 
Noowowetimmuam, -ap. 
Noowowetimmuamun, -nonup. 
Nootooontam, -up. 
Nrjotooontamumun, -nonup. 
Nummishanumuhqus, -up. 
Noh unqutamup. 



I fall, or did, 

We fall, or did, a fall, 

To falter, or fail, 

I begin to falter, or fail 

1 fasten, or did, 
We fasten, or did, 
To fasten, 
To be fastened, 
I favour, or did, 
We favour, or did, 
To favour, 
I fear, to fear, 
I will make them to fear, 
Dost thou fear him, 
To feign, to dissemble, 
I feed, or did, 


We feed, 

To feed, 

To be fed, 

I feel, or did feel, 

We feel, or did, 

They ke\, 

To fed, 

I fetch, we fetch, 

To fetch, to be felt, 

I fight, or did, 

We fight, or did, 

To fight. 

To be fought, 

To fill, 

We fill, or did, 

To fill, 

To be filled, 

Let be filled, 

I find, or did, 

We find, or did, 

To find, 

To be found, 

I finish, or conclude, 

I flow, or did, 

We flow, or did, 

To flow, 

I fly, or did, 

We fly, or did, 

To fly, 

I flatter, or did, 

i ij 

NuppinTsshom, p. [p. 51.1 

Pinisshunat, penushaonk. 
my Nunncoche nooninnuwam ut hoo- 
Nummenehkeehteo, -up. 
Noowabcs, wabesinneat. 
Pish noowabteauaheaog. 
Sun kukquish noh. 
Ompuwussue unnissuonk. 
JVuttohsan netn^snonr. 
Sohkom oosooonat. 
Nummattam;ittam, -up. 
Nummattamattamumun, -nonup. 
Nunnemskom, -umun. 
Nummekuhteam, -up. 

Nunnameehteo, -ooup, [p. 52.] 
Nunnamehteomun, -nonup. 
Nippe tamogkon nuttamogkone- 

Nuttcowen, or nuttisshom, 
Nuttowemun, -nunup. 



We flatter, or did, 

To flutter, 

To be flattered, 

To fold a cloth, 

I follow, or did, 

We follow, or did, 

To follow, 

To be followed, 

Cause them to follow, 

I forbid, or did, 

We forbid, or did, 

To forbid, God forbid, 

To be forbidden, 

He forbiddeth, 

I forget, or did, 

We forget, or did, 

To forget, 

Make, or cause us to forget 

To be forgotten, 

To fulffill, 

To forswear, 

To be forsworn, 

To fortify, to be fortified, 

I gape, or did, 

We gape, or did, 

To gape, 

I gather, or did, 

We gather, or did, 

To gather, 

To be gathered, 

A congregation, 

I get, or did, 

We get, or did, 

To be gotten, 

I give, or did, 

Thou gavest, or didst, 

He gave, or did, 

We give, or did, 

Ye give, or did, 

They give, or did, 

Give thou me, 

Let us give, 

To give, 

To be given, 

I am glad, or was, 

We are grad. or were, 

To be glad, ' 

I was made glad, 




Nuttassmhkos, nuttassuhkou. 




Nag assuhkoshittich. 

Nukqueehtittcam, -ap. 

Nuhquehtitteamun, -nonup. 

Quehtchkonat, God quehtehchaj. 


Noh quehteliteuu. 

Noowanantam, -up. 

Noowanantam tirnun. 


Waiiantamwchhlnncan kcnau. 


Panuppe, ussenat. 

Panncowae, chachekeyeuonat. 



Nuttoiwanneem, nuttoa- 

nep. [p. 53.] 

Nutt'ancmun, -nonup. 

Nummukkunum, -up. 
Numukkinumumun, -nonup. 
Nuttahchuehteo, -up. 
Nuttinunumau, -omp. 
KuttinunQmau, -omp. 
Noh ununumauau. 
Nuttinunurnauoumun, -nonup. 
Kittinunumau worn woo. 
Nag ununumauau. 
Ken ununumah. 
Noowekontam, -up. 
Ncowekontamumun, -nonup. 



We were made glad, 
He was made glad, 
They were made glad, 
Try to make me glad, 
Gladness, cheerfulness, 
I go, or did, 
1 go on, or did, 
How do you go, 
We go, or did, 
To go, or walk, 
Go away, go out, 
I govern, or did, 
We govern, or did, 
To govern, 
To be governed, 
A governour, sovereignty, 
Dominion, power, strength, au- 
thority, emcacy, substance, 
A tribunal, or judgment seat. 
I am going home, 
Do we go, or stay, . 

I am ready to go, 

I will make you go, if you dont, 

To be green, 
I grieve, or did, 
We grieve, or did, . 
To grieve, 
To be grieved, 
To grind, 
To grin, 
I groan, or did, 
We groan, or did, 
To groan, 
To handle, 
I was hanged, 
To be hanged, 
A ladder, 
I hasten, or did, 
We hasten,' or did, 
To hasten, 
I am in haste, 
I hate, or did, 
We hate, or did, 
To hate, 
To be hated, 
,1 have, or had, 


Noh weekontamwaheoppan. 
Neg weekorftamwaheoppanneg. 
Qutche weekontarnwake. 

Wekontameoonk, taphcttaonk. 


Nummoncheontam, -up. 


Uttuh kittinnemonchem. [p. 54:] 

Nummonchimun, -nonup. 

Moncheenat, pomishonat. 

Monchish, sohhash. 

Nunnaunauwinyeuwam, -wap. 




Sontim, sontimeoonk. 

Nanarminumooonk, menuhkesu- 

onk, menuhkesuonk. 
Wussittumooe, appuoonk. 
Sunnuinmonehemun, or nenutap- 

Nuppahtis moncheenat. 
Kuttiyuiaaush moncheenat, mat 

Nunnoohuwamun, -nonup. 

Nuttouahkontoam, nuttouohhom. 
Nuttouahkontowamun, -nonup. 
Nukkinuppe, usseern. 
Nukkinuppemun, -nonup., 

Nutjishontam, -up. [p. 55.] 

Nutjishontamumun, -nonup. 
Nummahche, nutahtou. 




Thou hast, thou hadst, 
He hath, he had, 
We have, we had, 

Ye have, ye had, 

They have, or had, 
To have, to be had, 
I will, or would have, 
I had rather, 
I heal, or did. 
We heal, or did, 
To heal, 
To be healed, 
Heal thou, heal us, 
Heal them, 
Let him heal, 
Let him heal us, 
I hear, or did, 
Thou hearest, or did, 
He heareth, or did, 
We hear, or did, 
Ye hear, or did, 
They hear, or did, 
Hear thou me, 
To be heard, 
To hear, 
To hearken, 
To hedge, 
I hedge, 
I hide, or did, 

We hide, or did, 

To hide, 

To be hid, 

I hinder, or did, 

We hinder, or did, 

To hinder, I hinder you, 

To be hindered, 

To hiss, 

He hisseth, 

I hold, or did, 

We hold, or did, 

To hold, 

I hold my peace, 

To hold ones peace, 

I hope, or did, 

W r e hope, or did, 

Thou hopest, or didst, 

Kummahche, kuttahtoup. 
Noh mahchc, noli ahtou. 
Nenauun nummahche, nuttah- 

Kcnau kummahche, kuttahtom- 

Nag mahchc, nag ahtoog. 

Nen nont, asuh woh nuttahtou. 
Ane woh tappeneam, 
Nunneetskeh, -huwap. 
Netskeh, -kinnean. 
Netskeh nag. 
Nun nco tarn, -up. 
Kunncotam, -up. • 
Noh nootam, -up. 
Ncmnootainumun, -nonup. 
Nag ncotamwog. 
Ken ncotah. 
Nuttattahtome, or nupput- 

togqueem. [p. 56.] 

Nuttattahtomuu, -nonup. 
Nootam e h h u vv am un . 
Wuttamhuonat, kootamehhish. 
Noh monoowau. 
Ne nutteashshoowon. 
Nuttannoous, -up. 
Nuttannoousumun, -nonup. 
Kuttannoontam, -up. 



He hopes, or did, 

Ye hope, or did, 

They hope, or did, 

Hope in God, 

To hope, 

To be hoped, 

We did hope, 

Let him hope, 

Let us hope, 

Hope ye, 

Let them hope, 

Hope thou in me, 

Dost thee hope 1 

Dost he hope ? 

Do we hope ? 

Do ye hope? 

Do they hope, or expect 1 

I [am] hungry. 

J am hot, or was, 

We are hot, or were, 

To be hot, 

Fervency, or heat, 

I how], or did, 

We howl, or did, 

To howl, 

I hunt, we hunt, 

To hunt, 

I hurt, or did, 

We hurt, or did, 

To hurt, 

To be hurt, 

1 imitate, or did, 

We imitate, or did, 

To imitate, 

To be imitated, 

I increase, or did, 

We increase, or did, 

To increase, 

To be increased, 

I intreat, or did, 

We intreat, or did, 

To intreat, 

To be intreated, 

I intreat you, 

I joyn, or did, 

W T e joyn, or did, 

To joyn, 

It irketh, or troubleth, 

It jerketh, or suddenly twitcheth, 

Noh annoausu. 


Nag annoousuog. 

Annooussish ut Godut. 




Noh annoositch. 




Ken annooseh. 

Sun ken kuttannoous? 

Sun noh annoossu 1 

Sun nuttanoosimun 1 

Sun kuttannoosimwoo? 

Sun neg annoosuog 7 

Nukkodmn. [p. hi.} 





Nummishontooahpuhs, -up. 



Nuttahchun, nuttahchumun. 


Noowoskheuam, -huap. 

Noowoskheuamun, -nonup. 



Nuttiannau, -omp, 

Nuttiannauomun, -nonup. 



Nen nummisseet, -up. 

Nummissetumun, -nonup. 



Nunnanompanwam, -wap. 

Nunnannompauwamun, -nonup. 





Numm ; sogquemun, -nonup. 



Teadehe wuttotQkkon. 



I itch; 

To itch, 

Keeping, or (observation), 

I keep, 

We keep, or did, 

To keep, 

To be kept, 

Keep thou me, 

I am kept, 

Let us be kept from sin and 

I kill, or did, 
We kill, or did, 
To kill, 
One stab, 
To be killed, 
I have been kind, 
To be kind, 
Be kind to me, 
I kiss, or did, 
We kiss, or did, 
To kiss, 
To be kist, 
To knit, 
I knock, or did, 
We knock, or did, 
To knock, 

1 know (understand), or did, 
Thou knowest, or didst, 
He knoweth, or did, 
We know, or did, 
Ye know, or did, 
They know, or did, 
To know, 
To be known, 
Make him to know, 
Make me to know, 
Let him know, 
Make us to know, 
How do you know, 
I will make ye to know, 
Know thou, 

Know her, or let him know, 
Let us know, 
Know ye, 
Let them know, 
To be known, 
I know thee, 
I know h 4 im, 

Nen nukkisseeppeis. 
Nanawehtoonk. [p. 58.] 

Nunnanaueehtoo, -up. 
Nunnanauehteomun, -nonup. 
Nanawehtcouunat. # 

Nanauwinnitteatuhwutch matche 

seonganit kah nunnukquat. 
Nunnishteam, nunnishteap. 
Nunnishiteamun, -nonup. 
Nishehkonat, nunishonat. 
Nen nummahtche womoaus. 
Noowateo, -up. 
Kcowateonun, -nap. 
Oowateonun, -nap. 
Ncowateomun, -nonup. 
Koowateomwoo, -wop. 
Nag wahteoog. 

Wahhittinneat, wahitteauunat. 
Unnanum, wahteouunat. 
Tohkuttinnewahteoun. [p. 59.] 
Wahtouish, or wawagk. 
Wahtou noh, noh wahteoitch. 
Noowaeh noh. 



I know you, 

I know them, 

Thou knowest me, 

Thou knowest him, 

Thou knowest us, 

Thou knowest them, 

He knows me, 

He knows thee, 

He knows him, 

He knows us, 

He knows you, 

He knows them, 

We know thee, 

We know him, 

We know you, 

We know them, 

Ye know me, 

Ye know him, 

Ye know us, 

Ye know them, 

They know me, (well enough), 

They know thee, 

They know him, 

They know us, 

They know you 

They know them, 

I did know thee, 

I did know him, 

I did know you, 

I did know them, 

Thou didst know me, 

Thou didst know him, 

Thou didst know us, 

Thou didst know them, 

He did know me, 

He did know thee, 

He did know him, 

He did know us, 

He did know you, 

He did know them, 

We did know thee, 

We did know him, 

We did know you, 

We did know them, 

Ye did know me, 

Ye did know him, 

Ye did know us, 

Ye did know them, 

They did know me, 



Koowaheh nen. 

Koowaeh noh. 

















Neg nuttappe wahikquog. 

Nag koowahikwog. 












Koowaheopan neg. 
















[p. 60.] 



They did know thee, 
They did know him, 
They did know us, 
They did know you, 
They did know them, 





Imperative Mood. 

Let me know thee, 

Let me know him, 

Let me know you, 

Let me know them, 

Do thou save me, 

Do thou trust him, 

Do thou deliver us, 

Do thou hear them, 

Let him know me, 

Let him know thee, 

Let him know him, 

Let him know us, 

Let him know you, 

Let him know them, 

Let us know thee, 

Let us know him, 

Let us know you, 

Let us know them, 

Let them know me, 

Let them know thee, 

Let them know him, 

Let them know us, 

Let them know you, 

Let them know them, 

I wish I did know thee, 

If you knew me, 

If I did know thee, 

To know thee, 

To know me, 

To know him, 

To know us, 

To know you, 

To know them, 

I dont know thee, 

Thou dost not know me, 

I dont know him, 

We dont know you, 

I did not know thee, 

I wish I did not know thee, 

If I dud know you, 

Not to know you, 

[ P . 61.] 















Pa koowahinumun. 

Pa noowaheaun. 

Pa koowahinumun. 

Pa noowaheanonog. 

Pa noowahikquog. 


Pa oowaheuh. 



Pa nah oowaheuh. * 

Napehnont wahinnon. 

Tohneit waheog. 

Tohneit wahinnon. 


N oo w& hi tie an at. 





Mat koowahinneoh. 

Malta koowaheuh. 

Mat noowaheouh. [p. 62.] 

Mat koowaiunnoomun. 

Mat koowahinnoop. 

IS'apehnont mat wahinnooou. 

Tohneit wahinnogus. 

Mat koowahikkoonat. 



Not to know them, 

Dost thou know 1 

Doth he know ? 

Do I know ? 

Do we know 1 

Do ye know 1 

Do they know 1 

Dost thou know me ? 

Dost thee know him 1 

Does he know us ? 

Do you know them ? 

I labour, or did, 

We labour, or did, 

To labour, 

Labour thou hard, 

I lament, or did, 

We lament, or did, 

To lament, 

To be lamented, 

Does he lament much, 

To languish, 

I laugh, or did, 

We laugh, or did, 

To laugh, [laughing,] 

To be laughed at, 

To be lawful!, 

It is lawfull, 

I lead, or did, 

We lead, 

To lead, 

To be led, 

To lean on, 

I leap, or did, 

We leap, or did, 

To leap, 

I learn, or did, 

We learn, or did, 

To learn, 

To be learned, 

Learn me if you can, 

Can you learn me, 

I learned them, 

They learned us, 

To leave off, to finish, 

I leave,' or did, 

We leave, or did, 

To leave, 

To be left, 

Leave me to myself, 


Mat oowaheanat. 

Sun koowateoh. 

Suu oowatauun. 



Sunkoo wah teom woo. 

Sun oowahteouunnau. 

Sun koowaheh. 

Sun koowach. 

Sun noovvahikqun. 


Nuttanakous, -up. 



Menehkee, anakausish. 

Nummomuttam, -up. 

Nummomuttamumun, -nonup. 


Mom uttam coon ittinneat. 

Sun moocheke momuttammoo. 


Nuttahhaneehtam, -up. 

Nuttahhaneehtamumun, -nonup. 

Abhanuonat, (ahhanuonk.) 



Ne naumutuwaeyeu. 

Nussogkompaginnuwam. [p. 63.] 





Nukqueeshshom, -shomp. 

Nukquesshomun, -nonup. 


Nunneehtuhtou, -up. 

Nunneehtuhtoumun, -nonup. 



Nohluhtauwal}ke, tapenuman. 

Won kenehtuhtouwahe. 

Nunneehtuhtou waheaog. 

Nag nunnehtuhtouwahikqun. 

Ahquehtouunat kestouunat. 

Nunnukodtum, -up. 

Ninnukodturnurnun, -nonup. 



Unnea ne wassompadtamraa. 



I lessen, 

To lessen, 

To be lessened, 

Do not lessen your gains, 

Let me, 

I lick, or did, 

We lick, or did, 

Do you lick, 
To lick, 

I am lifted up, or was, 
We are lifted up, or were, 
To lift up, 
To be lifted up, 
I dont like, 
To linger, or delay, 
Where you live, 
1 live at Jfonds, 
They lived for him, 
By Gods blessing lam) 
yet aliVe, / 

New life, 

Vain, or wicked living, 
I lose, or did, 
We lose, or did, 
They lose, 
To loose, 

To loosen, to slacken, 
I am loud, or vain, 
To be loud, 
A voice, 

I love, or did love, 
We love, or did love. 
They love me, 
Thou lovest him, 
He loveth thee, 
Dost thou love me, 
To love, - 
To be loved, 
I love you, or thee, 
I love you all, 
He loves me, . 
He loves him, 
He loves us, 
He loves you, 
He loves^ them, 
I love a man, 
I love a book, 




Ahque petoiiunach kutanuhurn- 

Unanumeh monchenat. 
Nunnoonoosquadtam, -up. 
Nunnoonoosquadtamumun, -no- 

Sun kenoonoosquadtarnumwoo. 
Nen nuttasshlnit teap. 
Nuttashinnitteamun. -nonup. 
Matta nuttapeneumun yeuwag. 
Manlnneonk quogquohqueonk. 
Tonnoh kcotohkeem. [p. 64.] 
Kitteaumit nootohkeem. 
Nag uppommtamwanshouh. 
Nashpe God oonanitteaonk, 

asq nuppomantam. 
Wuske pomantamooonk. 
Tahnooche pomantamooonk. 
Ncowanteo, -up. 
Ncowanteomun, -nonup. 
Nag wanehteoog. 
Nummatche tohnoochayeuoo. 
Toll noocheyeuwinneat. 
Ncowomontam, -up. 
Ncowomontamumun, -nonup. 
Neg noowomonukquog. 
Ken koowomonnop. 
Noh koowomonuk. 
Sun koowomoseh. 
Kcowomonnumwo \\ame. 
Oowomonnuh neh 
Noowaman wosketomp. 
Ncowomontam wussukhonk. 



I love a woman, 

I love thee, 
I love him, 
I love you, 
I love them, 
To love us, 
Love, subs. 
I ly, or did, 
You ly, or did, 
He lyes, we ly, 
Ye ly, they ly, 

To ly, a ly, 

To be belyed, 

To ly along, (1 ly,) 

I ly along, • 

To ly hid, - 

I make, or did, 

Thou makest, or didst, 

We make, or made, 

They make, 

To make, I will make you, 

To be made, mark Imp. 

I marry, or did, 

We marry, or did, 

To marry, 

I am married, (the woman,) 

(the man,) 

To be married, 
I dont mean that, 
I-dont mean that, 
The meaning of it is, 
I mean, 

I measure, or did, 
We measure, or did, 
To measure, 
To be measured, 
Measure that, 
I meditate, or did, 
We meditate, or did, 
To meditate, or consider, 
In regard, or respect, or ) 
considering, J 

To milk, 
I mingle, or mix, 
We mingle, or mix, 
To mingle, 


Ncowomon ) ., 

,, r , > muttumwus. 

Womos ) 

Koowornonish ken. [p. 05.] 

Noowomon unnoh. 

Koowomorumumwoo kenauau. 

Noovvomonnoog nag. 



Nuppanncovvam, -wap. 

Kuppannoowam, -wap. 

Nohpannooau, nuppanncowamun. 

Kuppannoowamwco nag pannoo- 

Panncowonat, panncovvaonk. 
Nussommogquissin nunnat. 
Sepsnau rs at puttofquenstt. 
Nuttiyam, nukkeesteo, -up. 
Kuttiyam, kukkeesteo, -up. 
Nuttiyamumun, nukkesteomun. 
Nag ayimwog kesteoog. 
Ayimunat, kuttiyumaush. 
Ayimoadtinneat kehkinneasek, 

Nooseentam, -up. 
Nooseentamumun, -nonup. 
Wetouadtinnate wetouakonate. 
Matta kuttaunooh ne. 
Matta nuttoutamdjun. 
Ne nawwuttammun. 
Nen nukquttohwhous. 
Nukqutwhosumun, -nonup. 
Quttoohhush ne. [p. §§.] 

Nunnatvvontam, -up. 
Nunnatwontamumun, -nonup. 

Ne wannehpeh, natwontamog. 

Senunurnunat sogkodonk. 




To be mingled, 

A mixture, 

I mistake, or did, 

We mistake, or did, 

To mistake, 

Dont mistake me, 


To be mistaken, 

I move, or did, 

We move, or did, 

To move, to move one's house, 

I mourn, or did, 

We mourn, or did, 

To mourn, 

I murmur, or did, 

We murmur, or did, 

To murmur, 

To mutter. 

I must, nen nont, 

I name, or did, 

We name, or did, 

To name, 

To be named, a name, 

To neglect, 

To nod, 

I nourish, or did, 

We nourish, or did, 

To nourish, or be nourished. 

I obey, we obey, 

To obey, 

To be obeyed, 

Obey thou me, 

Obey God, 

Obey always, 

A servant, (Vide, p. 19.) 

Reverence, obedience, duty, 

I obtain, or conquer, cr did, 

We obtain, or did, 

To obtain, 

To be obtained, 

I offend, or did, 

We offend, or did, 

To offend, 

To be offended, 

If you offend me, 

It is offered, or sacrificed, 

I open, or did, 



Nuppuhtantam, -up. 

Nuppuhtantamumun, -nonup. 


Mat nuppuhtantammoo. 



Nutantseap, -up. 

Nutantsepumun, -nonup. 

Antsapinneat, ontsahtauunat. 

Nen nummou, -oop. 

Nummoumun, -nonup. 







Ncovvesuonkanchkontam, -up. 



Wesuonkanuhkonittinneat, wesu- 

Nuttassan, nuttassanup. 
Nuttassanumun, -nonup. 
Nunnooswetam, -umun. [p. 67.] 
Ken nooswetah. 
Nooswehtau manit. 
Nooswetash yayadchee. 

Q,ushaonk, nooswetamcoonk. 
Nussohkos, nussohkussup. 
Nussohkossiimun, -nonup. 
Nummatchenehhuuam, -huap. 
Nummatcheueh-huamun, -nonup. 
Tohneit matchenehhean. 
Ncovvoshwunurn, or nuppohqua- 




We open, or did, 

To open, 

To be opened, 

I wish the door might be opened^ 

Open the door, 

He ordained the means, 

I overcome, or overcame, 

We overcome, or did, 

To overcome, or conquer, 

To be overcome, victory, 

1 owe, or did owe, 

We owe, or did, 

To owe, 

I am in your debt, 

A debt, 

A penny, wages, or reward. 

Tribute, dues, 

I paint, or did, 

We paint, or did, 

To paint, 

To be painted, 

I am pale, 

To be pale, 

Why art thou so pale, 

I pant, to pant, 

I pardon, or did, 

We pardon, or did, 

To pardon, 

To be pardoned, 

Pardon me sir, 

To patch, 

I pay, or did pay, 

We pay, or did, 

To pay, to be paid, 

To cause to be paid, 

Pay me now, 


To pierce, 

I perceive, or did, 

We perceive, or did, 

To perceive, 

To be perceived, 

I permit, or did, 

To permit, permit me, 


I perswade, or did, 

Ncowoshwunumun, -nonup. 

Pohqu an u m u n ate . 


Napeehnont esquont pohquano- 

Pohquanich usquont. 
Kuhquttumauop aninnumoadtu- 

Nuttannmvun, -omp. 
Nuttanuwunotnun, -nonup. 

NuttinuhtukqQahwhit, -teap. 
Nuttinuhtukquah, -whittcamun. 
Omo^kod. onkquatonk 
Unnontukquahamooongash, ompe- 

Nuttannogklnum, -up. [p. 08.] 
Nuttannogkinumumun, -nonup. 
Toh wutch nene wompohkesean. 
Sauuhkissinneat, nussauuhkis. 
Nuttahquontous, -up. 
Nuttahquontossimun, -nonup. 
Ahquontamah. sontim, 
Nuttoadtuhkus, -up. 
Nutoadtuhkusslmun, -nonup. 
Oadtuhkah eyeu. 
Nuttogwantam, -up. 
Nuttogwantamumun, -nonup. 
Nuttinamtteam, -teap. 
Unnanukkonat, unanumeh. 
Nunnupweshan, -omp. 



We perswade, or did, 

To perswade, 
To be persuaded, 
How do they perswade, 


To pitch ones tent, 

I pity, or did, 

We pity, or did, 

To pity, 

To be pitied, 

I play, or did, 

We play, or did, 

To play, 

Boys will play, 

I please, or did, 

We please, or did, 

To please, 

To be pleased, 

Pleasure, (Vide, p. S.) 

I shall plow to-morrow, 

To plow, 

I pluck, or did, 

We pluck, or did, 

To pluck, 

To polish, 

I am polluted, or was, 

To pollute, 

To be polluted, 

I am poor, 

He is poor, 

To pour, to be poured out, 

To prate, 

I pray, or did, 

W^e pray, or did, 

To pray, 

Pray always, 

I pray, or intreat you, 

To press, or oppress, as a \o{ 

falling on, 
To be oppressed, 
I prick, 
To be pricked, 

I procure, or did, 
We orocure. or did, 

Nunnupweshashscowamun, -no- 

Uttuh nag wuttin nupweshassoo- 

MatchckekompattTnat wetu. 

-teap. [p. G9.] 

Nukkissauous, ornuppuhpum, -up. 
Nuppuhqumun, -nonup. 
Puhpinneat, or kussauausinneat. 
Mukkitchogquissog nont puhpuog. 
Noosekitteaheomun, -nonup. 
Pish noowonohchaham saup. 
Nukkodtuhkom, -up. 
Nishkoneufikquis, -sup. 
Noh matchekco. 
Sookenumunat, sookonittiionk. 
Nuppeantam, -up. 
Nuppeantamumun, -nonup. 
Peantamwanshonat, or nannam- 

panwonat, or peantamunat. 
Pentamcuk nagwutteae. 




Nutahchuuechteom, -up. [p. 70.] 
NutahchcowehteomiiD, -nonup. 



To procure, 

To be procured, 

To profane, or pollute, 

I promise, or did, 

We promise, or did, • 

To promise, a promise, 

To be promised, 

You promise well, 

I prove, or did, 

We prove, or did, 

To prove, 

To prop, or uphold, 

I provide, or did, 

We provide, or did, 

To provide, 

Provide for me, 


Providence, or foreseeing, 

I provoke, or did, 

We provoke, or did, 

To provoke, 

To be provoked, or vexed, 

I punish, or did, 

We punish, or did, 

To punish, 

To be punished, 

He will cause us to be puni; 

To purge, or purify, 

I put, or did put, 

We put, or did, 

To put, to be put, 

To put off, to put on, 

I put on, 


I quench, or did, 

We quench, or did, 

To quench, 

To be quenched, 

I quarrel 1, 

I am quiet, or was, 

Be thou quiet, 

Let him be quiet, 

Let us be quiet, 

Be ye quiet, 

Let them be quiet, 

Will you be quiet, 

To be quiet, 

To quiet, 

I rage, 





Nukquoshshoam, -wap. 

Nukquoshowamun, -nonup. 

Quoshowonat, quoshodtuonk. 


Koone quoshowamwco. 

Nukqutchhuwam, -wap. 

Nukqutchhuwamun, nonup. 

Wunnamwatcouunat, &c. 


Nukquoshouchtam, -up. 

Nukquoshouehtamumun, -nonup. 









Nussasamitahhcoam, -ap. 

Nussasamatahhcoamun, -nonup. 



Noh pish susamatahhcowahuwau. 


Nuppconum, -up. 

Nuppoonumumun, -nonup. 


Aumanumunat, ogquinneut. 


Pakodtutturnooonkash. [p. 71.] 

Nuttahtappodtou, -up. 





Nummaninnap, -up. 












To rage, 

To rain, it rains, 

Does it rain, 

How long has it rained, 

I read, or did read, 

We read, or did, 

To read, 

Can you read 1 

To be read, 

Victuals are ready, 

I am ready (or wait) to go, 

I resolve, or decree, 

A decree, 

I refuse, or did, 

We refuse, or did, 

To refttse, 

To be refused, 

I rejoice, or did, 

We rejoice, or did, 

To rejoice, 

I remember, or did, 

We remember, or did, 

To remember, 

To be remembered, 

Remember thou me, 

Remember thou, 

A memorial, 

Conscience, or remembrance, 

I repent, or did, 

We repent, or did, 

To repent, 

Repent of sin, 

To be repented, 

I return, or did, 

We return, or did, 

To return, 

To be returned, 

I revenge, or did, 

We revenge, or did, 

To revenge, revenge, 

To be revenged, 

To roar, to roast, 

Roast the meat, 

To rob, 

To be robbed, 

To be rotten, to row!. 


Scokcnonat, tookenonni. 

Sun scokenon. 

Tohuttooche natc sokononk. 

Nuttogkctam, -up. 

Nuttogketamumun, -nonup. 


Sun woh kuttoghetam. 


Quoshwohta metsuonk. 

Nukquashwap, nuppahtis mon- 

Nummahtahnlttam, nukkesan- 


Nussekencam, -up. 

Nussekeneamumun, -nonup. 

Sek6n e n . m tnrat. 


Nummishkouantam, -up. 

Nummishkouantamumun, -non- 


Nummeehquantam, -up. fp, 72.] 

Nummeehquantamumun, -nonup. 





M e h qu a n u m aonk . 


Nuttaiuskoiantam, -up. 

Nuttaiuskoiantamumun, -nonup. 


Aiuskoiantash matcheseonk. 


Nukquishkeem, -up. 

Nukquishktjmun, -nonup. 




Nuttanncoteomun, -nonup. 

Annootoonnat, annotaonk. 


Mishontooonat, apwonnat. 

Appoosish weyaus. 



Pisscahquonnat, ompoochOnat. 



I rub, 

To rub, 

I rule, or did, 

We rule, or did, 

To rule, or lead, (lead), 

To be ruled, 

How do ye rule, or govern, 

I run, or did, 

We run, or did, 

To run, 

Run thou, and come, 

Run thou to me, 

I will make you run, 

To sacrifice, a priest, 

To be sacrificed, 

To sail, I sail, 

To satisfy, 

I am satisfyed, 

Are you satisfyed, 

To be satisfyed, 

We will make you satisfaction, 

or we will satisfy you. 
Be thou satisfyed, 
Let me be satisfyed, 
Let him be satisfyed, 
Let us be satisfyed, 
Be ye satisfyed. 
Let them be satisfyed^ 
I say, I said, 
What you say, 
We say, 

We said, or did say, 
To say, 

I scatter, or did, 
We scatter, or did, 
To scatter, to be scattered, 
To scratch, I scratch, 

I search, or did, 

We search, or did, 

To search, 

Search me, 

To season, 

I see, or did see, 


We see, or did, 

To see, to be seen, 

Dost thou see 1 

Do they see us ? 



Nussogkompagennuwam, -wap. 




JJttuh kuttinne nanauonnuonat. 

Nugquogqueem, nugquogkeep. 

Nugquogqueemun, -nonup. 


Quogquewe, kali peyaausee. 

Quogquewe peyaosseh. 


Seephausinneat, sephausuaen. 





Sun kuttapeneauaetumwoo. 


Kuttappeneauahinnumwoo, pish- 

Nissim, nuttinnoowap. 
Teagua kissim. 
Nissimun, nuttinncowamun. 
Nussewauhteam, -up. 
Nusseauhteamun, -nonup. 
Neehnekinnuonat, nukkitch- 

Nunnattinneahteam, -up. 
Nunnattinneahteamun, -nonup. 
Nurmaum, nunnaumcop: 
Chuh namuk. 

Nunnaumumun, -nonup. [p. 74.] 
Naumdnat, amanisuonlumueat. 
Sun kenaum. 
Sun nunnauqunnonog. 



I seem to be weary, 

I seek, or did, 

We seek, or did, 

To seek, 

To be sought, 

I sell, or give, or did sell, 

We sell, or did, 

To sell, to be sold, 

I send, or did, 

We send, or did, 

To send, 

To be sent, 

Send me if you dare, 

1 will separate you, 

I separate, 

To separate, 

To be separated; 

I serve, or did, 

We serve, or did, 

To serve, 

To be served, 

A servant, (Vid. p. 19.) 

I will shake you, 

To shake, 

I shake, or tremble, 

I shave, to shave, 

To be shaved, 

Will you be shaved, 

To shear (sheep), 

To morrow I will shear, 

I show, or did show, 

We show, or did, 

To show, 

Show me your house, 

I shine, or did, 

We shine, or did, 

To shine, 

The sun shineth, 

I shun, or did avoid, 

We shun, or did, 

To shun, 

To be shunned, 

I shut, or did, 

We shut, or did, 

To shut, to be shut, 

Shut the door, 

I am sick, or was, 

Nuttogquencunkqs sauwunumuk. 
Nuimattlnneah, -whomp. 
Nunnattinneahwhomun, -nonup. 
Nummag, nummagup. 
Nummagiirnun, -nonup. 

Nunnekonchuam, -ap. 
Nunnekonchhuwamun, -nooup. 
Mouchaannoononat, or nekonch- 

Anncosseh mat quttamcoan. 
Pish kutchippinnumumwoo. 
Nootininnumekoss, -up. 
Nootininumekossimun, -nonup. 
Pish kenenemulikoiiish. 
Nuppeeghum, peeghumiinat. 

Sun woh kuppeegwhitteamwoo. 
Saup nummoossoowam. 
Nunnohtin, -omp. 
Nunnahtitteamun, -no- . 

nup. [p. 75.] 

Nahtuhseh keek. 
Noowossum, -up. 
Ncowohsamumun, -nonup. 
Nepaz (kesukquish) wohsum. 
Nukquisuhkom, -up. 
Nukqussiihkomumun, -nonup. 
Nukkupham, -up. 
Nukkupharnamun, -nonup, 
Kuppohhash asquont. 
Nnmmohtchlnam, -up. 



We are sick, or were, 

Are you sick 1 

To be sick, he is sick, 

I am silent, 

To be silent, 

I sing, or did, 

We sing, or did, 

Can you sing, 

To sing, 

I sin, or did, 

Y/e sin, or did, 

To sin, sin not, 

I sit, or did, 

We sit, or did sit, 

To sit, sitteth, 

To be skillfull (or knowing,) 

Are you skillfull, 

I sleep, or did, 

We sleep, or did, 

To sleep, sleep, 

To be sleepy, 

Didst thou sleep well, 

Sleep thou, let him sleep, 

Let us sleep, sleep ye, 

Let them sleep, 

I slide, 

To slide, to slip, 

I smell, or did, 

We smell, or did, ^ 

To smell, 

Sneezing, snorting, 

To sneez, 

To snow, it snows, 

Does it snow, 

It does not snow, 

I sob, or sigh, 

To sob, or sigh, 

To be sold, 

I am sold, 

Is he sold, 

Was he sold to him, 

I sow, or plant, 

To sow, or plant, 

To be planted, 

When do you sow your ry, 

To sow, or sew ones cloaths, 

I spare, or afford, or did, 

We spare, or did, 


Nummohtchinamun, -nonup. 
Sun kummohtchlnam. 

Mohtchinonat, mohchinnai. 
Kukkuttuhumoinun, -nonup. 
Sun kenauan kukketoohumom- 

Nummatchescm, -up. 
Nummatchcseemun, nun up. 
Matchesenat matchesekou, 
Nunnummattap, -up. 
Nunnummattappumuu, -nonup. 
Nummattapunat, appu. 
Sun koowahteomwoo. 
Nukkoueem, -up. 
Nukkauemun, -nonup. [p. 76.] 
KauGnat, kaueonk. 
Sun kooweteekouem. 
Kuttinnanum kauish. 
Nutt oonikquissinnunat. 
Numminontarn, -up. 
Numminontamumun, -nonup. 
Annuonk nanagkcoonk. 
Muhpooinneat muhpoowi. 
Sun muhpco. 
Matta moohpinnoo. 
Sun noh magun. 
Sun ununnumoadtinneas. 
Ahquompi kuttohketeam kuttanni. 
Ushquamunat monag. 
Nummag, -up. 
Nummagumun. -nonup. 




I am sparing, 

To spare (or preserve,) 

To be spared, 

I speak, or did, 

We speak, or did, 

To speak, 

To be spoken, 

I shall speak, 

He speaks well, or I 

Is fair spoken, j 

I am mischievous, or spitefull, 

J spit, or did, 

We spit, or did, 

To spin, to spit, to be spiteful, 

To sprinkle, I sprinkle, 

I did sprinkle, (Vid. Scatter,) 

He was sprinkled, 

To be sprinkled, 

To stagger, or reel, 

A drunkard staggers, 

Staggering, or reeling, 

I stand, or did, 

We stand, or did, 

To stand, stand you away, 

I itay, or did, 

We stay, or did, 

To stay, or wait, 

Stay for me, 

I steal, or did, 

We steal, or did, 

To steal, to be stolen, 

AVhy did you steal, 

I step, or did, 

We step, or did, 

To step, 

To stick to, 

It sticks to, 

I am stiff, 

To be stiff, 

I stink, or did, 

We stink, or did, 

To stink, 

I am, stirred up, 

To stirr up, 

He stirred him up, 

They stirred us up, 

To be stirred up, 

I stop, or did, 




Nukkehetcokom, -up. 

Nukkchetookomun, -nonup. 

Ketcokonat. » 


Woh nooweogquttum. [p. 77.] 

Noh wunnc keketcokau. 



Nutteeskouous, -up. 

Nutteskououssumun, -nonup. 

Tattuppunnohkonat, eskauousin- 

Seaohkonnat nusseauhteam. 
Noh seaukauop. 
Koghesippamwaenin chanisshau. 
Nunnepoo, -up. 
Nunnepomun, -n6nup. 
Neponunneat amakompauish. 
Nuppahtis, -up. 
Nuppahtslmun, -nonup. 
Pahtsinneat. \ 

Pahtissish wutch nen. 
Nukkummcot, -up. 
Nukkurnmcotumun, -nonup. 
KutnmcDtTnnat, kummootinneat. 
Tohwaj KummootoomomwcD 
Nuttontanehtip. -up. 
Nuttohontaneehtlmun, -nonup. 
Nummatchimunkqus, -sup. 
Noh mammoAtinuwop. [p. 78.] 
Nag nummamontinukqun. 
Nuttogkogkem, -up 



Wc stop, or did, 

To stop, to be stopped, 

Stop your course, 

I stretch out my hands, 

To stretch, 

To be stretched, 

He stretcheth a great way, 

I strike, or did, 

We strike, or did. 

To strike a stroke, 

I strive, or did, 

We strive, or did, 

To strive, 

I am strong, or was, 

We are strong, or were, 

To be strong, 

Strength, His, 

To study, 

Do you study much, 

I stumble, to stumble, 

To stuff, 

I suck, or did, 

We suck, or did, 

To suck, 

A child sucks, 

I sutler, or did, 

We suffer, or did, 

To suffer, 

To be suffered, or born, 

I suffer affliction, 

To sup up pottage, &c. 

I suppose, or imagine, 

We suppose, or did, 

To suppose, to imagine, 

To be supposed, (Vid. Think,) 

To swear, 

1 can swear truly, 

I sweat, or did, 

We sweat, or did, 

To sweat. 

1 swell, to swell, 

He swelieth, 

The rivers swell, 

Men swell, 

I swim, or did, 

We swim, or did, 

Nuttogkogkemun, -nonup, 
Togkogkenat togkogkinnittin- 

Togkogkinish kurtinniycuonk. 
Noh summagke noadtit. 
Nuttogkom, -omp. 
Nuttogkomomun, -nonup. 
Togkomonat tatteaonk. 
Nut chekeayeuitcam, -teap. 
Nutcheayeuteamun, -nonup. 
Nummenuhkes, -up. 
Nummenuhkeesimun, -nonup. 
Menuhkescoonk, -urn. 
Sun kenatwontam mcocheke. 
Nuttogkissittassin togkissittassin- 

Nunnoon, nunnoonup. 
Nunnoonumun, -nonop. 
Mukkoies noonontam. 
Nutchequiueehtam, -up. 
Nutchequineehtamumun, -nonup. 
* * * * Nutchequnehtam w^uttan- 

Nurnmoohquonat. [p. 79.] 

Nuttinantam, nuttogquantam. 
Nuttinanlamumun, -nonuj). 
Unnnantamunat, ogquantamiinat. 
Woh sampwe nutchadchekeyeu- 

Nukkissittashom, -p. 
Nukkissittashotnun, -nonup. 

Nummokques, mogquesinneat. 
Noh mogquesjwi. 
Sepuash tahshemcoash. 
Wosketompaog mogquesuwog. 
Nuppumosooweem, -up. 
Nuppumesoowemun, -nonup. 



To swim, 
Can you swim, 
I take, cr did, 
We take, or did, 
Did you take it, 
To take bribes, 

They taking, (for communicat- 
To tame, (see Keep,) 
Can you tame him, 
To be tamed, 
I cannot tarry, 
To tarry, 
I taste, or did, 
We taste, or did, 
To taste, 
To be tasted, 
I teach, or did, 

We teach, or did, 

To teach, 

Will you teach me, 

I am taught, 

Thou art taught, 

He is taught, 

We are taught, 

Ye are taught, 

They are taught, 

I was taught, 

Thou wast taught, 

He was taught, 

We were taught, 

Ye were taught, 

They were taught, 

Be thou taught, 

Let me be taught, 

Let him be taught, 

Let us be taught, 

Be ye taught, 

Le*t them be taught, 

Are you taught to read, 

I wish I rniiiht be taught, 

When I am taught, I will teach 

When they are taught, 
I am not taught, 
We are not taught, 
Not to be taught, 


Sun woh kuppumoscowemwoo. 

Nunnemunurn, -up. 

Nunnemunumun, -nonup. 

Sun kenemunumunas. 

Nemunumunat magooongash. 



Sun woh kenannauwissuwah. 


Mat woh ne nuttappowun. 

Ne appinneat. 

Nukqutchehtam, -up. 

Nukqutchehtamumun, -nonup. 




-teap. [p. SO.] 

Nukkuhkcotumwehteamun, -no- 


Sun woh kukkuhkootumah nen. 



















Sun kutogketamwahitteamwoo. 

Napehnont kuhkootumaiimuk. 

Uttuh annoohkuhkootummaimi, 
neit pish kuktah-kootumam. 

Uttuh annooh kuhkootumauu. 

Mat nukkulikootumonteoh. 

Mat nakkuhkootumonteon. 

Mat kuhkootuma-joun. 



To be taught. 
Doctrines of men, 

A minister, or schoolmaster, 

Ministers, text, 

I tear, 

To tear, 

I teli, or did, 

We tell, or did, 

We are told, 

To tell, 

To be told, 

I cannot think, 

I think, or did, 

What you think, (See Pronouns, 

f>. 33.) 

To think, (see Suppose.) 
To be thought, 

A thought, < 

I thirst, or did, 

We thirst, or did, 

To thirst, 

I threaten, or did, 

We threaten, or did. 

To threaten, 

To be threatened, 

I throw down, 

To throw down, 

Can you throw him, 

I throw away, lie throws, 

Dont throw, 

I thrust (into a thing,) 

To thrust, 

Thrust him from you, 

It thunders, 

To thunder, 

I touch, or did, 

We touch, or did, 

To touch, 

I can't translate, 

I tread hard, 

To tread on, 

He treads upon him, 

I tremble, or tingle, or did, 

We tremble, or did, 

To tremble, or tingle, 

Kuhkootumauonat. [p. 81.] 

Wosketompae kuhkootumuchtca- 

Nohtompeantog, quenshittcank. 
Nuttinonchim, -up. 
Nuttinonchimumun, -nonup. 
Mat nuttimmtamoo. 
Nuttinantam, -up. 
Toh (or teagua) kuttinantam. 






Nukkohklttoon, -up. 

Nukkuhkittoonumun, •nonup. 


Nukquogquohtowam, -wap. 






Sun woh kussamuhkon. 

Nuppaketam, paketam, 

Ahque pahketash. 

Nutcheke pethinum. 


Nehpinumook nehplnnrjok 

wutch kenau. 
Nummisslnum, -up. 
Nummissinumumun, -nonup. 

JNlatta woh nukquishkinnumun. 
Nukqussukquannek. [p. 6:2.] 

Noli wuttahtaskuhkauuh. 
Nunnukkishom, -p. 
Nunnukkisshomun, -nonup. 



My fiesh trembleth, 

I trust, or did, 

We trust, or did, 

To trust, 

To be trusted, 

1 try, or did, 

We try, or did, 

To try, to be tryed, 

Trials, or attempts, 

I turn, or did, 

We turn, or did, 

To turn, to be turned, 

I try, or did, 

To ty, 

To Yex, (see Provoke,) 

I view, or did, 

To view, to be viewed, 

To take a view, 

I vomit, or did, 

To vomit, 

He vomits, 

I vow, 


I urge, or did, 

To urge, to be urged, 

I am urgent, 

An use, ( or a sermon,) 

I use, or did, 

We use, or did, 

To use, to be used, 

Use me well, 

To wail, or howl, 

To wait for, 

They wait, (vid. Stay,) 

I walk, or did, 

We walk, or did, 

To walk, or go, 

Endeavouring to walk, 

Walk uprightly, 

I wander, or did, 

Wandering, or going astray, 

He wanders, (i. e. is lost,) 

They wander, 

I want, or did, 

We want, or did, 

To want, 

To be wanting, or defective, 

They want, 

Nooweyaus nunnukisshau. 
Nuppapahtantam, -up. 
Nuppapahturttamumun, -nonup. 
Nukqutchitco, -up. 
Nukqutchteomun, -nonup. 
Nukquiniippem, -up. 
Nukquinuppemun, -nonup. 
Nuppissaunuqunum, -up. 
Nukkeelikeneam, -ap. 
Nummenattam, -up. 
Noh menattam. 

Chadchekeyeuae nukquoshouam. 
Quoshowaongash, or chadcheke- 
yeuae quoshaumuaongash. 
Nutchctimmiiwam, -wap. 
C hot im uon at. 

Nutchekewe, chetimuwam, 
Auwohchaonk, [p. 83.] 

Nuttauohteam, -teap. 
Nuttauohteamun, -nonup. 
MomuttamTwe mishontooonat. 
Pomi'shon sampweseae. 
N oo woo won, -imp. 
Noh nanwusshau. 
Nag wawonnuog. 
Nukquenauwehhik, -up. 
Nukquenawchinkumun, -nonup. 
Nconat, or qucnauat. 
Nag quenauwehquog. 




I am warm, or was, 
We are warm, or were, 
To be warm, 

Warm yourself and depart, 
To warm, 
I wash, or did, 
We wash, or did, 
To wash, 
Be thou washed, 
To be washed, 

I saw a woman washing 
and cleansing cloaths, 
To waste, 
He wastes himself, 
To be wasted, 
To wear cloaths out, 
I wear, 

To wear out, * 
I did wear, 
They would wear, 
I am weary, (very,) 
To weary, or make weary, 
To be weary, 
To weave, 
I weep, or did, 
We weep, or did, 
To weep, weeping, 
To weigh, 
I weigh, 
He weighs by the pound, 

To be weighed, 
I am wet, or was, 
We are wet, or were, 
To be wet, 

To whet, or make sharp, 
I am willing, or was, 
We are willing or were, 
Are you willing, 
He is not willing, 
To be willing, 
Being made willing, 
I am wise, or was, 
I would be wise, 
Wouldst thou be wise, 
Ye are, or were wise, 

Nukkcs(7>ap, -up. 

Nukkesoosnnun, -nonup. 


Auwasish kali monchiesh. 


Nukkitisum, -omp. 

Nukkitisippattomun, -nonup. 

Kittlssum win neat. 

Ken kittissCnnwish. 



Nunnau mittumwus kuttisupatto 

kah pompahketo monagunash. 
Mahtshottouunat. [p. 84.] 

Noh mohtahkonnau wohhoguh. 
Ompattamunat, auwohkonat. 
JN ummahtompattamunat. 
Nummahche ompattam. 
Nag woh ompattamwog. 
Pogkodche nussouunum. 
Nen numrnome. 
Nenauun nummomun. 
Mouinneat, -moonk. 
Noh quttompaghooto nashpe qut- 

Noota.gkes, -up. 
NootagkessTmun, -nonup. 
Noowekontam, -up. 
Noouekontamumun, -nonup. 
Sun koowekontamumwoo. 
Noh mat weekontam. 
Noowaantam, -up. 
Nukkod waantam. 
Sun woh koo waantam. 
KoowaantamumwcD, -wop. . 



To be wise, 

I wish, or did, 

We wish, or did, 

They shall wish, 

To wish, {like waantam), 

To be wished, 

I wipe, or did, 

We wipe, or did, 

To wipe, 

To be wiped, 

To wither, or pine away (as a 

I wither, I am lean, or pine 

A tree withers, 
I wonder, or did, 
We wonder, or did, 

To wonder, 

I work, (vid. Labor,) 

A good work, 

How do we work, 

He workt for me, 

I worship, or did, 

To worship, 

We worship, or did, 

Worship God, 

To be worshipped, 

To wrest, or misinterpret, 

I did not misinterpret, 

I can write, 

Can he or they write, 

Can you write, 
To write a book, 

To be written, 

I yield, or did, 

We yield, or did, 

To yield, 

Yield yourself to me, 

I am zealous, 

Be thou zealous in a good cause, 

Waantamununat, (Vid. Gram- 
mat, p. 20.) * 
Nuiinontweantam, -up. [p. 85.] 
Nunnontweantamumun, -nonup. 
Nag pish liontweantamwog. 
Nutjeeskham, -up. 
Nutjiskhamurnun, -nonup. 


Mehtuk nuppcota. 

Nummohchanantam, -up. 

Nummohchanantamumun, -non- 
up. * 



Wunne anakausuonk. 

Uttuh nuttinanakausinnean. 





Wowussum God. 


Matche quishkinumunat. 

Mat nuppahogketamoo. 

Won noosoohquohham. 

Sun noh, nag wussoohquohham- 

Sun woh kcosoohqcohham. 

Wussoohkhamunat, wussukquoh- 


NunnuJsweem, -up. 

Nunncoswemun, -nonup. 


Ncoswetah nen. 

Nummaninlsse menehki- 

nit. [p. 66.] 

Maninlssish ut wunnecren unni- 
ye lion k. 

*This reference is to ElioVs Indian Grarmnar, which will be found in the 
Historical Colltctions, vol. ix. Second Series. Edit, 



He is a zealous man, 

Thou art zealous, 

We are zealous, or were, 

Ye are zealous, or were, 

They are zealous, 



You may take it for granted, 

What do you say, 

Why will you go, 

What is the Indian word for fire, 

Tell me how it was, 

How much must I give you for 

those feathers, , 
Dont trouble yourself about it, 

Noh maninissue menehkenittcae 

Kumman in issue menehteantam. 
Nag maninissuog. 
Ahque chanantah. 
Toh kuttinnoowam, or kussim. 
Tohwutch monclican. 
Uttuh yeu Indian ne kuttooonk 

wutch chikkoht, or nootau. 
Ussch uttuh anagis. 
Toh kuttinannoohhumauish, koo- 

Ahque wuttamooontash ne papau- 


When will you come again, Ahquomppak wonk kuppe) 



Abounding, adorning, 

Advising, advised, 
Affording, afforded, 

Abounding, subs. 
Amazing, amazed, 
Amending, amended, 
Growing angry, 
Anointed, anointing, 
Answering, answered, 
Appearing, appeared, 
Appointing, appointed, 
Arising, risen, 

Arriving, arrived, 
Asking, asked, 

Aswaging, aswaged, 
Attempting, attempted, • 
Awaking, awaked, 
Banishing, banished, 
Bearing, born, 


[p. 87.] 




Kogkalujuttue, kogkaktimau. 








Neken mosquantamooonk. 




Kehteimau, kuhquttumauwco 

Omohkeonk, or omohkej. 

Kenhoosunash, kenhoosu. 


Wequttum, wequttumauau, 

Qutchehhuau, qutchchhean 
Toohkenuau, toohkenau. 
duossoohkausu, quossoohkauau 
Nenih, or wannepeh. 




Beating, beaten, 

Becoming, (or decent,) 

Begetting, begot, 


Beheld, beholding, 

Believing, believed, 




Binding, bound, 

Biting, bitten, 

Blaming, blamed, 

Blessing, blessed, 

Blinding with smoke, 






Breaking, broke, 


Bringing, brought, 

Brought up, or educated, 


Burning, burnt, 

Burying, Buried, 
Buying, bought, 

Calling, called, 

# * # * 

Cast off, 

Cast down, 



Changing, changed, 

Charging (a gun), charged, 

Chastising, chastised, 

Cheated, cheating, 

Cherishing, cherished, 


Choakt, choaking, 

Claiming, claimed, 


Cornfortinr/, comforted, 

Commanding, commanded, 

Committing, committed, putti 

Compassing, compassed, 


Tappcncunkquissinneat. [p. 88.] 



Monlnneam, moninneamonk . 

Wunnatnptamun, wunnamptam. 


Mat waammattamooonk. 


Kishpinnounk, tohtogkuppis. 

Sagkepooau, sagkepwoosuonk. 


Wunnanittuonk, wunnamumau. 





Netu, nechanat. 




Pasoowou, pattohsu, pattouunat, 

or kessikkehhittuonk. 
Pasoowou, kenunnosu. 
Wekukkossu, kessukkehheau. 
Chikkossohsu, chikkohtta, moht- 

Pojskinittuonk, pcoskinnous. 
Adtowau, taphumun. 
Wehkokomuk, wequtteamooonk, 

Pogketohsu. [p. 89.] 

Assookekomwoo, assookeho. 
Kesoosummuau, kesoosumau. 
Pashshconnu, -onk. 

Taphuau, tapheau. 
Annooteamoo, annoonau. 
ng, Poonumoadtuonk. 






Condemning, condemned, 

Confessing, confest, 


Consuming, consumed, 

Convincing, convinced,* 

Covering, covered, 




Cursed, cursing, 

Cut, cutting, 


Daring, dared, 

Deceiving, deceived, 


Defending, defended, 

Delighting, delighted, 

Delivering, delivered, 

Demanding, demanded, 

Denying, denyed, 
Departing, departed, 
Deserving, deserved, 
Desiring, desired, 
Despising, despised, 

Devising, devised, 
Devouring, devoured, 
Digging, digged, 

Dipping, dipped, 

Dissembling, dissembled, 
Dividing, divided, 
Doing, done, 

Drawing, drawn, 

Drinking, drunk, 



Embracing, embraced, 

Emptying, emptyed, 


Chekewe, or chekshanittuonk. 

Awakomponnae, wussumau. 

Sumppooau, pohkooau. 


Mohlchi k kissooae. 




Kesiteoussu. [p. 90.1 





Aiahchumau, assookekomau. 


Magunat en Godut. 




Wehquttumcuonk, or nohnatit- 

Quencoau, quenooonittin. 
Amaeonk, amaeai. 
Sompwe attumunumooonk. 
Kodtantamunat, kodtantam. 
Jeshantamunat, (to be chief,) nish- 

Anoskhamunat, noohkohteahha- 

mooonk, wonohkonat, wanah- 

Omppuwussue, omppuwussu. 
Assemuk, ussonash, ussenap, us- 

seonk, mahtche-ussen. 
Wuttonchittauunat, or wussau- 

motummoo. [P-'^O 

Kogkewau, wuttattamunat, kod- 


Womosue, ukkehchik, quaittuonk. 



Enduring, endured, 

Enjoying, enjoyed, 

Enquiring, enquired, 

Entring, entred, 

Enticing, enticed, 

Establishing, established, 

Esteeming, esteemed, 

Excelling, excelled, 


Falling, fallen, 



Favouring, favoured, . 


Feeding, fed, 

Feeling, felt, 


Filling, filled, 

Finding, found, 


Flying away, fled, 

Flattering, flattered, 

Following, followed, 

Forbidding, forbidden. 


Forgetting, forgot, 
Gathered, gathering, 
Getting, gotten, 
Giving, given, 

Going, went, 
Governing, governed, 
Grieved, or grief, 
Hanged, hanging, 

Hastening, hastened, 
Hating, hated, 

Healing, healed, 
Hearing, heared, 
Hiding, hidden r 
Hindering, hindered, 

Q,uo missontarnunat, (quache) us- 

Pohkod tootum u likonat. 
Wuttooantamiinat, wuttooafitam. 
Anukomunat, anukomdnnoo. 
Penishshau, penishshaai. 
Quittamunat. . 
Mekonittuonk, ayeuuttuonk. 
Nu m woh tou u n at. 
Wussemoo, wussemoowi. [p. 92.] 
Assuhkom-moo-moo, or mooe. 
Quttehkonat, quahtinnittimuk. 
Quosshoue, rnissohhamunap. 

(p. 96.) 
Magkoo, magkun. 

Pumushshaonk, monche. 
Waashanittuonk, wawasshattau- 

Ahtunkeeg, pi. ahtouunat. 





Hunting, hunted, 
Hurting, hurt, 
Imitating, imitated, 
Increasing, increased, 
Joyning, joyned, 
Keeping, kept, 
A well kept sabbath, 
Killing, killed, 
Kissing, kissed, 
Knowing, known, 
Labouring, laboured, 
Lamenting, lamented, 
Leading, lead, 

Learning, learned, 
Leaving, left, 
Lessened, diminished, 
Lifting, lifted, 
Losing, lost, 
Loving, loved, 
Lying wickedly, 
Making, made, 
Marrying, married. 
Measuring, measured, 
Mingling, mingled, 
Mistaking, mistook, 
Moving, moved, 

Naming, named, 
Nigh to, 

Nourished, nourishing, 
Obeying, obeyed, 
Obtaining, obtained, 
Offending, offended, 
Opening, opened, 
Conquering, overcome, 




Woskehhuonat. woskesu. [p. 9;].] 







Wunnunnanavvehtosooe sab. 

Nishittuonk nishshauai. 



Wahteaue, vvateouonk, wahittin. 

Anakausuonk, anakausu. 













Womontam, womonnau. 

Panncoau matchetoje. 

Ayumfmat, ayum. 

Wetouadteau, kekompau. 

Quttuhhumunat. [p. 94.] 



Pehtantam, puhtantamooonk. 

Momoncheonk, antsappu, ontap- 

Sohkouonk, sohkoattin. 




Painting, painted, 


Pardoning, pardoned, 

Paying, paid, 

Perceiving, perceived, 


Perswading, perswaded, 

Pityed, pitying, 

Playing, well played (to 

Pleasing, pleased, 
Polluting, polluted, 

Pressed, oppressed, 
Procuring, procured, 

Promising, promised, 
Proving, proved, 
Providing, provided, 
Provoking, provoked, 
Punishing, punished, 
Purged, or purified, 
Putting, put oft', 
Quenching, quenched, 
Quieting, quieted, 
Reading, read, 
Refusing, refused, 

Remenibring, remembred, 

Repenting, repented, 

Returning, returned, 

Revenging, revenged, 

Roasting, roasted, 

Rubbing, rubbed, 
Ruling, ruled, 
Running, out-runned, 
Sacrificing, sacrificed, 
Satisfying, satisfy ed, 


Ogquan tarn Gnat. 
any Puhpiionk wannahuneh. 




Sunukkitchahhooonat. [p. 95.] 

Amaunnumunate, (take otf.) 








Pompahketo pahhetouunat. 

Pooonumunat, aumanumanat. 

Onthamunat, onttapattauunat. 


Kogkevve mosquantam. 

Onnoh quat. 








Quishkenat, quishke. 


Annootonat, annootaonk. 



Apwonnat, appoosinne[at.] 






Tappenau wahusoomoouk . 

Noowau. [p. 90.] 




Scattering, scattered, 
Searching, searched, 
Seasoning, seasoned, 
Seeing, saw, seen, 
Seeking, sought, 
Selling, sold, 
Sending, sent, 
Separated, separating, 
Serving, served, 






Shunning, shunned, 

Shutting, shut, 

Thing signified, 






Smelling, smelt, 

Sowing, sown, 

Sparing, spared, 

Speaking, spoken, 



Sprinkling, sprinkled, 
Standing, stood, 
Stealing, stole, 
Stirred up, 
Stopping, stopt, 
Stretching, stretched, 
Striking, to be stricken, 
Striving, strove, 
Studying, studyed, 
Sucking, suck'd, 
Suffering, suffered, 
Supped up, 
Supposed conditions, 

Unnoowfionk, unnooonat. 
Seauhkonat, scwohham. 

Naumooonk, nunnau. 


Momagun, magun. 

Annoonittin, annoonau. 


Wuttinnumun, wuttininnumoh- 

Negonne, keketookontamugkish. 

(p. S3.) 
Seauhkonat, toouhteae. 
Mat kuhkenauishoo. 

Pahhuonat. [p. 97.] 

Togkomonat, togkodtinneat. 
Pogkodche, aiyeukonat. 
Noonoowonk, noonunat. 
Ponamcoe wunnatwontamcoon- 




Supposing, supposed, 

Swearing, sworn, 


Swelling, or swoln, 


Taking, took, 



Tasting, tasted, 

Teaching, taught, 

Tearing, torn, 

Thinking, thought, 


Threaming, threatned, 

Thrown down, 

Thrusting, ' 

Touching, touched, 


Trembling, trembled, 


Trusting, trusted, 

Trying, tryed, 

Turning, turned, 

Tying, tyed, 


Vexing, vexed, 

Viewing, viewed, 

Visible things, 

Vomiting, vomited, 

Urging, urged, 

Using, used, 




Wanting, wanted, 

Warming, warmed, 

Washing, washed, 

Wasting, wasted, 

Wearing, worn, 

Wearying, wearied, 

Weeping, wept, 

Weighing, weighed, 

Wishing, wished, 

Withering, withered, 


Worshipping, worshipped, 

Writing, written, 

Yielding, yielded, 



Mogquesuonk, mogquesu. 


Mauminnat, or nemunuinunat. 











Missuntimiinat. [p. 98.] 

Anohquisshaonk, onahquisshanat. 


Wuttamanta mooonk. 





Matta masshommoomukish. 


Pahke, kuhkinneamunat. 

Naumukish teanteaguas. 

Menattamunat, menattam. 

Chekeyimonat, chetimuonat. 







Kuttussumunat, kuttisupatto. 



Souunumooonk, sauunumunat. 

Meooonk, mouwinneat. 






Wussukwhosu, wussooliquohha- 

Nooswenat, or nosweonk. 


The Creed. Wunnampitamooonk. [p. 99.] 

NoonampTtan God wame manuhkesit wutcoshTmau, noli kezklt- 
unk kesuk kali onke ; kah noonampltan Jesus Christ ummoh- 
tooineegheonche nussontimomun noh wompequoomuk nashpe 
wunnetupantamwe nashauanit netuonont penompae Maryhoh 
chequneehtamup ut agwe Pontius Pilate purnmetunkuppinnau- 
utup. nuppcop kah pcoskinop , womlsupe en Chepiohkornukqut, 
nashikqunogok noh omohke wonk wutch nuppunat kah waabe en 
kesukqut kah na wutappinadt wuttinnoh kaunit God wame manuh- 
kesit wuttcoshlmau, nawuteh pish peyau wussurnonut naneswe 
pomantogig kah napukig — Noonampitara ut wunnetupantamwe na- 
shauanit, nconarnpitam ut mamusse wunnetupantamwe moeuweh- 
komonganit kali ummooohkarnaongafuioo wanetupantogik, kah 
ahquontamoadtiionk matcheseongash kah muhhogkooe onmhkeonk 
kah micheme pomantamcoonk ut kesukqut. Amen. 1708. 

A Talk beti 

two. Keketokionk nashauenesooog. fo. 100.1 

P. Well met, friend, how do, you 

M. I am pretty well, and ready 

to serve you. 

P. When did you come 
home, or town ? 


M. Two days ago. 

P. Is your wife and children 

well ? 
M. I have no children, but my 

wife is sick. 
Q. Is it a nealthy time in your 

place 1 
A. Yes, generally. 
Q. How many miles do you live 

from hence ? 
A. I dont know. 
Q. How far are you going? 

A. To Connecticut. . 

Q. When do you come back? 

A. In a little time. 

P. You should not run about 

the country ; it is not good to 

be lazy or idle 1 

Wunne nogkishkoadtfionk, ne- 

tomp, toh kuttinnkketearri. 
Nuttanukko wunnikkettam kah 

nukquashwap kootininnumu- 

(Kooj uttuhhufiooh koomumus 

kuttiyeuonganit asuh kuttoota- 

(Nam.f) nesukquinogkod. 
Sunkummittumus kah kenecha- 

nog wunniyeuog. 
Mat noomukkoiyeumoo, qut 

nummuttumwus mohchiilnai. 
Sun wunnuhketeaonkannu ut 

Nux ut omog wame. 
(Nat.f ) natahshemilesuoo attan- 

uppomantamun wutch yeuut. 
(Np.) mat noowaehteooo. 
(Nt.) uttoh unukkuhquat ne 

(Np.) ut ( Q,uinnehtukqut. 
Nahkuttunnooh quishkem. 
Ut tiahqui ahquompi. 
Mat wunnegonunnoh kuppum- 

oshumat ut wuttohtimonciash ; 

mat v/uunagununncoh nono- 


t The abreviations JVam. and J\'p. stand for J\ampoohamdonk, i. e. Answer ; 
and J\*at. and J\t. for S\*atootommuhteaonk, i. e. Question. Edit. 




M. I want much to see my 
friends in those parts, and I 
hope that will excuse me. 

P. Nay, I beg your pardon for 
calling you idle? 

A. I intend to mind my •■**, 
when I come home. 

Q,. Who teaches you on Lords 

A. A very good Indian. 

Q-. Do all the Indians come to 

meeting 7 
A. No, some stay away. 
Q. Do v ou want an v books ? 

A. Yes, a certain new book.- 

Q,. Are you willing to be good ? 
A. Yes, but I have a wicked 

P. You must pray to God to 

make it good ? 
Q. How often should I pray ? 
A. Pray always, that is, at all 

convenient times be ready 

to that duty. 

P. But I must work sometimes. 
M. Yes, so you must, but then 

you may lift up your heart 

to God. 
Q. Will you work for me a day 

or two ? 
A. Yes ; what will you give me ? 
P. I will pay you honestly. 

I will satisfy you. 

I would have my garden dig- 
P. Have you any plants in it ? 

P. Let me shake you by the 

hand, and (I pray) tell me 

what news. 
A. I hear the French are much 

beaten, and that the Indians 

Nukquenauehhik nauonat ne- 

tomppaog ut yeush aiyeuon- 

gash kah nutanoous woh no- 

Qut koowehquttumauish ahqu- 

ontcnnu wutch nussuonk ken- 

Numissontam nanauehteouun 

nootamantamooonk peyau 

*** nekit. 
Howan kukkuhkootu- [p. 101.] 

mong ut ukkessukodt- 

umut Lord. 
Ahche wunnetooe Indian. 
Sunwame Indiansog peyag ut 

Mat, nowhitche mat nogquissog. 
Sun Qu^kfjuenaueiikikumwawusS" 

Nux, aianne wuske wussookquo- 

Koowekontam woh koonetimat. 
Nux, qut nuttohto matchetoowe 

Mos kuppoantamae God onk weh 

Nob toh tashe nuppeantam. 
Peantash nagwutteae ut wame 

wunnohteashae ahquompi 

quoshwapish wutch ne noo- 

Qut mos nuttanakous mdmanish. 
Nux, ne woh kuttissen qut neit 

woh kuttashunum kuttah en 

Koowekontam kuttanununah 

pasuk kesukkodasuh nes. 
Nux, tohkuttinonkquatah nen. 
Pish nont kuttonkvvattou***. 
Pish kuttappenauwohhush. 
***kodtantam nuttuttnohkteaon 

Sun kuttohtou ahahkeh- [p. 102.] 

te miikik naut ? Nux. 
Unanumeh spgkinitehane kenut- 

cheg, usseh toh anitunkquok. 

Nuttinootam punachmonog soht- 
tohwhok, kah Indiansog wash- 



are discovered coming down 
upon us. 

P. It is well they are discover- 

U. That is true. 

P. But it may be I shall hinder 
you, if I stay any longer, 

Q. I am in haste, and want to 
be going. 

R. Well I wont detain you much 

Q,. Fare you well. 

R. Good night to you. 

R. Good morrow to you. 

aogpeyag kukquentunkquino- 

Ne wunnegen nag ne oowashan- 

Ne wunnomwaonk. 
Glut ammiat tub kootam ehhish 

toh neit kooche yen appeon. 
Noowapantam kah nukkodtan- 

tam monchenat. 
Ou, mat kootamchhlnnook koo- 
che wonk. 
Nehunushshash, or wunniish. 
Wunnegen koouonkquissinoo- 

Wunnegen koowompan issinnoo- 

onk, or wequasinnooonk. 

£.u.c6YbS) J. i'GiiGiiiiS) »yC. 














Clearly, more clearly, 

A sting, 




Craftily, cunningly, 





Dearly beloved, 



Earnestly, hastily, 




[p. 103.] 



Mattohkomai ashsha. 



Missekin, or musshimmechimue. 








Pahkee, anue pohkiyeu. 





Pogkodche, kuhkenaue. 





Mishshoadtue womanukqussu. 

Mat nahnane. 





































From hence, 




How far, 








Justly, ignorantly, 

Kindly, knowingly, 









Tattuppeyeue. [p. 104.] 

Nahnaunne, nanpehyeu. 















Numwae, pashanne. 

Ut omog wame. 







Auohkonche, or siogkod. 



Wutch yeuut. 




Uttoh unnuhkuhquat." 



Mat pahkeyeue. 

Wouwuttoowussiie. [p. 105.] 




Sampwe, assootue. 

Wunneneehhuae, watamwe. 



Pasoowe, majjsheyeue. 



Nono-anne, meshanantamwe. 

COTTON'S [NDIAN vocabulary. 




Lustily, or lustfully, 




















More plainly, 





Presently, immediately, 

Prettily, (any thing that makes 


Roughly, (a coat not soft,) 

Memohkesue, matchekodtanta- 


Meshanne, meshanantemwe. 

Moocheke ahquompiyeuash. 
Kooche papahkcowona. [p, 106.] 

Teanuk, teanooh, or kenuppeyeue. 








Pohquae, pohquaweyeue. 


Teanuk, or kenuppe. 

Wunnohtuh wunnegen. 

Mat natwontamcoe, chuhchukque. 


















Wunne uttooche. 





* # . * * 



Pogkodcheyeue. [p. 107.] 


Mat ogkodchue. 




Ompetag, ompehchikquinogok. 

Simply, since, 

Assutue, mahche. 


Metahhcowae, sumpwuttoohae. 


Noohke yeue. 


Quttocheyeucoash, nagna ossoo- 

wunumoooonk kah kenauun 

hog piuhsnkkeyeulkish. 







Suddenly, the times, 

Tiadcheyeue, ahquompiyeuash. 


Pogkodche nenit. 
























Mat weekonnunnou. 




Wameyeue, yoyatcheh. 

Wantonly, playingly, 



Noochumw 7 esue. 



Wholly, entirely, 






W T isely, 






Wonderfully, worthily, 

Mohchautamwe, tappeneunkqais- 





Mohchantamwe. [p. 107 b. 






I, thou, 

Nen, ken. 

He, him, 

Noh, nagum. 

In him, 

Ut noh. 

We, us, 

Nenawun, neanauun. 

Ye, you, 

Nek, kenau. 

They, them, 

Nagumau, nag, nahog, 

Those, these, 

Yeug, yeush, neeg. 

Of him, or her, 

Wutch nagum. 

To him, or her, 

Ut nagum. 

From, or with him, 

Wutch nashpe nagum. 

Of them, or those, 

Wutch nahog. 

To them, to those, 

Ut nahog, ut yeug. 

By, or with those, whose son, 

***Vid. p. I. 2. (a) 

My, mine, 

Nee, nen. 

Thy, thine, 

Ne, kittihe. 


Ho wan anantam. 

Your, yours, 

Yeu, kenau. 

His, hers, 

Noh, ne. * 

Whence, or whereby, 

Nish nashpe, yeu nashpe, sing. 

Our, ours, 

Yeu, nenauun. 

Not that (house), not that (man 

) Matta he, matta no. 

Which, that, 

Uttuh yeu, ne. 

Thyself, himself, 

Piuhsukke ken. 

Himself, herself, 

Piuh sukke nagum. 


Howae, howawuttihe. 


Nuhhogkanonog. [p. 107 c] 







I myself, 

Nen nuhkog.' 

You yourself, 

Kenau kuhhogkawoog. 

He himself, &c. 

Noh wehkoguh. 

Their own, 

Wunnehen wonche. 

These men, which, which, pi. 

Yeug, uttiyeu, uttiyeush. 

This man, 


This thing, 


These things, 

Yeush, nish. 

Bring him with you when you Passoouk noh wechekenau uttuh 


annooh peyauog. 

Bring my coat, 

Patauish nuppet***. 

Beware of men, 

Nunnukqussuos wosketomp. 

(a) The pages here referred to are wanting in the Ms. 




Beware of the sea, 
The dog is cold, 

The book is old, 

Come hither, 

Command your man, and do the 

thing yourself, 
To commit one man to another, 

To commit a sin, 

Make him to know, 

Make me to know, 

ft lake me rich, 

Victuals are ready, 

I am ready to go, 

How long have you stayed, 

I will make you go If you wont, 

Make hirn to know, 
Make us to know, 
I will make thee to know, 
Good, better, best, 

Greater, greatest, 

, longest, 


Little, least, sweetest, 

Most handsome, 

All alone, another man, 

Any man, any wood, 

Evil of sin, black man, 

Evil of punishment, 

Black cloth, 

An easy lesson, 

Easy tempered, 

Empty of grace, 

A gentle cow, 

He is gray before he is good, 

Much, more, most, 
Pale man, 
A pretty thing, 
Their envy, 

Nunnukqussuontash kehtah. 
Annum sonkquesu, or quosquat- 

Wussoohquohhonk sonkqui. 
Peyau yeuut. 
Annoos kittinni.nnurn, ussisk ne 

teag nehenwouheken. 
Ahtuhtooonat pasuk wosketomp 

en onkntoganit. 
Ussenat teagwe matcheseonk. 
Noh wahtouwahinach. 
Quosltwohta metsuonk. [p. 107c?.] 
Nuppahtis moncheenat. 
Kuttiynmaush moncheenat, mat 

Wunne, koche winnit, or wunne- 

Anue missi, nemossag. 
Nachuk, anequnnag. 

Peawe, nanpehpeawag, weehoh. 
An wunnissit. 
Nonsiyeu, onkatog woske. 
Nanwi woske, nanwe wuttuhgu- 

Machuk matcheseonk, mooasue 

Ne machuk sas unetahwhottuGnk. 
Mooak monag. 
Nukkumat kokod nahtuh. 
Nukkamme unnittoahhaonk. 
Mahchi wutch kitteamonte***. 
Nanausue kouish. 
Noh womppuhqua asq wawuni- 

Moocheke, kooche. 
Wompishkauonk wosketomp. 
Pissehkinneunkquat ne teagwaj. 

WussukquohhonJc wutch Indian. 

[ P . ioa; 

Reverend Sir. 
when I came to 

It was so late 
Piimouth that 

Quohtianumit Sontim, Nowut- 
tuppuhkodtup ne payai Ompaara 



night when you did look, I 
should have called, that I ven- 
tured to pas? by you, hoping it 
would not much displease you, 
since it was a lon^ time that I 
had bin from my place and fami- 
ly, yet I beg your pardon this 
time. I will be as good as my 
word ; you shall see me next 
Monday night, if weather permit 
to travel with my family and I in- 
tend to tarvy one day with you ; 
weather has bin so bad I could 
not do what I had to do here. 
Speak a good word for me to 
Mr. Thomas, that he may not 
be much concerned about his 
money, for the Honourable Mr. 
Sewall doth intend to treat * * * 
about the debt. 

Your humble servant, 

* * * * * 

ne nohkok nuttauompameohp 
woh nunnauatche petitteap, nuk- 
qutcheteaup kuppamkauunihat 
nuttanoosip woh mat mcochoke 
kenochikkcoun yemvutche quin- 
ni ahquompi nateah nugkodtum 
nuttiyeuonk, kah nutteashinnin- 
neonk, onch nebwequttum kut- 
tahquontomonk yen ahquompi, 
nont pish nutissen ne ancow . . . 
mp pish kunnaweh wonk mo- 
noak, wun-nonkcouk ivunnoh- 
quok pummuittainat nutteashin- 
ninneonk, kukkod wetomish pa- 
suk kesukod ; momattohquoltup 
newaj nconunnum ussenat ne 
koduseyeu ut unncowash wun- 
nenuhkeowaonk en Sontim 
Thomas wutch nen woh mat 
wussaume wuttamantamook 

wutch wutteagwash newutche 
quohtianumukqussue Sontim 
Sewall pish coweogquttumauon 
ne nohtuh quahwhittiionk : Ag- 
wappehtunkquean KittinnTnu- 
me. Jn°. Nemumin. 

Abroad, again, 

Alike, almost, 

As though, 

Certainly, to day, ever, 

Even as, formerly, 

A great way off, 

How, further, from hence, 

Here, ho holloo, ill, 


Indeed, lastly, 

Lately, learnedly, since, 

Lo, little, 
Moreover, mostly, 
Much, more, 


Adverbs. [p. 109.] 


Touwisshae, wonkanet, onk, or 

Tatilppeneunkquot, omogpeh. 
Onatuh, or neane, 
Tohko, mat chanantamoe, yeu- 

Ne neane, chenohkommu. 

Uttuh, onk, yeu wutch. 
Yeuut, wohwatcowau, matches, 
Pishompctak pogkodche. 
Neni momlches, momachisheue. 
Nateah, or kumma, or paswu, 

Kusseh, ogkosse., nanpehne. 

Moochtke, kooche. 
Nahnane, wesuongane. 





Not, no, not at all, 


By no means, nigh, 

Not only, 



Scarcely, separately, 

Sometimes, so, 

Together, thence, 
Truly, then. 
There, therein, thus, 
Valiantly, to the uttermost, 
Unawares, very, 
Why, whence, 
Whither, whether or no, 
Where, well, within, 
When, (every where,) 

Mat micheme, asniikqut, or matta 

nam kqut. 
Malta, mattnequt, ahque. 
Yeuyeu, eyeu. 
Matta weh nenanooh passco- 

Matta webe, or webeyeue. 
Ammiat, pogquatche. 

Awakonche, chippinneunkqussue. 
Neuh, momanish, nemehkuh, ne- 

noohque, neaneyeue. 
Moywe, nauwitch. 
Wunnamukqut, ncit. 
Nekus, naut, yeuunni. 
Urnukquornpae, panuppe. 
Tiadchc, ahche, pehtuh, 
Tohwaj, tonnohwitch. 
Tonnoh, tonnohut sun ummatta. 
Tonnoh, winnit, unnomlyeu. 
Ahquompag, nohhannco, or toh- 

hunna, (nishonnut.) 



The day before yesterday, 


Yet, yea, well. 

Nux, wunnekin. 

Conjunctions. [p. 110.] 

And, also; or, 

Kan ; asuh. 

Neither, either, 

Mattane, nanwe. 

But, for, as, 

Qut, waj, neane. 

For which cause, 


Because if, 

Newutche, tohneit. 

Whilst, unless, 

Asqhuttooche, kittumma. 

So that, 

Ne ennih, or nemehkuh ne, wa- 

Until, otherwise, 

Nc-pajeh, onkatoganit, 

Besides, although, 

Onkatuk onkne, tokanogque. 

Therefore, inasmuch, 

Newutche, yowutche, 

Yet, least, even, 

Oneh, ishkont, naish, 

Q,ut onch, sometimes is used, 

for but, because, yet so, but also, 

but even, never 



O brave, 

Wunnahiinneh, or wekohtea. 

O dreadful, 

Misshe unkqueneunkquat. 

Fy upon it, 

Konshakenuh, or chah. 

O, wo, 

Quah, woi, unkquanumukquat 



Oowe, wesomkuh. 



Against, at, 
About, after, 

Among, above, 

Before, or in presence, 

I walked be r ore his house, 




Besides, nigh, 

Behind, beyond, 

By, or through, 

For, from, 

In into, 

On this side, 

On the further side, other 

Of, out of his house, 

Out of, 

To, towards, or that way, 

This way, 

Until, under, 



Without father, 

Without life, 


Spoken of, e viz. 

(i. e. nene,) 1707, 

Prepositions. [p. Ill,] 

Kodnushau, or ayeukauntue, ut. 
Waene, wewene, nahohtoeu, or 

. Kenugke, witche, waabe, 
Anaquabit, anaquabeog, pi. 
Nuppomsham anaquohtagwek. 
Quoshoue, negonnummiyeu. 

Nanashoue, agewe, or ohkiyeu. 
Kootne, chonchippe, keeshkhe. 
Wuttat, or wuttoinmiyeu, unnukc 

Nashpe, nashpene. 
Wutche, nawutch, (from a town.) 
Ut, ut ne. 
end, Ut onkonwe. ohqiiiie. 
Wutchi, wekit. 
Wutche yeu. 
En, nenogque. 
Napaj, agqwe. 

Matta nashpe, and matta wutche. 
Mat wuttooshe. 
Mat pomantamoo. 

Missahhamunash, q. 

When 2 or 3 O together, how to be pronounced 1 [p. 112.] 

Massachusett, an hill in the form of an arrow's head, 

Nequt, a thing that is past. 

Pasuk, a thing in being. 

Wuske kitehisshik kuhkootumwehteaonk nootamook wuttinnoo- 
waonk God kah quaquashwek attumunumunat ne ansoohkwhosik 
ut Luk : 16,26; at wohkukquoshik kuhkoo ; eyeu kummahche 
nootamumwoo wanegig wuttinnoowaonk God atohneit menuhke 
nanauwehteauog nashpe ummonanitteaonk God pish koonanumit- 
teamwoo micheme. 

Let us sing to the praise of God, Psal. 23. Kuttcohumontuh 
en wavvenomaonganit God. 

Sentences. Kuttcoongash. [p. 113.] 

1. Be slow in choosing a Manunussish ut pepenauonat 

friend, but slower in changing ketomp ; out aniie manunussish 

him when thou hast chosen. osoowunnonat noh-hannco mah- 

che pepenauonche. 



2. Let it not trouble thee that 
some others have lived longer 
than thyself; not the length of 
thy life but the goodness of it 
will render thee happy, (or is the 
measure of thy happiness.) 

3. If thou hast lived well, thou 
hast lived long enough, if thou 
hast not lived well, thou bast 
lived too long. 

4. Make not other men's si us 
thine by imitating them, nor 
thine, other men's by teaching 
them. Do nothing in which thou 
wouldst not be followed. 

5. Follow nothing of which 
thou canst not well justify the 

6. Measure not thy self by 
what men say of thee. They 
may mistake thee, and it is their 
sin not thine. 

7. Love nothing in this world 
too well, no, not thyself. Think 
the pleasure of this world 
either sins, or the occasions of 

8. Do what thou art com- 
manded, and dont make what 
others do the rule of your ac- 
tions ; never think it too soon to 

9. Reckon nothing which 
thou hast thine own, nor noth- 
ing which thou doest at thine 
own disposing. 

10. Good works and a good 
death will lead to a good place. 

11. It is an easier matter to 
give counsell, than to follow it. 

Ne wuttamehhukko)kon na- 
whutche onkatoggig seepecpo- 
mantamdJog neit ken ; mat db 
sahgteag kukkittcaonk qut wa- 
negkuk, ne winnet pish kconi- 
yeuontamun (asuh ne quttujhouk 
wutch kooniyeuonk.) 

Tohneit wunnetooe poman- 
taman kusseeppee keteaonk tapi ; 
tohneit mat wunnetooe keteaan 
koosoinee seeppee pomamam. 

Ayimoohkon onkattogig wos- 
ketompaog ummatcheseongash 
ken, nashpe musontamunat nesh, 
asuh ken onkatogig wosketom- 
paog nashpe kuhkeotumauonat 
nisii. Ussekonteag uttlyeu mat 
woh asuhkomcoan. 

Assuhkomcokon teag uttlyeu 
nooninuman papfmee sampwee 
nehtinneat usseonk. 

Quttcohohkon kohhos - nashpe 
tohanukquean wosketompaog ; 
nag woh puhtantamcoog wutoh 
ken kah ne urnatcheseongannco 
matta ken. 

Wommotohkon teag ut yeu 
muttaohkeit wussamee mat matta 
kohkog. Mehquontash tapene- 
amcoongash yeu muttaoh keit, 
asuh matcheseongash asuh nish 

Ussish toh anee [p. 114.] 
anoonumuk, kah mat- 
ta toh aseehettit onkattogig ; 
unnantamoohkon wussamee ko- 
nuppeyeuoo en aiuskoiantamu- 

teag uttlyeu ahtauan ken nehen- 
wonchee ; asuh teag uttlyeu us- 
sean ut ken nehen uonchee 

Wunnanukausuongash, kah 
wunnee nuppooonk ne woh us- 
sooweehteommoo en wunne aye- 

Ne anuee nukkummat kogkeh- 
koowonat onk neit asuhkomu- 



Sometimes we have known men 
fall into the same sins that they 
have counselled against. 

12. And since thou must 
shortly dy, be afraid to sin, and 
to order thy sins as thou mayst 
not be afraid to dy, that thy sins 
do not bring to a worse death, 
and that this death may lead thee 
to a better life. 

13. Thou art sure to see an 
end of this life. 

14. And to order thy estate 
and thy soul, in thy health, that 
when thou comest to dy, thou 
mayest have nothing to do but 
to dy. 

15. Confess that the good 
which thou recievest is not for 
thine own sake ; nor the good 
which thou doestj by thine own 
power ; it is the mercy of God 
that moves him to do for us, and 
that inables us to do that which 
pleaseth him. 

16. Humour no man for his 

wealth ; do nothing sinfully to 
please any. 

17. What thou wouldest do, 
do it for thine own soul, that 
thy death may be the beginning 
of thy happiness, and not the 
end of it. 

18. Spend not thy time in ex- 
horting others to the keepingof 
the commandments, and break 
them thy self. Measure not thy 
goodness by another's want of it, 

nat ; momanish noowahcomuu 
wosketompaog pemsshaog en no 
matcheseonganit ayeuuhkoune 

Kah nate nont paswee nup- 
pcoan, quohtash matchesenat 
kah unnehteauwash kummatche- 
seonk neanee woh mat quohta- 
muoan nuppunnat ne ut kuin 
matcheseongash ahque pasooqu- 
ish en nishkinneonkque nuppoo- 
onganit kah ne yeu nuppcuonk 
woh kussogkompanukqun en 
vvaneguk keteaonk. 

Pahkee kcowauoh namunat 
wohkukquoshik yeu keteaonk. 

Kah wunnchieauush [p. 115.] 
kuttohtconk, kah kuk- 
koteahogkau, ut kummlnnehke- 
sinneat ne toanoo nuppcoonk 
peyont, woh matteag kuttlssu 
qut webe woh kunnup. 

SamppaSwash ne wanegkuk 
uttlyeu adtumunnuman ne mat 
nehenwonche ken, asuh wa- 
negkuk uttiyeu assean ne matta 
nashpe nehenwonchee kumme- 
nekesuonk; ne ukkuttummonte- 
aneteaonk manit ne ontsapehuk- 
quit kuttusseaneshukqunnano- 
nut ne tapenum wohqueog usse- 
nat wauweekehheaukon. 

Wauwehkeogish matta wos- 
ketomp wutche wuttahenneti- 
muk teagua ; ussekon matche- 
seae, wussikketeahonat nanwee. 

Toh woh assean, ussish wutch 
nehenwonche kukketeahogkau 
ne kenuppooonk wohut kuttis- 
shin kconiyeuonk matta woh ne 
ut woh kukquoshshlnnoo. 

Mohtishadtooohkon kutfoh- 
quomplyeum kuhkcotumauonat 
onkatogig nanaehtinnat ancotea- 
mcoongLish, kah ken kappooqun- 
numunash. Matta kukqutooh- 



nor measure thy want of goodness 
by others' store of it. 

19. Think only the present 
time thine, for that which is past 
is none of thine ; and that which 
is to come, it is a question 
whether ever it shali be thine. 

20. Evil works, and an evil 
death will lead to a bad place. 

21. When a virtuous action 
is done, if there be any difficul- 
ty or trouble in it, it is quickly 
past, but the pleasure is per- 
petual ; but on the contrary, if 
there be any pleasure in a wick- 
ed action it is quickly gone, and 
the sting and trouble remain for 

22. The greatest sin not al- 
lowed, or repented of, will not 
hurt you, but the least sin not 
repented of will ruin you for 

23. It is pleasant to be virtu- 
ous and good, for that is the 
way to excell many others. It 
is pleasant to grow better, for 
that is the way to excell our 
selves, &x. 

humoo koonetuonk nashpe on- 
katog ukquenauwehhukqunnat, 
asuh quttcohairimcohkori kuk- 
quenauwehkooonk wanegkuk 
nashpe onkatog wuttohtoouga- 

Unnantash webe oguhsee ah- 
quempi ken newut.che uttiyeu 
paumushomcouki matta ken ; 
kah newoh peyaumcouk ne cha- 
nantamojonk sun pish ne ken. 

Matchee anakaussuongash 
kah matchee nup pooonk us- 
sooehteomoo en matchit ayeu- 

Uttuhauncoh wunnegen asuh 
misshoattue usseonk ussemuk, 
tohneit sioyohk asuh wuttame- 
tooonkannuook neteanuk paam- 
shaumco, qut ne wekontamoo- 
ontamcoonk nagwutteaeyeuco 
qut ossookqua tohneit nawekon- 
tamooonkannuuk ut ne teagwe 
matchetcDe usseonganit, ne tea- 
nuk mohtshau kah ne wutchoh- 
khoowaonk kah wuttametooon- 
tamooonk ne michemohta. 

Ne mohsag matcheseonk mat 
w T ekontamcootamomuk asuh ai- 
uskoiantamuk, mat koowoshik- 
kcoan, qut ne pawamesik 
matchesoonk matta aiuskoian- 
tamcoan ne ljuppagwannuonk 

Wekontamooonkan- [p. 119.] 
nuoo waneginniie wun- 
netuinate ne magoo en anukau- 
onat mconaog onkatogig. We- 
kontamooonkannuoo kooche kah 
kooche wunnetinat ne magco an- 

ukauonat nuhhogkanonog. 
Nequt muttannonganog ne sasuk pasukcoog kah nishvvo. 170S. 

A Dialogue. 

How does your wife, or husband 

What is the matter that Indians 

very often no speak true 1 

[p. 118.] 


Toh unnuppomantam 

tiimwus asuh kasuk. 
Toh waj unnak Indiansog mco- 

cheke nompe matta sampwe 




Have you bin at Squantam late- 

Do the souldiers go to Canada 1 

Then they will do no good, but 

a great deal of hurt. 

Yes they will put the country to 

a great deal of charge. 
Is not the fleet come ashore yet ? 

Do you think they will ever 

come ? 
It may be not. 
Very likely not. 

I believe they are gone to Spain. 

Why do _you remove from Na- 

tick 1 
You will get more money there 

than at Sandwich. 

My family i3 sickly there. 

And were they healthy at Sand- 
wich ? Yes. 

Dont you owe a great deal of 

money there ? 
Yes, but I hope to clear it 

What if they would put you in 

prison 1 
Then they will hurt themselves 

and me too. 
It is very cold to day. 
Almost I freeze my ears and 


Why dont you get a thick cap ? 

Because I have no money. 

And why dont you work hard ? 

So I would with all my heart, 
but I am sickly. 

Sun Squantam kuppeyomus pas- 

Sun aiyeuehteaenuog auog Can- 
ada ; matteag. 
Neit nag pish matta ton unne 

wunneseog, qut mcocheke 

Nux, nag pishmishe oadtehkon- 

tarnwog wuttohkeongash. 
Sun chuppoonaog asq koppae- 

Sun kuttenantam nash pishpey- 

Ammiatc matteag. 
Ahche ogqueneunkquat mat- 
Nuttinantam nag monchuk en 

Tohwaj ontootaan wutche Na- 

Woh kummoochke wuttehtln- 

um teagwas naut onk Mos- 

Nutteashinninneonk wuttit moh- 

Kah sun nag wunne pomantam- 

wushanneg ut Moskeehtuk- 

qut. Nux. 
Sunnummatta kummishontuk- 

quahwhutteoh na utt. 
Nux, qut nuttannoos nuttapoad- 

tehkonat paswese. 
Toh woh unni kuppushagkinuk- 

Neit naff woh woskehheaog 

wuhhogkauh kah nen wonk. 
Moocheke tohkoi yeu kesukod. 
Nahen togqutti'nash nuhtauog- 

wash kah nuppoohkuhquanit- 

Tohwaj matta ahchueh- [p. 119.] 

teocoou kohpogkag 

kah onkquoutupape. 
Newutche matta nuttohtcoo 

Kah tohwaj mat menukanakau- 

Ne woh nuttussen nashpe raa- 

misse nuttah, qut nummo- 




But it may be work will cure 
you, if you would leave olF 
drinking too. 

I think you give good advice, 
but let me work ibr you. 

How many years old are you ? 
Eighteen ; and how old is that 
boy, or girl. 

Why do boys of that age run 
about, and do nothing. 

You had better let me have him, 
and I will learn him to write, 
and read. 

He shall want for nothing, nei- 
ther meat, drink, cloathing, 
or drubbing. 

Idleness is the root of much evil. 

Do you come, or else send him 

tomorrow early. 
Dont forget your promise. 
I am glad to see you. 
Where have you been this long 

time ? Hunting. And what 

did you find ? 
A fox or two. 
I believe so ; these drams will 

ruine Indians and English. 

A great deal of praise that In- 
dian deserves that keeps him- 
self sober. 

I wish such an one would come 
and set down on my land, I 
would be kind to him as long 
as I have any thing. 

Why do you deceive me so often 1 

I am forced to be worse than 

my word. 
I am in debt. To who ? 

Qut ammiate woh anakausnonk 

kukketeohhuk, tolmeit wonk 

Nuttinantam kuttinunumah wun- 

ne kogkahquttuonk kcoweh- 

quttumauish unnanumeh ku- 

Noh kutteashe kodtum wohkom. 
Piog nishwosuk ; kali toll un- 

nukkoohquiyeu noh nonkomp 

kah nonksq. 
Tohwaj nonkompaog ne anooh- 

quiitcheg purnomashaog, kah 

rnatteag usseog. . 
An wunnegik kuttinninumiin 

kah pish nunnehtuhpeh wus- 

sukquohamunat kah ogketa- 

IN oh rnatteag pish quenauehhik- 

koo asuh metsuonk wuttatta- 

mcoonk ogkooonk asuh sa- 

Nanompanissuonk wutchappehk 

mcocheke inachuk. 
Pasoo asuh nekonchhuash saup 

W T anant6hkon kooncowaonk. 
Ncowekontam ne kenauiinun. 
Tonoh kcomumus yeu qunnoh- 

quompi 1 Adchanat. Kah 

teagwas kenamiteoh 1 
Wonkqussis asuh nees. 
Nuttinantamun ; yeush nukqut- 

tikkupsash pish papukquan- 

hukqunooash Indians kah 

Moocheke wowenotu- [p. 120.] 

onk noh Indian woh 

ahto nanauehheont wuhhoguh 

Napehnont neahhenissit peyont 

kah appit nuttohkeit. 
W T oh nooncunneh to sahke ah- 

tou nan we teag. 
Tohwaj wunnompuhkossean ne 

Nunnamhit nummatchiteo nuk- 
Nuttinohtukquahwhut. Ut ho- 




To a great many and they force 

me to stay and work with 

If it be not very much I will 

pay it. 
I am ashamed to tell you much ; 

it is above 40 pounds. 

strange ! But Indians are 
not to be trusted any more. 

So they say, and I dont care. 

Your house smokes, and so do I 
smoke, when I can get To- 

Will you smoke it now 1 

Yes, and thank you too. 

Why dont you ask for what you 
want ? 

Because I am afraid you will be 

Be very free always when you 
come to my house. 

Well, what have you got for din- 
ner ? 

Pray give me some drink. 

Very much I want old coat and 

Why dont you come and preach 

every day 1 
Your father carne oftener than 

you do. 
Because my father have a great 

deal more than I. 

1 have five pounds less than oth- 

ers that dont preach so often. 

Pray what is the reason for 

that ? 
I cant tell. 
Will you help us husk to night ? 

No, I am going to a wedding. 
Who is to be married 1 
Who married them 1 
The Indian Justice. 


Ut monnoi? kah najr chekewe 
nukkogkanunukquog ana- 

Tohncit matta wussumenook. 

Nuttohkodch kumishamauunu- 

nate neatahshik ; papaumeyeu- 

oo yauinchake poundyeuoo. 
Mohchanitamwe ! Q,ut Jndi- 

auog mat wonk woh unnoh- 

tukquohwhoun kooche. 
Ne unncowon kali matta nuttin- 

Kek pukkuttauo kah ncn nup- 

pukkuttohteam uttuh annooh 

Sun woh kootam eycu. 
Nux, kah kuttabotomish wonk. 
Tohwaj matta wehqutrumujan 

uttuh yeu quenauehhikquean. 
Newutche noowabis kummos- 

Mcocheke nukkogkittamwem 

payoainish nekit. 
Neit teagwa kuttohto wutch 

Koowehquttumauish wuttattam- 

Nukquenauehhik nukkonogkoo 

kah muttasash. 
Tohwaj mat nonche kuhkeotu- 

mauweog nishnoh kesukod. 
Kcoshi moochikit peya- [p. 121.] 

pan onk ken. 
Newutche ncoshi moocheke ah- 

tdai onk nen. 
Nunnogkos ohtom napannatashe 

poundyeuash onk onkatogig 

matta netahshe kukkcotum- 

KcDwehquttumauish tohwaj ne 

Mat noowahteooo. 
Sun woh kuppohkogquttanumiu- 

min yeu nuhkon. 
Mat, nuttomwetauwatiionganit. 
IJowan tohqonithittit. 
Ho wan wuttohqunitheuh. 
Indiane Nanuunnuaenin, 




Q,. How shall 1 learn Indian ? 

A. By talking with Indians, and 
minding their words, and 
manner of pronouncing. 

a. h 

a» not Indian a 
language to learn 1 
A. Yes, tis ver 

their tone. 

very hard 

■y diflicult to get 




What do you think about 
me, do you think 1 shall ever 
learn ? 

I am afraid not very well. 
Would it not be better to 
preach to the Indians in En- 
glish ? 

A. Yes, much better than 
preach in broken Indian. 


Q,. Can the Indians understand 
the most that I say 1 

A. Sometimes they can, 
sometimes they cant. 


Q. What is the reason for that? 

A. Because you have some of 
your fathers words, and he 
learnt Indian at Nope, (a) 
and because you dont put 
the tone in the right place. 

Q,. Did your father study Indian 
at Nope 1 

A. So I hear. 

And what is the difference be- 
tween the language of the 
Island, and the main. 

I cant tell, or dont know, only 
this I know, that these In- 

Uttuh woh nittinne [p. 122.] 
nehtuhtauan Indianne 
Nashpe keketookauaonk Indiam- 
og kah kuhkinasinneat uk- 
kittooonkannoo kah wuttin- 

Sun mat Indianne unnontoowa- 
onk siogkod nehtuhtauunat. 

Nux, ne ahche siogomomukquat 
ohtauunat wuttinontcowaonk- 

Toh kuttinantam wutche (papau- 
me) nen, sun kuttinantam pish 

Nen ncowabes mat papaneyeue. 

Sun umrnat ayn-wanegig kuh- 
kcotumauonau Indiansog ut 
wadtohkcone 'nontGowaonk- 

Nux, moocheke kcoche wunne- 
gen onk neit kuhkootumau- 
onat ut nannohtoohquatumoo- 

Sun woh Indiansog wahtamwog 
uttuh anncowai asuh unnon- 

Momamsh woh watamwog kah 
momanish woh mat wahta- 

Tohwaj ne unnage. 

Newutche kuttahto nawhutche 
ukkuttooonkash kooshi kah 
noli nehtuhtoup wuttinontoo- 
waonkannooo Nope Indiansog, 
kah mat kukkuhkenauwe poo- 
nummoo wuttinnuhquatumoo- 

Sun kooshi kod wahtamwus In- 
dianne 'nontcowaonk ut Nope. 

Ne nuttinnehtamunap. 

Kah uttuh unnuppenoonat wut- 
tinnontoowaonk ne munnoh- 
onk neit kohtohkomukoouk. 

Mat woh numrnissobhamcoun 
asuh matta ncovvalilteo webe 

(a) The Indian name for the Island of Martha's Vineyard. Edit. 



dians dont understand every 
word of them Indians. 

Pray tell me how to pronounce 

Indian right. 
I will do what I can about it. 

Well, friend, I am sorry you are 
going away, but I hope it will 
be for the best. 

I wish you may do and receive 
good where you are going, and 
I wish you a good journey. 

And I hope you will keep your 
self soberly and Christianly. 

Try to keep your selves from 
those vices to which Indians 
are given, and which will 
bring the wrath of God and 
men upon you, viz. drunken- 
ness, falseness, idleness, and 
theft, &c. 

And God be with you, and bless 
you. Amen. 

yeu noowahteauun yeug In- 
diansog mat wahtanooog uarr 
Indiansog ut nishnoh kuttoo- 

Noowehquttnm missohhamunat 
samp-wohquatumunat Indian. 

Uttuh annoolique tapenum nut- 

Netomp nunnooantam asuh kuri- 
nouskosseh nekummonche- 
onk, qut nuttannoous nean- 
wanegig wutchc ken. 

Napehnont ussean kali attumu- 
nuraan uttuh ayoan, napeh- 
nont wanegig kuppumwisha- 

Kah nuttannoous pish kumma- 
ninnis kah Christiane kena- 
naueh kuhhog. 

Qutchehtaiiish kenanauehheon 
kuhhog wutche yeush Indians- 
og womantamwehhitticheh 
ne woh patonkqueau ummos- 
quantamooonk God kah wos- 
ketompaog kenuhkukkonqu- 
nat, nahnane, ko^kesippamo- 
onk, assookekodteamooonk, 
nanompanissuonk, kumootoo- 

Kah God wetomukquish kah 
wunnanumukquish. Amea. 


A few remarks have been already made, in the advertisement 
to this Vocabulary, upon the pronunciation of the Indian dialect 
contained in it. But while the proof sheets were under the 
editor's correction, and it thus became necessary to ottend with 
minuteness to the syllabic divisions of the Indian words, he fre- 
quently experienced great difficulty in deciding where those di- 
visions should be made, He therefore had recourse to an Indian 
Primer, which is believed to be one of those originally published 
by Eliot, and afterwards printed with the Catechism entitled 
i Suiritual Milk for Babes.' written by John Cotton, the grand- 
father of the author of this Vocabulary. This Primer contains 
numerous examples of Indian words, properly divided into sylla- 
bles, as in our English spelling-books. These were found of es- 
sential service in understanding the orthography adopted by Eliot 
and Cotton ; and it has been thought that they would make a 
useful addition to the present publication. They are according- 
ly subjoined. With the same view are also added different ex- 
amples of the LortVs Prayer, in which the variations of orthog- 
raphy will deserve attention. 

The Editor has, upon the suggestion of his learned and re- 
spected friend, the Hon. Judge Davis, also annexed an entire 
Sermon, in English and Indian, written by the author of this Vo- 
cabulary ; and an Extract from one written by the same author, 
but accompanied with an Indian translation in the handwriting 
of his father, John Cotton. These will serve, at the same time, 
as specimens of composition in the language and of the style of 
preaching used in addressing Indian congregations of that period. 
In a note accompanying the Sermons, Judge Davis remarks : 

u According to a statement made by the Rev. Josiah Cotton, 
the number of adult 'praying Indians, in 1703, in the county of 
Plymouth, was one hundred and three ; their several places of 
residence were Kitteaumut, (Monument Ponds), and Jones 1 River, 
in Plymouth, Mattakees, in Pembroke, and at Titicut and Pa- 
chade, in Middleborough." To an account of his missionary ser- 
vices, among these people, in 1709 and 1710, Mr. Cotton sub- 
joins the following note, — " In all 36 sermons, besides preaching 
several sermons in English, (which some of them understand bet- 
ter than the best Indian,) and besides hiring an Indian and pay- 
ing him, to preach amongst them." 



Examples from the Indian Primer. 

IVuiiinaoowaov.gash pasuk Syllablcseonk asult Chadchaubenumoo- 
onk, — Words of one Syllable or Division. 













































Kuitoowongash neesc Syllables 

ooooash asuTi Chadchubenumooongash, 

— Words of two 

Syllables or Divi 







Ay n won 






























New age 

Kuttooicongash nishicc Syllablcsooooash asuh Chndchaubenumooon- 
gash, — Words of three Syllables or Divisions. 

A-nogq-sog Anogqsog 

A-nu-e Anue 































Kuttoowongask yaue Syllablesooooask, — Words of four Syllables. 

A-nin-noo-onk Aninnooonk 

Aus-kon-tu-onk Auskontuonk 

Mat-che-se-onk Matcheseonk 

Mit-tam-wos-sis Mittamwossis 

Oo-we-su-onk Oowesuonk 

Pan-noo-wa-onk Panaoowaouk 







Kuttoowongask napanna tahshe Syllablesooooask, — Words of five 












C he-pi-oh-ko-m uk 






Kuttoowongask ncqutta tahshe Syttablesooooask-— -Words of six 













Kuttoowongask nesausnk tashe Syllabhsooooash asuh Chadckaubt- 
numoooonk, — Words of seven Syllables or Divisions. 

I-a-che- won- ta-moo-on k 





Kuttoowongash swosuk tahshe Syllablcsash asuh Chadchaube- 
nwnooash, — Words of eight Syllables or Divisions. 




Kuttooioongash pasgoogun tahshe Syllables ash asvh Chadchau- 
benumooongash, — Words of nine Syllables or Parts. 



Nus-soh sum-moo-on-ga-nun-no-nash 




Kuttoowongash piogq tahshe Syllablcsash asuh Chadchaubenu- 

mooongdsh, — Words of ten Syllables or Parts. 


Noo-wa-an-tam-oo-on~ga nun-no-nash 

Kuttoowongash nab nequt tahshe Syllablcsash asuh Chadchaubenu- 
mooongash, — Words of eleven Syllables or parts. 


Kuttoowongash naboneese Syllablesooooash asuh Chadchaube- 
numooongash,— Words of twelve Syllables or Parts. 








Kuttoowongash nabo nishwe Syllablesooooash asuh Chadchaube- 
numooongash, — Words of thirteen Syllables or Parts. 


Kuttoowongash nabo napanna tahshe Syllablcsuash asa Chad- 
chaubenumooooash, — Words of fifteen Syllables or Parts. 





From Eliofs Bible. Matth. vi. 9. 
(Edit, of 1680.) 
Nooshun kesukqut, quttiana- 
tamunack koowesuonk. Peyau- 
mcoutch kukketassootamoonk, 
kuttenantamao/?/v- ne n macli oh- 
keit neanc kesukqut. Nummeet- 
suongash asekesukokish assa- 
mahmean yeuyeu kesukok. Kali 
abquoantamaiinnean nummat- 
cheseon^" ash, neane matchene- 
hukqueafjig nutahquontamowi- 
nonog. Ahque sagkompagunai- 
innean en qutchhuaouganit, we- 
be pohquohwussinnean wutch 
matchitut. Newutche kutah- 
tanun kptns«nr>fnnrinonIv- kah n 
nuhkesuonk, kah sohsumoonk 
micheme. Amen, 

From the Indian Primer. 
(Edit, of 17-20, p. 13.) 
Nooshun kesukqut ^M^riana- 
tamunach koowesuonk, peyau- 
mooutch kukketassootamooortA; ; 
kuttenantamooo/iA; ; ne ennage 
ohkeit neane kesukqut. Num- 
meetsuongash asekesukokish 
assaminneawe yeuyeu kesukok. 
Kah abquontamaiinrtccane num- 
matcheseongash neane mat- 
chenukqueagecg nutahquonta- 
mauounuonog. Ahque sagkom- 
ipzginninnean en qutchisAro/i- 
ganit, qut pohquohwussinean 
wutch matchitut ; newutche ku- 
tahtauun ketassootamoor^A;, kah 
menuhkesuonk, kah sohsumoo- 
onlc micheme. Amen, 

From Flint's Bible. Luke xi. 2. 

Nooshun kesukqut, qiifl'izno.- 
famunch koowesuonk, kukketas- 
sootamoonk peyaumooutch, kut- 
tcnantzunooorJc ne naj ucyanc 
kesukqut kah ohkeit. Assa- 
maiinnean kokokesukodae nuta- 
scsukokke* petukqunneg. Kah 
ahquonntamaiinne-an nummat- 
chesconganonash, newutche nc- 
nawun wonk niitaliquoantamcru- 
oimnonog nishnoh pasuk no)- 
namontukquohwhonan, kah ah- 
que sagkompaginnean en qut- 
- thehettuonganit, qut pohquawus- 

From the Indian Primer, p. 26. 
(Matth. vi. 9.) 
Nooshun kesukqut qutuajja- 
tamunach koowesuonk, peyau- 
mooutch kukketassootamooonk 
kuttenantamooonk ne ennach 
ohkeit neane kesukqut. Num- 
meetsuongash asekesukokish 
assamainrceara yeuyeu kesukok. 
Kah ahquontamaiin?i€«7i num- 
matcheseongash neane mat- 
chenehikqnegeeg nutahquonlam- 
auounonog. Ahque sagkom- 
pa^wnaiinnean en qutchhutraon- 
ganit, qut pohquohwussinnan 
wutch matchitut. Newutche 
kutahtauun ketassootamoonA- kah 
menuhkesuonk, kah sohsumoo- 
onk micheme. Amen. 

Quest. How many are the cam 

viands ? 
Ans. Ten. 


From the Indian Primer, 

Nat. Tohshinash 

gash God ? 
Nam p. Piogquodtosl 


a urn a tu on- 

* An error of the press for 7iutaseketukokke. as it stands in the edit, of 1661 ■ 



Quest. What is the first ? 
Answ. Thou shall have no oth- 
before me. 

Quest. What is the second Com- 

jnandmcnt ? 
Answ. Thou shalt not make to 

thyself any graven Image, &x. 
Quest. What is the third Cum- 

mandment 1 
Answ. Take thou not the name 

of the Lord thy God in vain. 

Quest. VMxat is the fourth Com- 
mandment ? 

Answ. Remember the Sabbath 
day thou must keep holy. 

Quest. What is the fifth Com- 
mandment ? 

Answ. Honour thy father and 
mother, that thou mayest long 
live in the land which the 
Lord thy God giveth thee. 

Quest. What is the sixth Com- 
mandment ? 

Answ. Thou shalt do no murder. 

Quest. IVhat is the seventh Com- 
mandment ! 

Answ. Thou shalt not commit 

Quest. What is the eighth Com- 
mandment 1 

Answ. Do not thou steal. 

Quest. What is the ninth Com- 
mandment 1 

Answ. Falsely witness thou not 
against thy neighbour. 

Quest. What is the tenth Com- 
mandment ? 

Answ. Thou shalt not covet. 

Nat. Chagua ncgonnohtag ? 
Namp. Ummanittoomehkon on- 

katogeeg manittooog ut ana- 
Nat. Uttiyeu nahohtoeu Anoote- 
amooonk 1 

Namp. Ayimauuhkon kuhhog 

nunneukontunk, &c. 
Nat. Uttiyeu nishwe Anootea- 
mooonk 1 
Namp. Neemunoohkon oowe- 

suonk Jehovah Kummanit- 

toom tahnooche. 
Nat. Uttiyeu yaue Anootcamoo- 

onlc ? 
Namp. Mehquontash Sabbath 

day woh kuppahketeauun. 
Nat. Uttiyeu napanna tahshe 

Anooteamooonic / 
Namp. Quttianum koosh kah 

kookas, onk woh kussepe po- 

mantam ut kuttohkeit uttiyeu 

Jehovah Kummanittoom anin- 

Nat. Uttiyeu ncqutta tahshe 

Anooteamooonic ? 
Namp. Nushcteohkon. 
Nat. Uttiyeu nesausuk tahshe 

Anooteamooonk ? 
Namp. Mamusehkon. 

Nat. Uttiyeu swosuk tahshe 

Anooteamooonk ? 
Na/np. Kommootohkon. 
Nat. Uttiyeu pasgoogun tahshe 

Anooteamooonk ? 
Namp. Pannoowae wauwaonuh- 

kon ketatteamunk. 
Nat. Uttiyeu piogque Anooiea- 

mooqnk 1 
Namp. Ahchewontogkon. 

A Sermon preached by Josiah Cotton ( author of the preceding Vo- 
cabulary) to the Massachusetts Indians, in 1710. From the on- 
ginal manuscript. 

Acts xvii. 30. And the times of this ignorance God winked at ; but now 
commancleih al! men every where to repent. 

Doctrine. It is the plain and Kuhkcotumwehhaonk. Yeu 
absolute command of God that pahke wuttanncotearncoonk God 



all mon and women should re- 
pent of their sins. 

Here you may ask this ques- 
tion, What is repentance, or 
what is meant by this word re- 
pentance ? 

I answer thus, repentance is 
a grace of the holy spirit of God 
wrought in the heart of a sin- 
ner, whereby he being filled 
with shame and sorrow for his 
former sins doth resolve to for- 
sake them, and turn to God, and 
to become a new man. 

I would make this more plain 
and easy to your understandings, 
and therefore, consider these 
things which must be in that 
man that truly repents of his 

1. A man must be convinced 
of his sin, or else he cannot 
truly repent of it. 

Now it is the work of Gods 
spirit to convince a man of sin. 
Christ sayes his spirit shall con- 
vince and reprove for sin, by 
making him to see what a wick- 
ed thing sin is. 

And makes him to see that 
for his sin he deserves to burn 
in hell forever. 

Time was when the sinner 
could see no harm in the ways 
of sin. 

onk woh wame woskctompao^, 
kah miltumwussissog norit woh 
aiuskoiantamwog ummatchese- 
ongancooash. Woh yen ke- 

•lattootumwehkonau yeu nattoo- 
tumwebteaonk, Tcag aiu^koian- 
tamooonk, asuh ton nauwutta- 
moo yeu kuttooonk aiuskoianta- 
mooonk. Yeu nunnampoo- 

humooonk, A iuskoiantarnooonk 
nekus nashauanittooe kitteamon- 
teanittuonk God, anakausumo- 
onk ut wuttohut matcheseaenin 
ne nashpe niskontog kah num- 
wappehtunkqut ogkohtchooonk, 
kah nuantamooonk wutche nuk- 
konne urnmatcheseongash wonk 
mohtantog nont nnnnuhkotumu- 
nash kah nukquinnuppem en 
Godut, kah nooshkosketompa. 
Woh yeu nuppahkettumunnah, 
kah woh nunnukkumehteaunah 
en kcowohtan.ooongannco, ne- 
wutche natwontarnog nish woh 
appehtunkqatcheh wosketomp 
nob wunaumuhkut aiuskoiantog 
ummatcheseongash. (1) Wos- 
ketomp nont woh uppogkodchu- 
mukqun ummatcheseonk asuh 
woh matta pahke aiuskoiantam- 
moo. Eyeu yeu wulanakau- 
suonk wunnetupantamwe wun- 
nashauanittooonoh God woh up- 
pogkodchumon wosketomp um- 
matcheseonk. Christ unncoau 
nunnashanit pish pogkodchumau 
kah wutchumau wosketompoh 
ummatcheseonk pish pohque- 
tum : John xvi. 8. W^un- 

noshaunittooonoh God uppogkod- 
chumukqun wosketomp wutche 
matcheseonk wunnohtuuukqun 
uttoh en matchetooe teagquas- 
sinyeu matcheseonk onk wun- 
nohtanukqun wutche ummatche- 
seonk tumohhcovvau chikossuon- 
kut chepiohkomukqut micheme. 
Ahquompiyeuop neadt matche- 
seaenin matta naurnoop woskeh- 
huvvaonkut matche^eae mayut. 



But now lie comes to see that 
he must be damned for sin, un- 
less Christ will pardon it ; when 
God comes to work a change 
upon mans heart, he shows him 
that all evil in this world comes 
because of sin. 

And all evil in hell comes be- 
cause of sin. The poor soul 
must come to see that he de- 
serves the wrath of God for 

He has lived without prayer 
and has committed abundance of 
sin, and it affrights him to think 
how great a sinner he hath bin. 

Now the sinner must be 
brought to see, and be convinc- 
ed of his sins, or else he will 
never repent of them and turn 
from them. 

2. When a man truly repents 
he must not only see his sins to 
be very great, but he must also 
be very sorry for them. 2 Cor. 
vii. 10. Isaiah lvii. 15. 

When a man comes to consid- 
er how great a sinner he has 
binj it pricks him at the heart, 
and makes him much sorry, so it 
was with them that Peter preach- 
ed unto. Acts ii. 37. 

Wickedness now seems bitter, 
how sweet soever it had bin be- 
fore. The sinner now sees 
that he has bin running away 
from God. 

That he has abused God's 
mercy, that he has cast off Jesus 
Christ, that he deserves to be de- 
stroyed, and this makes him very 

Qui eyeu naura nont nooche 
pish awakompenam nummatche- 
sconk tohneit Christ mat ahquon- 
tamok : God anakausitut kahpe- 
nooeehteog wuttuh wosketornp 
neit wunnohtinnoh wame ma- 
chuk yeuut muttaohkeit peya- 
mco webe nashpe matcheseonk. 
Kah warne machuk ut chepioh- 
komukqut p'gamco webe nash- 
pe matcheseonk. Kittumungke 
keteahogkau mos naum nont 
nuttumhooam ne ummoosquan- 
tamooonk God micheme. Onk 
pomantam sepeohquompi qut 
mat nuppeantainco kah wuttus- 
sen monafash matcheseongash 
kah wutchepshanukqun meh- 
quantamunat uttuhunnohque mis- 
si nummatchetcoonk, Eyeu mat- 
cheseaenin nont pasoowau nau- 
munat • kah pohompottamunat 
ummatcheseonk, asuh mat woh 
nequt aiuskoiantammoo kah 

(2) Wosketornp panuppe aius- 
koiantog matta webe naumco 
ummatcheseongash missiyeuash 
qut wonk missi nooantam wutche 
nish. 2 Cor. vii. 10. Isaj. lvii. 15. 
Uttoh adt wosketornp natwontog 
ummishe matcheseaennuonk riat 
noh wutche oheyeu ukkonuk- 
kehtohhukqun ut wuttahut kah 
ne mcocheke nanantamhukqun- 
neaunagkup missinninuk Peter 
kuhkeotumauompah, Acts ii. 37. 
Matchetooonk eyeu wesogko- 
momukquat toganogque weho- 
nup negonne. Matcheseae- 

nin eyeu pohkompottamkusseh 
nunnanukkonnomus God. 

Onk naum matta tohhentupan- 
tamcomus ummonaneteaonk God, 
onk naum kusseh nuppapogken- 
omus Jesus Christ, onk naum kus- 
seh nuttaphum pagquanittuonk 
onk yen wuttiymonkqun missi 



3. He that would truly repent 
of sin, must confess his sins ; he 
that would obtain mercy from 
God must confess his sins. 1 
John i. 9. 

He must own him self to be 
a sinner and a great sinner. He 
must judge and condemn him- 
self for his sin. He must earn- 
estly beg of God to pardon his 
sins. If we have sinned 

against God or have done any 
wrong to man, we should freely 
make confession of it. 

4. He that would repent of 
sin, must also forsake all sins. 
Isah. lv. 7. Prov. xxviii. 13. 

We must not only forsake sin 
for a little time, for one month 
or one year, but we must re- 
solve that we will forsake sin 
for ever and ever. 

Some men when they are sick 
will promise to forsake sin, but 
when they are well, they will be 
worse than they were before ; 
now such do not truly repent of 
sin, for if they did they would 
hate sin when they are well, 
as they did when they were sick. 

5. He that truly repents of 
sin, must not only turn from 
sin, but he must also turn unto 
God and resolve to walk in Gods 
ways, and to obey his word as 
God shall help him. 

3. Noh kod pahke aiuskoian- 

tog matcheseonk woh samppoo- 
au ummatcheseongash ; noh 
kodtantog wuttattumunurnunat 
monaneteaonk vvutche Godut 
nont woh sampcoau ummatche- 
seongash. 1 Ep. John i. 9. 
Nont woh samppooaonoh wuh- 
hoguh nont nummatchetum kah 
nen missi matcheseaenin. Nont 
woh wussumau kah pohkodchu- 
mau wuhhoguh wutche matche- 
seonk : onk woh menu like 
wehquttumauau Godoh onk woh 
ahquontamauo ummatcheseon- 
gash, tohneit matchenehog God 
asuh wosketomp nont woh hoh- 
nonp kossamppoowontaffiunao. 
xx. G. ****. 

4. Noh kodtantog aiuskoian- 
tamunat ummatcheseonk nont 
woh nukkodtum wame matche- 
seonk. Isaj. lv. 7. Prov. xxviii. 
13. Matta kenukkottumoo- 
mun matcheseonk oggosohquom- 
pi pasuk nepaz asuh pasuk kod- 
tummcDqut nont woh kummah- 
tantamumun nont kenukkottu- 
mumun matcheseonk micheme 
kah micheme. Nawutch wos- 
ketompaogmahchinnahittit wun- 
ncowaog nunnukkodtum mat- 
cheseonk qut quenau keteahittit 
anue matchetooog onk negonne, 
neanesitcheg matta pahke aius- 
koiantamooog ummatchescon- 
kannco, tohneit panuppe aius- 
koiantamhittit woh jishantamog 
matcheseonk ut oonekckonna- 
out, netatuppe onk ut mahcfain- 

5. Noh pannuppe aiuskoian- 
tog ummatcheseonk matta woh 
webe, nukkodtum 00 matchese- 
onk qut onk quinnuppe en God at 
kah kesantam nont nupp urn sham 
God ummayut kah noswehtamu- 
nat wuttinanchemookaonk God 
nttoh an tappunnumwohhukqut. 



Sin carrys the soul away from 
God; repentance brings back 
the soul unto God again. Jsah. 
Iv. 2. 

Tims we hear what repent- 
ance is, and the text tells us, 
and so do many other texts in 
the bible, that God commands 
and requires all men every where 
to repent. 

And now let us make some 
use of this text. 

Use 1. Let us pray to God to 
send us his holy spirit to con- 
vince us of our zin?, and to 
make us see how great sinners 
we be ; for if we do not see and 
repent of our sins we shall be 
damned in hell fire for ever. 
God remembers all our sins 
though we have forgot them, 
and he will punish us if we do 
not repent. 

And if we will now repent of 
our sins, God will pardon them, 
for Christ died to procure a par- 
don for repenting sinners. 

2 U. Let us be very sorry for 
our sins : blessed are they that 
mourn, for they shall be comfort- 

3. Let us be willing to con- 
fess our sins before God and 
man ; if we do not, our case is 
sad. Psalm xxxiii. 5. 

Matchcseonk amanau ketex- 
hogkau wutche Godut, (jut aius- 
koiantamooonk quehchoowunna 
keteahogkau en Godut tvonk. 
Isaj. Iv. ?. 

Yen kuttinne nootamunan aius- 
koiantamcoonk neaunag onk,. 
Yeu queenshitteonk koowotum- 
onkqunan, onk monatash quen- 
shitteonkash ut Bibleut God an- 
nooteamoo kah nattauompamau 
wame wosketompaog nishnohut 
onk woh aiuskoiantarnwog. 

Kah eyeu auwohteatuh yeu 

1. Auwohteaonk. Peantamau- 
ontuh God onk woh annconau 
cortetu r >^ r* { h m we warm ashauan- 
ittoomoh onk woh kuppog kod- 
chimukqun wutche matchese- 
onk, onk woh kenaumumun 
nont missi kurnmatchetumun ; 
tohneit mat naumoog kah aius- 
koiantamooog nummatcheseon- 
ganunnonash pish kuttauakom- 
panamun chepiohkomukqut mi- 
cheme. God mehquantarn wa- 
me kummatcheseonganunno- 
nash toganogque wanantamog, 
kah pish kuttattumanamohhuk- 
qun tohneit mat aiuskoiantog. 
Tohneit eyeu aiuskontamog 
God pish kutahquontamongqun, 
newutche Christ nuppooonk woh 
aiuskoiantomoe matcheseaenuog 
ahtoog ahquontamoadtuonk. 

2 Auwoh. Mishe nuantamut- 
tuh wutche nununatcheseonga- 
nunnonash unnauumoog nag 
mooog, newutche pish miskpu- 
antamwaheoog. Matt. v. 4. 

3. Wekontamuttuh sampooon 
kuhmatcheseonganunnonash an- 
aquabit God kah wosketompaog, 
tohneit mat yeu usseog kuttin- 
niyeuonganit matchit. Psal. 
xxxii. o. 



4. Let us resolve to forsake 
all our sins. Sin is a very great 
grief to God, and will undo our 
poor souls ; O then dortt let us 
love it. 

5. Let us walk in God's way, 
obey his word, pray unto him 
for mercy and grace, and he will 
give us Christ here, and glory 
for ever. And now, to conclude, 
let us all make haste to repent 
of our sins and turn from them, 
and to turn to our good God, 
and then Jesus Christ will take 
away all our sins, and God will 
love us, and -bless us, and do us 
rroorl or>^ >vhe r * w* 3 have fin'sH™ 
ed a short life in this world he 
will take us up to heaven, where 
we shall live for ever without 
sin, and without sorrow. Amen. 

4. Nont nukkottumuttuh wa- 
me kummatcheseonganunno- 
nash. Matcheseonk ne ummut- 
tae noohikqun God, onk ne pa- 
pequanteomoo keteahogkau, woi 
ahque ne womantamuttuh. 

5. Ponishatuh ummayit God, 
nooswehtamuttuh wuttinnon- 
chemohaonk, peantamauontuh 
wutche monanteaonk kah kit- 
teamonteanitteaonk onk woh 
kuttinumongquu Christ yeuut 
kah sohsumooonk micheme na- 
hohtoeu. Kah eyeu maiish tea- 
nuk aiuskoiantamuttuh kummat- 
cheseonganunnonash, kah nuk- 
kottumuttuh nish onk quinnup- 
petuh en Groclut noh wunnetoo**. 
neit Jesus Christ pish amma- 
num wame matcheseonk kah 
God kcowamanukqun kah kco- 
nanukqun kah koonenehhikqun 
onk mahtshonk yeu pomanta- 
mcoonk yeuut muttaohkeet pish 
kenemunukqun en kesukqut 
micheme, adt pish pomantamog 
mat naumcoun matcheseonk 
asuh nuantamcDonk, Amen. 

Extracts from a Sermon in English and Indian; the English part 
being in the hand-writing of Josiah Cotton f and the Indian in 
that of his father, John Cotton. 

I shall therefore from the 
words of my text, speak to you 
about death and judgment. 

Which are very terrible things, 
and that that you ought to get 

The truths or divisions con- 
tained in my text are these. 

1. That God, the governour 
of the world, has appointed that 
men dy once. 

2. That after men are dead 
he will judge them. 

Yeu wutche yeush kuttooon- 
gash ut nukquenshittunkanit 
kukkenoonumwoo papaume nup- 
pooonk kah wussittumooonk. 

Uttuh nish unkquenunkquohish 
teagwa sinnuukish, kah woh 
kukquashwemwoo wutche. 

Wunnomwaonkash nish ah- 
tagish ut nukquenshittunkanit 

1. God noh nanauunuk mat- 
taohk mahtche kuhquttum wosk- 
tompaog pasukqut nup.punat. 

2. Mahche wosketompaog 
nuppehhittit noh Hah pish oosu- 



If men have lived well and 
soberly, then God will appoint 
them to happiness ; if men have 
lived wickedly, then God will 
make them perfectly miserable. 

1. D a - Death is the separa- 
tion of the soul from the body. 
When the soul goes out, or de- 
parts from the body then the 
man is dead. 

Now no man can hinder this 
separation ; whensoever death 
comes all men must dy. high and 
low. rich and poor, the Greatest 
sachem and the meanest persons. 
He that lives longest must dy at 
last. Thus Methuselah, that 
lived almost a thousand years, yet 
died at last. Gen. v. 27, Ps. xlix. 
7, 9. No man can save himself 
from death, or his brother. 

Your forefathers, and our fore- 
fathers are dead, and therefore 
experience teaches us that we 
must also dy. Zech. i. 5. No 
man can live forever till he has 
once dyed. 

Sickness, war,, old age, and 
many other things make men dy. 

So that very few attain to be 
100 years old, thus saves Moses. 
Ps. xc, 10. 

All men must dy, or else be 

Tohneit wosketompaog wun- 
ne kah maninnessue pomantam- 
wehhittit, neit God pish n;\h uk- 
kehteumuh en wunniyeuonganit, 
tohneit wosketompaog inatche- 
tooc ponruntamwehhittit, neit 
God pish nah wuttiaymauuh 
wunnumubkutteyeue kittu- 


Nuppooonk ne chadchapeh- 
tauadtuonk keteahogkau watch 
muhhogatt keteahocrkau sohhog- 
ish asuh amaehtogish mulihog, 
neit wosketomp nuppoo. 

Yenyeu matla wosketomp ta- 
penumoo wuttamehtauunat yeu 
chadchapehtoadtuook utluh an- 
nooii nevant nitpmooonk warne 
wosketompaog mos nuppooog, 
quanonkquissitchegtioh quonk- 
quissitcheg wenauetuog roatche- 
teaog masukkenukig sontimoog- 
kah kuttumungke missinninnuog 
noli sepe pomantog mos nuppoo 
momaiish, yeu unnih Methuse- 
lah pomantogup ornog nequtte- 
muttannnnkaune kodtumwae 
onch nupapan ut miish. Geiu 
v. 27. Ps. xlix. 7, 9. Na matta 
wosketompanooh noh woh poh- 
quohwhunont wuhhoguh wutch 
nuppooonganit yuh wematah.. 

Negonne kooshoowog kah ne- 
gonne nooshunnonuk mahche 
nuppuk kah newutche wahtun- 
teaonk nukkukkootumunkqunan 
mos nunnupumunnanukuh. 

Zech. i. 5. Wosketomp matta 
woh micheme pomantamooh na- 
paj mahche pasukqut rnmpuk. 

Mahchinnaongash quentoad- 
tuongash mohtantamooonk kah 
monaash onkatoganish teagwa- 
sinish waj wosketompaog nup- 

Nemehkuh anue ogkossaoog 

neqnt pasukkooe kocUumwohogisr 

yeuwussinneahMGses. Ps.xc.iO. 

Wame wosketompaog mos 



changed, and that is all one death. 

But here the question is, Why 
must, all men dy 1 

Ans. 1. All men must dy 
because they have sinned. 

Thus God threatened Adam 
and all his children, that if he 
sinned then they should dy, i. e. 
if he eat the forbidden fruit. 
Gen. ii. 17. Rom. v. 12. and 
vi. 23. 

And hence it is, that little 
children that never actually sin- 
ned like Adam, must dy, be- 
en u so their first father sinned, 
and they in him. Rom. v. 12, 14. 
that is, infants or children. But, 

2. Good men as well as bad 
must dy, that they may get to 
Heaven, for in this world they 
be not perfectly happy, nay of- 
tentimes are very much afflicted. 

God therefore has appointed 
that they should dy, that so they 
may be free from sin and misery, 
and may be brought to heaven, 
where is fullness of joy. 

All the afflictions of this life 
should put us in mind of death, 
which will come sooner or later, 
though we cant tell when, and 
therefore we should always 
watch and be ready. 

After men dy they shall be 

As all men mustdy so all men 
must be judged. 

nuppooog, asuh ossooweog kah 
ne yaneyeuoo nuppooonganit. 
Qut yen nattootumwehteaonk 
tohwaj nuppehhittit wame wos- 

Nam p. 1. Wame wosketom- 
paog mos uuppooog newutche 
nag matcheseupanneg. 

Yeu en God quokquohtomau 
Adamoh kah wame wunnechan- 
noh, tohneit mattchesehittit nag 
pish nuppooog, tohneit mechuk 
quahtinnittimuk mechummuonk. 
Gen. ii. 17. Rom. v. 12. vi. 23. 

Kah yeuwutche pewe mukkoi- 
esog asquam usseae matchesch- 
hittcg neane Adam, mos nup- 
poooo - . newutche negonne oosh- 
shoooh matchese kah nag ut 
nagum. Rom. v. 12, 14. 

2. W r unnetooe wosketompaog 
neane matchetooe mos nuppooog 
onk woh nag peyauog kesukqut 
newutche yeu ut muttaohkeit 
nag matta pannuppc wunnieog 
nag monatash ahquompiyeuash 

God newaj ukkehteumuh en 
nupponat onk woh nag chippe- 
yeuooog wutch matchesonganit 
kah onkquan umooonganit kah 
woh pasoooogkesukqut ne 
ahtak pashanne mishkquanta- 
mooonk. Wame wuttameh- 

punnaongash ut yeu pomanta- 
mooonganit woh immmehquan- 
tamhikqunan nun nuppooonga- 
nun uttuh yeu pish payomoo uk 
kenuppe asuh quohque tokanog- 
que mat noowahteooonan uttuh 
unnooh kah newaj woii nagwut- 
teae askoohwheteaog kah quosh- 

Mahche wosketompaog nup- 
pehhittitnag pish wussumoog. 

Neane wame wosketompaog 
mos nuppehhitht neane wame 
wosketompaog mos wussumoog. 



It is oppointed for mm to dy, 
no man nor person whatsoever 
shall escape the judgment of 

And this judgment shall be 
either private or publiek, either 
immediately after every man's 
death, or at the last day. As 
soon as ever a man dyes his 
spirit or soul goes to God, and 
he orders whether it shall be 
happy or miserable, as in the 
forementioned, Luke xvL 

But the general and open 
judgment shall be at the last 
day. Acts xvii. 31. Christ shall 
be the judge, for to him all pow- 
er is given. And all men shall be 
brought before him and be judg- 
ed. 2 Cor. v. 10. 

And then all the world shall 
know how often we have bin 
drunk, how often we have 
broken Gods sabbath, how 
often we have stole and lyed 
and how many times we have 
bin guilty of any other sin. 
And not only shall wicked mens 
be revealed, but good mens ac- 
tions shall be revealed to their 
very great joy and comfort. 
For Christ as he is God knows 
all things and he will make 
known what we arc, whether we 
have bin sincerely good or hypo- 
criticall ; or openly wicked. 
Eccles. xii. 14. 

KuhquUohhe wutch worskc- 
tompaog en nupunat kah na 
matta wosketomp asuh howan 
noli woh pohquohhog oosittu- 
mooonk God. 

Kah yeu wussuttumooonkpish 
kemeyeu asuh pish pohquaeyeu, 
pish teanuk quenau mahche nu- 
puk nishnoh wosketomp asuh ut 
moi'ish ne kesukok quenau uttuh 
annooh wosketomp nuppukish, 
wunnaushaonk asuh ukkctea- 
hogkaunoh moncheoh en God ut 
kah noh oonohteanuinauuh, oo- 
nieninncat asuh ukkittimunk- 
keyeuenneat neane ut negonum- 
mishamooonganit ut Luke xvi. 

Glut mamusse kah pohquaak 
wussittumooonk nupish unnih ut 
momaush ne kesukok. Acts 
xvii. 31. Christ noh pish wus- 
suttum newutche noh unumauop 
vvame menuhkesuonk, kah wame 
wosketompaog mos pasoooog 
anaquabit wussumonat. % Cor. 
v. 10. 

Kah rfeit pish wame muttaohe 
wahteoog nishnoh nukkogkesu- 
parnooongmun nish noli iiup- 
poohqtinumooonganun God wus- 
sabbathomash, nishnoh nukkum- 
mootooonganun kah nuppannoo- 
unonganun kah nishnoh ah- 
quofnpi adt keskoadtamonus on- 
onkatogish rnatcheseongash kali 
matta webe matchetooe woske- 
tompaog wuttisseongannoo wah- 
teooounqut wonk wunnetooe 
wosketompaog wuttusseonganoo 
pish wahtouwahhumen nash urn- 
mishkauartamooongannoo kah 
tapheaongannoo. Newutche 

Christ noh God yeait noh wah 
tunk wame teagwasinish, noh 
pish, wahtouwahhuau uttuh an- 
usseog uttuh en wunnumulikut 
wunnatooog asuhaiantog koiyeu- 
eog asuh pohquae matchtooog. 
Eccles. xii. 14. 




The attention which has been paid by the legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts, to preserving and diffusing the 
knowledge of the settlement and growth of our 
country, is a subject of general congratulation. We 
fortunately possess the means of proving our origin by 
authentic documents ; and the legislature are taking ef- 
fectual measures to transmit some of these documents to 
posterity. In the year 1814 they contributed largely to 
the publication of Hubbard's History of New England, 
which was printed by order of the Historical Society. 
The legislature took six hundred copies of the edition, 
which nearly ueiifiv^d the wtoie uAjJuiise. Each 
town in the Commonwealth, including Maine, which 
was not then separated, was supplied with a copy. ^ 

The legislature have lately contributed in like man- 
ner to the publication of Winthrop's History," having 
purchased three hundred and fifty copies, to be distri- 
buted among the several, towns in the Commonwealth. 

The measures taken to preserve the records of the 
Old Colony of Plymouth deserve particular notice. 

In 1817, His Excellency Governor Brooks, while at 
Plymouth, took occasion to examine them. He was 
so impressed with their importance to the public, and 
at the same time with the difficulty of consulting 
them on account of their being so illegible, and in 
such confusion, that he suggested to several of his 
friends the propriety of having them transcribed, and 
either the originals, or copies, deposited in the Secre- 
tary's office in Boston. 

At the ensuing session of the legislature a commit- 
tee was appointed to take this subject into considera- 
tion, who made the following report : — 

" The committee of the Senate, to whom was re- 
ferred an order respecting the records of the Old Col- 

* This edition is in two volumes, entitled " Winthrop's History of New England/' 
with copies of early ieiiers, and valuable notes by Mr. Savage, it will, in a 
great measure, supersede the necessity of any other history oi those times. 


ony, and a report of a former committee thereon, have 
had the same under consideration, and report ; that 
upon inquiry they find that the records, files, and oth- 
er documents of the colony of Plymouth were, upon 
the union of that colony with the province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, left in the colony. Your committee 
have not been able to find what arrangement was 
made respecting them by the colony before the union, 
or by the province afterward ; but the same remain, 
and are now deposited in the office of the registry of 
deeds in the county of Plymouth, and this committee 
have not been able to learn what part of said records, 
or what portion of said files and documents, is valua- 
ble, or may be useful to the legislator, the histori- 
an, or to the antiquarian ; that it will not be proper to 
proceed to transcribe said records, or any part of them, 
until a previous examination has been made, and the 
General Court fully informed how far the Common- 
wealth are interested therein, or how far it may be 
useful to remove the collection to the Secretary's 
office, that more convenient access may be had to 
them by all persons, or how far it may be useful to 
multiply copies by transcribing, or printing the whole 
records, or any part thereof. 

" That the General Court may obtain that informa- 
tion, the committee ask leave to submit the following 
resolution. Samuel Dana, Chairman. 

" Resolved, that James Freeman, D. D. of Boston, 
Samuel Davis, Esq. of Plymouth, and Benjamin R. 
Nichols, Esq. of Salem, or any one or more of them, 
be, and they are hereby authorized and empowered 
to examine the said records, files^ and documents, and 
if they find the same of right belonging to the Com- 
monwealth, they shall have power to take the same 
into their custody, for the purpose of a full examina- 
tion ; and they are requested to report how far, in their 
opinion, it may be proper to have the same deposited 
in the archives of the Secretary of State, for the use 


of legislators, historians, and antiquarians, and how- 
far it may be useful to multiply copies of the whole, 
or any parts of them, for the use of all the people ; 
and they are requested to report an estimate of the 
expense of printing such part as they may find it 
proper to have printed. And they are further re- 
quested to make a full report in the premises, at the 
first session of the next General Court, and to lay 
their accounts for their expenses and services before 
the Committee on Accounts for allowance." 

The foregoing report was accepted, and resolution 
adopted, February 18, 1818. 
The Commissioners thus appointed, proceeded to Ply- 
mouth, and after carefully examining the Records, 
made an abstract of them ; the abstract forming a 
quarto volume of 325 pages. This they returned to 
the legislature in June 1818, with their report, which 
was as follows : — 

" The commissioners appointed by a resolve of the 
General Court dated February 18, 1818, to examine 
the records of the Old Colony of Plymouth, have at- 
tended the service assigned to them, and respectfully 
beg leave to submit the following report : 

"The Old Colony Records consist of twelve volumes 
in folio, and the Charter engrossed on parchment, be- 
sides which there are two volumes of the acts of the 
commissioners of the United Colonies. The volumes of 
the Old Colony Records are marked, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
12, 15, 16, M, N. Though it does not appear that any 
volumes have been lost, yet there are none with the marks 
of 3, 9, 10, 13, 14 ; but several of the volumes contain 
two or more parts, which circumstance probably pre- 
vented the volumes being marked in a continued series 
of numbers. The acts of the Commissioners of the 
United Colonies are marked U. C. 1. and U. C. 2. 

The general contents of the volumes are acts and 
resolves of the legislature, judicial proceedings of the 
court of assistants, consisting of civil and criminal 
cases, and the settlement of the estates of persons de- 


ceased, orders of the council of war, military transac- 
tions, and appointments of commissioned officers ; 

names of the freemen admitted, and of the selectmen 
of towns ; registers of births, marriages, and deaths ; 
admonitions to churches, and recommendations and ad- 
dresses to the people ; grants of land ; records of 
wills, and deeds, and a variety of miscellaneous mat- 
ters, which cannot be classed under any particular 
head. These several articles are blended together in 
the same volume, and frequently in the same page ; 
and different parts of a volume are bound together 
with leaves inverted, and misplaced, and without re- 
gard to dates. 

" Your committee have not been able to discover 
whether any arrangement was made respecting the 
records before the union of Plymouth with Massachu- 
setts, or by the Province afterward ; but it was un- 
doubtedly concluded at the time of the union, as it will 
be probably now, that it would be inconvenient, and 
injurious to the inhabitants of the Old Colony, to re- 
move from them the deeds, and other titles to their 
estates, which cannot be separated from the acts of 
the General Court. Your committee have no doubt 
that these records of right belong to the Common- 
wealth ; but they hope it will not appear a breach of 
propriety to state, that many of the inhabitants would 
surrender them with reluctance, as they regard them 
as the most important monuments which they possess 
of the labours and prudence of their ancestors. 

" The acts of the Commissioners of the United Colo- 
nies form no part of the records of the Old Colony. 
With respect to them therefore, your committee report 
as their opinion, that they ought to be removed to the 
seat of government, and deposited in the Secretary's 

" After a careful examination of the whole of the 
Plymouth Records, your committee are of opinion, 
that it would be of benefit to the present age, and 
still more to posterity 5 to cause a fair transcript to be 


taken, and copies to be multiplied by printing the 
most interesting articles, so that they may be read 
with ease by all whose curiosity, taste, or studies may 
lead them to the examination. For the information 
of the General Court, as well as for a guide to the 
person who may be employed to make the copy, your 
committee have endeavoured, with much toil, to find 
their way through the labyrinth of these records, and 
the abstract which accompanies this report contains a 
selection, arranged in the order of time, of the articles, 
which in their judgment will be most useful to the 
legislator, the antiquarian, the civil and ecclesiastical 
historian, the biographer, the geographer, and the ob- 
server of human nature. The parts of .the records 
which they have omitted to note are many of the ju- 
dicial proceedings, and nearly the whole of the wills 
and deeds. 

" Your committee have searched in the public offices 
of Plymouth for documents and files of papers ; but 
can find none of a public concern. 

u After receiving proposals from three several printers, 
your committee have made an estimate of the expense 
of printing such parts of the records as it may be 
proper to publish. The cost of 1000 copies per sheet, 
or sixteen pages in octavo, on long primer type, 51 
lines in a page, and 26 ems wide will be for 

Composition, printing, and dry pressing, 17, 00 
Paper, 10, 87 

27, 87 

Binding in boards 12-f cents a book. 

" Before a transcript is completed, it is impossible to 

make any calculation of the number of sheets it will 

be necessary to print ; but a volume containing 640 

pages would cost $1,24, which is less than half the 

retail price of a book of that size. 

James Freeman, ) „ 

ISamuel Davis, > . 

D o at i $ toners. 

Benjamin it. Nichols, i 

Plymouth, May 21, 1818." 


By a further resolve of the legislature, the same 
Commissioners were authorized to cause the records 
to be transcribed, and new bound, and afterwards to re- 
turn the originals to the Register of Deeds' office in 
Plymouth, and to deposit the copies in the Secretary's 
office in Boston. The Commissioners having entrusted 
the business to Mr, Nichols, he undertook the same, 
and had the whole completed in January, 1820. < 

The original records being in great confusion, it was 
found necessary to have them arranged anew, and full 
indexes were made to them. The volumes were also 
interleaved, and new bound. The. original Charter 
of the Colony being considerably defaced, it was re- 
paired, and placed in a port folio with the seal of the 
Plymouth Company in England? annexed to it. The 
seal is about 4 inches in diameter. It was much 
broken ; but the parts were carefully cemented, and 
secured together, and inclosed in a case, so that the 
original impression may be seen. 

The records are now arranged chronologically, and 
in such a manner that the legislative proceedings or 
court orders form six separate volumes ; the wills, and 
inventories, four ; deeds, six ; laws, one ; acts of Com- 
missioners of United Colonies, two. There is also 
an imperfect volume of the records of these commis- 
sioners, being, as is supposed, their original minutes 
There is also one volume of Indian deeds, bound up 
with the Treasurer's accounts, and lists of freemen, 
and one volume of actions, marriages, births, and 
deaths, making in the whole twenty-two volumes of 
original records. 

The following table shows the difference between 
the present and former arrangement of the volumes. 

Former arrangement. Present. 

Vol. 1, - - - Deeds, - - - Vol. i. 

« 2, - - - - Court Orders, - " i. 
" 4, in three parts : 

Part 1 * - - Deeds, - Vol. n. Part 2. 

"2 - - Wills, - - Vol. ii. Part 2. 

" 3 - - Deeds, - Vol. iv. 



Former arrangement. 


Vol. 5, in three parts : 

Part 1 

Court orders, 

Vol. ii. 

" 2 - 

Court orders, - 

Vol. v. 

« 3 . 

Court orders, 

Vol. in. 


6, in four parts : 

Part 1 


Part 3. 

"2 - 

Deeds, - 

Vol. n. part 1 

<• 3 - 


Vol. ii. part 1 

« 4 - 

Wills, - 

Vol. in. 


7, in four parts : 

Part 1 - 

Court orders, 

Vol. vi. part 1 

« 2 - 


Vol. iv. part 2 

" 3 - 

Wills, - 

Vol. iv. part 1 

"4 - 


Vol. i. 


S, in four parts : 

Part 1 - 

Laws, - 

Part 2. 

« 2 

Indian deeds. 

« 3 - 

Treasurer's accounts. 

« 4 - - 

Court orders, 

Vol. iv. 




Vol. in. 


' Deeds, 

Vol. VI. 


15, - 


Vol. iv. part 2 

{ Court orders, 

Vol. vi. part 2 




Vol. v. 


M, ■- - - - 

Actions, &c. 

" Original records 

of Commission- 

N> ... - - < 

ers of United 



Court orders, 

Vol. vi. part 2 

^ Laws, - 

Part 1. 


:>f Commission- ) 


of United Co- \ 1 h 2 



ies. S 

The copies made from the above, form eleven folio 
volumes, and are indexed like the originals. The 
records of the Commissioners of the United Colonies 
were formerly transcribed, and published by Eben- 
ezer Hazard, Esq. They compose nearly the whole 
of his 2d volume of Historical Collections. This vol- 
ume was compared by Mr. Nichols with the original 
records and corrected by him, and the volume so cor- 
rected, is deposited with the copies above mentioned 


in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth. 
They are kept in a separate case from the other re- 
cords of the government. 

All the laws and legislative proceedings are copied, 
with such parts of the other records as were thought 
to be useful, or interesting to the public. The parts 
not copied, are most of the private deeds, wills, and 
inventories. Care was taken to preserve in the copies 
the original paging and orthography. 

The following statement will give a general view 
of the contents of the records. 

There is nothing recorded in 1620, except a plan 
of the lots laid out at Plymouth. 

The next records are the allotments of land in 1623, 
to the passengers in the May Flower, Anne, and For- 
tune, and a law establishing the trial by jury. In 1627, 
there was a division of the cattle among the inhabitants. 
There are but few other records previous to 1632, 

In that year the General Court of Plymouth began 
to keep a regular journal of their proceedings, which 
they continued to the close of the colony, excepting 
the years 1687 and 1688, during the government of 
Sir Edmund Andros. 

In 1636, a code of laws was made with a preamble 
containing an account of the settlement of the colony. 
Other laws were added at subsequent periods, and when 
any of the former were altered or repealed, this was 
done by making erasures, or interlineations, instead of 
passing additional acts. The book containing this 
code forms a part of the records. In the copy now 
made, all these erasures and interlineations, are noticed. 
In 1658, the laws were revised, and entered in another 
book. Most of them were transcribed from the former 
code, and the dates when they were first enacted, insert- 
ed in the margin. Other laws were added afterward till 
1664, when they appear to have been again revised. 
A third book oflaws was the!! made, similar to the 
former. This bookcontains all the laws passed from 
that time till 1682. 



The laws of the colony thus existed in three sepa- 
rate parts. They are now bound together and index- 
ed, and a complete copy made of them. There was 
another code made in 1671, and printed. The manu- 
script of this code no longer exists. But one of the 
printed copies may be found in the library of the 
Historical Society, bound up with the iaws of Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut. This code is very different 
from the former. Jt contains some new laws, and 
omits most of those which before existed. 

The Governors of the Colony were as follows : 
John Carver, in 1620. His name does not appear 

of record. 
William Bradford, from 1621 to 1632, 16-35, 1637, 

1639 to 1643, 1645 to 1656.* 
Edward Winslow, 1633, 1636, 1644. 
. Thomas Prcnce, 1634, 1633, 1657 to 1672. 
Josiah Winslow, 1673 to 1680. 
Thomas Hinckley, 1631 to 1692. 

There was no Lieutenant Governor till 1680. Be- 
fore that period the Governor, when obliged to be ab- 
sent, appointed one pro tempore. 

The names of the Lieutenant Governors were as 
follows : 

Thomas Hinckley, 1680. 
James Cudworth, 1681. 

Major William Bradford, 1682 to 1686, and 1689 
to 1691. 

There w 7 as no Secretary previous to 1636; but the 
records appear to have been previously kept by the 
Governors. The handwriting of Governor Bradford 
is very legible, and resembles a modern hand. 

The first Secretary was Nathaniel Souther. 
The second, Nathaniel Morton. 

The third, Nathaniel Thomas. 

The fourth and last, Samuel Sprague. 

* The first record of the election of any Governor is in 1633* 


The Treasurers were William Paddy, in 1636. 
Thomas Prence, in 1637. 
Timothy Hatherly, m 1639. 
Jonathan At wood, in 1641. 
Miles Standish, 1644 to 1649. 
Constant Southworth,* 1662 to 

Afterwards William Bradford. 

There was no Sheriff till 1685. Writs and pre- 
cepts were served originally by an officer styled the 
Messenger. In 1645, he was styled Marshal, and 
had the power of appointing deputies. Constables, 
however, were chosen in each town, with power to 
execute precepts, and collect rates. Upon tfu j division 
of the colony into counties, Sheriffs were appointed. 

A Coroner was appointed at the beginning of the 
colony, but the office was soon abolished, and the duty 
of taking inquisitions devolved upon the Constables. 

There was no distinct office of Register of deeds, 
or of wills and inventories, but those duties were per- 
formed by the Secretary of the colony. This ac- 
counts for these records being blended with the other 
records of the government. 

Till 1685 the Court of Assistants was the only 
Judicial Court, except that the Selectmen of the 
towns had the power of trying small causes. The 
Assistants also formed a part of the legislature. 

In 1685 the colony was divided into three counties, 
viz. Plymouth, Bristol, and Barnstable. County 
Courts were then established. 

The colony of Plymouth included the present 
counties of Plymouth and Barnstable, and a part of 
Rhode Island. AH the Providence Plantations were 
at one time claimed by Plymouth. Scituate was the 
most northern town. The bounds between Plymouth 
and Massachusetts were settled in 1640^ and they are 
described in the beginning of the first volume of the 
acts of the Commissioners of the United Colonies. 

* Sometimes spelt in the records, Southward, Southvvood, and Southerne. 



The following is a statement of the prices of arti- 
cles at different periods, as extracted from the records. 


Corn per bushel, 

A milch goat, 

A lamb, 

A barrow hog, 

A shoot, 

A heifer, 

A milch cow, 

A steer calf, 

13 oz. of beaver, 

Salt, per bushel, 

A house and garden 

in Plymouth, 
Dr. Fuller's house in 

His country house at ) 

Smelt river, J 

A fowling piece, 
A pair of bandoleers, 
A corsiet and pike, 
Bo\? and arrows, quiv- ) 

er and case, y 















A dwelling house and 

A mill, 
An otter skin, 

A feather bed, 
A flock bed, 
A pair of Holland ) 
sheets, ) 

A Barnstable blanket, 
1 lb. of thread, 
Broadcloth per yard, 
Powder per lb. 


4 working steers, 
A bull two years old, 
A two year old heifer, 
A cow calf of this ) 
year, ) 

A plough, 











2 cloth suits, and 2 ) 
stufT suits, men's, j 

A colt, 
10 stocks of Bees, 

2 acres of corn planted, 
All the iron and 

working tools be- 
longing to husban- 
dry. J 
A cart and appenda- \ 
ges, and a set of \ 
harrow tines, J 

3 horsemen's coats, 
500 of boards, 

A shallop, 


Winter wheat per ) 
bushel, ) 

Pease per bushel, 
Yarn per lb. 
Cotton per lb. 

A yoke of oxen, 
A mare, 

A chest of drawers, 
A leather bottom chair, 
A house clock, 


Wheat per bushel, 
Barley per bushel, 
Oats per bushel, 
Pease per bushel, 

A hog, 

A pig, 

A large steer, 

A small steer, 

A heifer, 

W T heat per bushel, 








3 10 

3 6 S 


4 6 


13 15 




5 10 

1 33 




£ s. 





Marsh land per acre, 


6 cows, 


Feathers per lb. 


2 calves, 


Wool per lb. 


5 pigs, 


Barrel of tar, 


A steer, 

4 10 

An ox, 



A cow, 
A steer, 3 years old, 

2 5 





A steer, 2 years old, 

2 7 



house and 


A heifer, 

1 }5 

out houses, with 


A calf, 


the land thereunto 

An ox, 

3 15 



A hog, 


An ox, 


Rye per bushel, 



Wheat per bushel, 



A horse, 


Rye per 1 




3 10 


corn per 





Mare and colt, 

2 4 






Cotton per lb, 


Pease per 

■ bushel, 



4 thousand shingles, 
A shallop with rig- 





ging &c. complete, 

3501b. of 



A cow, 



Wheat per bushel, 


A sheep, 



Barley and rye per 



A lamb, 


Indian corn per bush- 




An ox, 

5 10 


A cow, 

4 10 

A calf, 



A horse, 


A cow, 

2 6 

A mare, 


An ox, 

2 15 

A colt, 

4 10 



A hog, 


A bull, 

1 10 


corn per 




1 1 > 


A hog, 


Wheat pe 

ir bushel, 


A horse, 


From the journals of the General Court, much in- 
formation may be obtained concerning the Indians. 
There are many details of the wars with them, and 
negotiations with friendly tribes ; of the protection 
afforded them, and lands purchased of them.* It is 

* A valuable article upon this subject, may be found in the Boston Monthly 
Magazine for March ]S26, entitled, " Strictures upon a memoir of the Indiana 
in New England," written as we understand by Alden Bradford, Esq, 


greatly to the credit of our ancestors that they pur- 
chased most of their lands of the Indians for consider- 
ations which were considered at the time fully equiva- 
lent. No individuals were allowed to make purchases 
of them without leave from the General Court, and 
the purchases were generally made for the use of the 
colony, or particular towns. In 1682, overseers and 
tythingmen among the Indians were appointed, and 
in 1675 courts for them were established. Justice 
was administered among them summarily, and not ac- 
cording to the strict rules of the common law. Many 
Indian names are scattered through the records, which 
are carefully indexed. 

From these journals, a knowledge may be obtained 
of all the principal men who lived iri the colony, of 
the Governors, Assistants, Deputies or Representa- 
tives, Selectmen of towns, and other civil officers, mili- 
tary officers, and freemen. 

There are lists of all the freemen in the colony at 
several periods, also records of marriages, births, and 
deaths. The latter records however are imperfect. 

Marriages were never solemnized by ministers, but 
magistrates were specially appointed for that service. 

Most of the lands in the colony belonging to indi- 
viduals, were originally granted by the General Court, 
and these grants appear in the records. If there 
were no other reason for preserving and transcribing 
the records, the importance of these grants would be 
a sufficient inducement. It is to be hoped that the 
time is not far distant, when the legislature will cause 
the most important parts of these records to be printed, 
according to the recommendation of the commissioners. 
It is believed that no appropriation of the public 
money would be more gratifying to the community. 
It would be particularly desirable that the whole of 
the laws should be printed in chronological order. 
No book would conduce more to illustrate the man- 
ners, wants, and sentiments of our ancestors. Our 
minds would be naturally carried back to those early 


periods, and we should have displayed before us in the 
most striking manner, the difficulties under which our 
forefathers were struggling, and the remedies provided 
for their relief. 

Address of the Ministers of Boston to the Duke of 

[The following Address seems to have been occasioned by a 
forged letter, purporting to be dated at Boston, 10 July, 1737, and 
sent to London, which commences as follows : " We have advice 
by Cant. Hill, who lately arrived from London, that his Majesty 
has been most graciously pleased to appoint a new governor for 
the colony of the Massachusetts, which occasioned the most uni- 
versal joy that ever was known throughout this province, especially 
among ihe better sort of people, and the Ministers of ali 
sorts, &c." A similar Address was sent to Sir Robert Walpole, 
and the Earls of Wilmington and Harrington. It probably coun- 
teracted for a time the machinations of Governor Belcher's ene- 
mies, but they finally succeeded in effecting his removal from the- 
office of Governor in Massachusetts. He retired to Court, and 
vindicated his character from the unjust charges which had caus- 
ed his removal, and was afterwards appointed Governor of New 
Jersey.— J. Farmer to J. Bowdoin, Esq.] 

May it please your Grace. 

With all that respect and deference to your 
name, which the high station, wherein His most ex- 
cellent Majesty, our most gracious Sovereign, has seen 
meet to place, and so long continue you, together with 
those accomplishments, which render you illustrious 
therein : — • 

We ministers of the gospel, and pastors of church- 
es in His Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay, in and about Boston, crave leave, by the hand of 
the agents for the Province, humbly to address our- 
selves unto your Grace, and entreat your powerful fa- 
vour to the good people of New-England, and to the 
churches of it, in which the King's person, and fami- 
ly, and ministers are constantly and ardently prayed 
for, with one heart and voice. 

The blessings of his Majesty's reign, which reach 


us in these distant parts of his dominion, we hope we 
have a grateful seuse of: In a particular manner we 
think ourselves bound to bless God, and to thank the 
King and his ministers, for the continuance of Gov- 
ernor Belcher in the chair over us, by whom the 
King's good subjects of every denomination are equal- 
ly encouraged in their duty to God, and to the King. 

We look upon ourselves obliged humbly to address 
your Grace in this manner, because we have lately 
seen in some of the publick prints, what we must call 
a malicious libel, pretended to be writ from Boston, 
declaring to the world :- — 

" An universal joy throughout this Province upon 
the news of his Majesty's appointing a new Govern- 
our over us ; more especially among the better sort of 
people, and Ministers of all sorts." 

Than which there could not have been published a 
greater calumny, and more injurious falsehood : and 
we beseech your Grace to excuse us this zealous vin- 
dication of ourselves, and our people, from it. 

Sir, that those, who have the high honour to stand 
about the King, as his ministers, may r^ave wisdom 
from above for a most righteous and happy adminis- 
tration, is the prayer of, My Lord Duke, 
Your Grace's most humble, dutiful, 

and obedient servants, 
From Boston, in New- England, Dec. 5, 1737. 


Pastor of the church in Brattle Street, Boston. 


Pastor of the South Church in Boston. 

A Pastor of the Church in Brattle Street, Boston. 


Pastor of a Church in Roxbury. 


Pastor of a Church in Cambridge* 

Duke of Newcastle, y SAMUEL CIJECKLEY, 

Same tu Pastor of the New South Church, Boston. 

Sir Robe rt Walpole , ! C If A RLES C H A U N C E Y, 

and r Pastor of the first Church in Boston. 

Earls of Wilmington I SAMUEL MATHER. 

and Harrington. J Pastor of the North Church in Boston. 


Pastor of the Church in Hollis Street. Boston. 


Memoir of the Narraganset Townships. 

Amherst, N. H. June 2, 1817. 
Rev. Sir, 
Having lately examined some original records and 
manuscripts, which relate to the Narraganset town- 
ships, granted by the General Court of Massachusetts, 
in 1723 and 1733, I conceived that a communication 
respecting them might be proper for your Collections. 
The history of the grants of these townships lias been 
illustrated by no historian whom I have consulted. The 
only information 1 find concerning them is given by 
Douglass in his Summary, and Hutchinson in hisllistory 
of Massachusetts. The former, in a note to page 424, 
volume 1, says, "Nine townships were voted, but only 
seven granted to the descendants of the Narraganset 
or Pequod war soldiers, 1637, called Narraganset 
townships."* Hutchinson, (vol. 2, page 299,) in speak- 
ing of the grants made about that period, 1727, ob- 
serves, " the government, under the old charter and the 
new, had been very prudent in the distribution of the 
territory." — "But all on a sudden, plans are laid for 
grants of vast tracts of unimproved land, and the last 
session of Mr. Dummer's administration, a vote passed 
the two houses appointing a committee to lay out 
three lines of towns," &c. " Pretences were en- 
couraged, and even sought after, to entitle persons to 
become grantees. The posterity of all the officers 
and soldiers who served in the famous Narraganset ex- 
pedition, in 1675, were the first pitched upon, those 
who were in the unfortunate attempt upon Canada, in 
1690, were to come next." f 

* Dr. Douglass confounds the Narraganset with the Pequot war. The war 
with the Pequots occurred, as he states, in 1637. The Narraganset war, to 
which the grant of these townships referred, did not occur till 1675. 

f " Nine townships were granted to the heirs of the militia or soldiers, who 
went against Canada, Anno 1690, and were called Canada townships. A parcel 
of these, the furthest up in the country run W. 5 and a half deg. S., across from 
Merrimac river 35 miles to Connecticut river, as a harrier against the Indians ; they 



It will be my object to give a brief view of the 
Narraganset grants, a short account of the several 
townships, and the names of the towns to which they 
were respectively assigned. In doing this 1 shall avail 
myself of the information contained in the records 
and manuscripts referred to, and such other authentic 
sources as are within my reach. 

In June, 1723, the General Court of Massachusetts 
appointed a committee* to lay out two tracts of land 
for townships, each of the contents of six miles square, 
in some of the unappropriated land of the province. 
These tracts of land were granted to the officers and 
soldiers (or to their lawful representatives) belonging 
to Massachusetts, who were in the service of their 
r'onntrv in the Narraganset war, as a reward for their 
public service, and in full satisfaction of the grant for- 
merly made them by the Court. Public notice was 
to be given in the News Letters, and advertisements 
were to be posted up in every town in the province, 
notifying the survivors and legal representatives of 
those who had deceased, to send a list of their names 
and descents to the Court before the next fall session. 
The Court appointed a committee to examine " the 
claims laid before them of rights in the two tracts of 
land granted to the officers and soldiers who were in 
the Narraganset fight," who reported that the said 
tracts of land be granted to the persons contained in 
a list which was probably submitted with their report. 
They also reported, " that the grantees meet at Bos- 
ton, if the small pox be not there — if it be, then at 
Cambridge, on the first Wednesday in June succeed- 
ing." The report was accepted, 19 December, 1729. 
The grantees accordingly met at Cambridge, but the 
Court having revoked their former order, the meeting 

are called the double line of towns, whereof No. 3, S, and 9 are very mountain- 
ous, rocky, and stony, not capable of settlement; No. 4 and 7 are the best lands." 

* John Chandler, Edward Shove, Thomas Tilestone,John Hobson, and Samuel 


was dissolved without " transacting any business of 

importance." A committee, however, was chosen to 
petition the General Court for a further grant of land ; 
"so that every sixty claimers might have a township 
of six miles square." 

In June, 1732, in answer to several petitions, an 
additional grant of five townships was voted by the 
House, and a committee of five persons appointed to 
survey and locate them in some of the unappropriated 
lands of the province. The conditions of. this grant 
were, that the grantees should assemble within two 
months, and regulate each propriety or township, 
which was to be holden and enjoyed by one hundred 
and twenty grantees ; that they should settle sixty 
families, at least, m every township, and a learned or- 
thodox minister within seven years. It therefore ap- 
pears that the whole number of grantees, to whom 
the seven townships were assigned amounted to eight 
hundred and forty. 

The grant of the five townships did not immediate- 
ly receive the approbation of the Governor. The act 
passed the House, 50 June, 1732, and did not receive 
the signature of the Governor tuTthe 26th of April, the 
year following. The grantees, it appears, were inces- 
sant in their applications, and indefatigable in their ex- 
ertions to secure the last mentioned grant. They 
even appointed a person * to use his interest with the 
Governor, and induce him "to sign the grant." How- 
far the influence of this person prevailed with the 
Governor, it is difficult to determine. 

From the papers which I have inspected, it seems 
that considerable difficulty arose from the number of 
descendants, who presented their claims for the right 
of the same ancestor. In order to remedy this evil, 
the Court ordered, that where the person who had 
been in the service had deceased, the grant should be- 
long to his legal representatives in the following man- 

* Mr. Samuel Wells, of Boston. 


ner : " that the eldest male heir, if such there might be, 
otherwise the eldest female, if they pleased, should 
hold the land by paying to the other descendants or 
heirs such proportionable parts of ten pounds, (which 
was judged to be the value of a right, or single share,) 
as such descendants would be entitled to, provided the 
said land had descended according to a law of the 
province for the settlement of intestate estates." 

After a great number of meetings of the committee 
of the Narraganset grantees, the grantees themselves 
assembled on Boston common and formed seven dis- 
tinct societies, each society consisting of one hundred 
and twenty grantees, and entitled to one township. 
Three persons from each society were chosen a com- 
mittee, who met at Luke Verdey's in Boston, 17 
October 1733, and assigned the seven townships as 
follows : 

Narraganset^ No, I. 

The tract of land constituting this township was 
situated on the east side of Saco river, in the county 
of \ork, in the District of Maine. It was assigned to 
^grantees belonging to the towns of Ipswich, Newbury, 
Rowley, Haverhill, Salisbury, Almesbury, Methuen, 
Hampton, Greenland, and Berwick. The committee 
were Philemon Dane, and John Gains of Ipswich, and 
Colonel Joseph Gerrish of Newbury. It was report- 
ed as surveyed in February, 1734, and the report was 
accepted. In the opinion of Alden Bradford, Esq. 
Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
this tract is the same which forms the town of Bux- 
ton.* This opinion is rendered probable by the act of 
incorporation of Buxton, which runs thus : " An act 
for incorporating the plantation called Narraganset, 
number one, in the county of York, into a town by 
the name of Buxton," &c. The act of incorporation 
is dated July, 1772. 

* MS. copy of the act of incorporation of Buxton, on which is expressed the 
opinion of Mr. Bradford, in the note that closes this article. 


Narraganset, No. II. 

This township, it is said in the records, was situa- 
ted at Wachuset. It adjoined Rutland, and was loca- 
ted soon after the grant of the two townships in 1728. 
. It was assigned to grantees belonging to Charlestown, 
Cambridge, Watertown, Weston, Sudbury, Newtown, 
Med ford, Maiden, and Reading. 


Narraganset, No. III. 

Narraganset, No. 3, called also Souhegan west, was 
situated on the north side of Souhegan river. It was 
assigned to inhabitants belonging to Salem 29, Mar- 
blehead 7, Lynn 27, Gloucester 5, Andover 9, Tops- 
field 14, Beverly 14, Wenham 4, Boxford 4, Bradford 
1, Scarborough 1, Reading 2, York 1, Falmouth 2, 
and Chatham 1.* Of the 120 grantees to whom it 
was assigned, only nineteen who served in the Narra- 
ganset war were living in 1733. The first meeting 
of the grantees after the assignment of the township 
was made, was holden at Salem village, 17 Jul v. 
1734, when a committee was appointed to "take a 
particular view of the circumstances of the township, 5 ' 
who were " to have power to employ a surveyor, and 
such pilots as might be necessary." On the 2d of 
September, the society met to receive the report of 
their committee, who, having been disappointed in the 
choice of a surveyor, made no report. They however 
declared verbally, " that they had been on the land, 
and found it well timbered." The proprietors at this 
time voted, that the township should be " subdivided 
as soon as may be," — that the committee appointed 
for that purpose, " should lay out to each proprietor 
for the first or home lot, sixty acres, and what was 
wanting in quality, to be made up in quantity." This, 
perhaps, may serve as a specimen of the proceedings 

* The figures following each town show the number of grantees belonging to 
that towa. " 


of the other societies. This township was incorpora- 
ted in 17G0 by the name of Amherst. 

Narraganset) No. IV. 

Narraganset, No. 4, at Amoskeag, was assigned to 
Northampton, Hadley, Suffield, Enfield, Deerfield, 
Worcester, Woodstock, Oxford, Brookfield, Kiliingly, 
Lebanon, Mansfield, Norwich, Pomfret, Windham, 
Bristol, Taunton, Swanzey, Rehoboth, -Little Comp- 
ton, Dighton, Attleborough, Norton, Freetown, Bar- 
rington, Bridge water, Middleborough, Plympton, 
Kingston, Rochester, Pembroke, Marshiield, Ashford, 
Colchester, Haddam, Hebron, Wrentham, Bellingham, 

jLlui3Uucti\; i>Utiu iviil^JiuiJj ctiiu n aiuun;. xOlai -k s 

towns. The number of grantees in each of these 
towns must, of course, have been very small. 

Narraganset, No. V. 

This township was known by the name of Souhe- 
gan East. It was situated on Merrimac and Souhe- 
gan rivers, and embraced a tract of land now compre- 
hending the township of Bedford, and part of Merri- 
mac. The grantees, to whom it was assigned, belong- 
ed to Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Milton, Braintree, 
Weymouth, Bingham, Dedham, Stoughton, Brookline, 
Need ham, Hull, Medrield, Scituate, Newport, New 
London, and Providence. The committee for the 
township .were Colonel Thomas Tilestone, Jonathan 
Williams, and Joseph Ruggles. Merrimac, compre- 
hending part of this township, was incorporated 2 
April, 1746. Bedford was incorporated in 1750, 

Narraganset, No. VI. 

Number 6 of the Narraganset townships is said to 
have been situated west of Penicook and Suncook. 
It is now known by some ether name. The towns to 
which it was assigned were, Concord, Grotoir, Marl- 


borough, Chelmsford, Billerica, Lancaster, Lexington, 
Framingham, Stow, Littletorij Sherburne, Stoneham, 
Southborough, and Woburn. Tlie committee were 
Samuel Chandler of Concord, Jacob Wright of Wo- 
burn, and Colonel Benjamin Prescott of Groton. 

Narfaganset, No. VII. 

This township is mentioned in Douglass's Summary, 
as being situated near the river Presumpscot. It was 
reported as surveyed in February, 1734, and the re- 
port was accepted. The tract of land which consti- 
tuted this township, and Narraganset, No. 1, was be- 
tween and extended from Saco river to Presumpscot 
river, beginning at the northeast corner of Biddeford. 
The grantees, to whom it was assigutu, belonged to 
Barnstable, Yarmouth, Eastham, Sandwich, Plymouth, 
Tisbury, Abington, Duxbury, and one grantee of Scit- 
uate. The committee were Colonel Shubael Gorham, 
Timothy White and Robert Stanford. 


Rev. Dr. Holmes. 

June, 1817. 

Note by A. Bradford, Esq. late Secretary of Massachusetts. 

In 1728, two townships of land were granted the soldiers who 
had served in the Narraganset war by this (then) province, and 
were located, one adjoining Rutland, and one near Merrimack 

In April 1733, five more townships were granted them. In Feb- 
ruary following two townships, or land for two towns, were report- 
ed as surveyed, and the report accepted. — Said land was between 
and running from Saco river to Presumpscot river, beginning at the 
northeast corner of Biddeford, and must, I think, be t-he tract of 
land now including Buxton. A. Bradford. 


To the Trustees of the Massachusetts Historical 


The following simple and brief notice of the life and character of 
Dudley Atkins Tyng, LL. D., long a valued member of our society, 
drawn up at your request, is respectfully submitted by 

John Lowell. 






The most essential property in biographical sketch- 
es, is truth — without it, they have no value. There 
are many other important requisites in writers of bi- 
ographical history, most of which the author of this 
plain and simple account feels that he does not pos- 
sess, and for the want of which, he claims indulgence 
— but as to the correctness and truth of his sketch of 
the life and character of his venerated friend, he is 
not only responsible, but is ready to pledge his own 
reputation for its exactitude. The reader has a right 
to know the opportunities, which any writers of his- 
tory or biography enjoyed of forming a right judg- 
ment ; for with the best intentions, they may be de- 
ceived, and deceive others. It is proper to state, 
therefore, the means which the writer of this very im- 
perfect sketch possessed of knowing the character of 
Mr. Tyng. These means were derived from forty 
years' close intimacy and friendship — -a friendship 
never disturbed for one moment, by any permanent, 
or even "transient coolness — from the sympathy deriv- 
ed from congenial professional pursuits— from a close 
family alliance, which has endured without interrup- 
tion during this long period — from association with 


the deceased in public societies, and in private social 
circles, adapted and intended for personal improve- 
ment and innocent recreation — from haying been na- 
tives of the same county (Essex) and of the same 
town (Newburyport), and finally, from having had a 
community of the same friends, and from an entire 
coincidence of opinions on all political, moral, and re- 
ligious topics, with the slight exception which will be 
stated. Such were the writer's opportunities of know- 
ing the character of Mr. Tyng ; and if a society, inter- 
ested for the honour of our State, in preserving me- 
morials of men who deserve to live in the memory 
of future generations, should desire such a notice of 
Mr. Tyng, as the Massachusetts Historical Society in 
this case have requested, perhaps there is no man, on 
whom the duty was more imperative — certainly no 
one, upon whom the deceased had stronger claims, 
and still more surely, no one, who would perform this 
duty with more cheerfulness, with a more heartfelt 
delight, as a tribute to a friend, to whom he is under 
obligations which can be felt, but never described. 

It may possibly be asked by those who were igno- 
rant of Mr. Tyng's very rare merit, who reside in dis- 
tant states, why the Massachusetts Historical Society 
deemed it proper to request a biographical notice of 
Mr. Tyng. He sustained none of those high offices 
in the national or state governments, which are sup- 
posed to be the proofs of great merit ; a supposition, 
which we are afraid to say, is too often gratuitous. 
He made none of those splendid displays of eloquence 
at the bar, or in the senate, which recommend the for- 
tunate possessor of such gifts to popular favour. ~ His 
course, like his character and manners, was in that 
unobtrusive class, which exerts perhaps a wider in- 
fluence on the character of society, than that of the 
more favoured objeets of popular preference. If it be 
true in governments, from which the great mass of 
the whole population is forcibly excluded from politi- 
cal power, that much the greatest portion of the tal- 



ents of those countries is to be found in private life, 
it is as true in our country, that the soundest, and of- 
ten the ablest portion of our people shrink from the 
struggles and sacrifices of personal independence, 
which, even with us, are inseparable from the enjoy- 
ment of public honours. If Mr. Tyng could possibly 
have brought his independent spirit to bend to the 
arts, by which popular favour is secured — if he could 
have sacrificed his political and his moral principles, 
so far, as to have sought popularity by the too com- 
mon course of self-degradation, he might have enter- 
ed, and pursued with great success, the political ca- 
reer. His ambition was a more lofty one. He pre- 
ferred the testimony of a good conscience, to all hu- 
man applause, and lie would not sacrifice a single po- 
litical opinion to obtain the suffrages of any dominant 

What, it may be asked, were the qualities and 
services, which entitle Mr. Tyng's memory to public 
notice and preservation ? 

First, then, it was his rare independence of mind ; 
a quality by no means of so frequent occurrence, as to 
be passed over in silence in a country like our own. 
We boast much of our independence, but we have as 
much subserviency to opinions which we do not ap- 
prove, as most of our neighbours. There is as much 
restraint on individual character and sentiments, as in 
many countries, where the influence of government 
is more direct. This is said, with a full knowledge of 
all the facts, and with nearly a half century of ex- 
perience.* Opinion is not as free in our country in 
practice, as it is in theory. But Mr. Tyng's opinions 
were always free, and he pronounced them on all oc- 
casions, with the frankness of a republican. This 
was of course fatal to his rise as a politician. It may 

* "VVe could illustrate and prove this proposition to be true., to the extent of a 
volume of 500 pages. We shall only advert to one particular — religious opinions. 
In theory, they are free ; in practice, out of Massachusetts, there i* a despotism 
not exceeded by that of Spain, though not followed by corporal suffering, 


be said that we have no previous restraints on the press, 
and no punishment for unsavoury opinions; but what 
are these compared with the averted eye, the secret 
whisper, the utter loss of influence, because you ex- 
press sound but unpopular sentiments ? 

Secondly, Mr. Tyng's history is connected with 
the literature and judicial science of the state. A man 
whose name is associated with the jurisprudence of the 
state for a period of nearly twenty years— who has pub- 
lished sixteen volumes of judicial decisions, which 
have received the approbation of the profession, and 
of the learned judges whose opinions are reported, 
(among whom was one whose fame is above our praise, 
the late Chief Justice Parsons,) ought to have his his- 
tory sketched. 

It is true, that his books will render his name well 
known to posterity, and lawyers will judge of his fe tal- 
ents, by the skill with which his reports were drawn 
up. Tyng's reputation will live as those of Burrow 
and Cowper, and Durnford and East have done. 
Still, to the jurist, it will be interesting to know who 
Tyng was : how he rose to the rank of reporter ; 
and how he acquired that professional tact, which 
enabled him to perform his duty so well. 

Lastly, and a no less important object, is to show 
forth the private virtues of the individual — virtues, 
concealed as far as he was able to conceal them ; for 
of all the persons who fell within our acquaintance, 
Mr. Tyng was the most studious not to let his right 
hand know the good, which his left hand was inces- 
santly employed in doin£. This .is not panegyric, 
but sober truth, drawn from the writer by his sense 
of duty alone. 

In the brief notice, which will follow, there will be 
one rule, from which the writer will not dare to depart. 
There will be constantly present to his mind the form 
and character of his deceased friend. Of his con- 
tempt for all exaggerated praise, his dread of surpass- 
ing the bounds of truth, and his personal diffidence, 


no man who enjoyed his intimate acquaintance, could 
entertain a doubt. It would be, therefore, an act of 
great injustice to his memory, a wanton violation of 
what we know to have been his feelings, to indulge 
in the common and too often prostituted style of gen- 
eral and unmeaning praise. His character was severe- 
ly modest ; and who can venture to praise, in the usual 
style, suck a man ? We cannot. 

Dudley Atkins Tyng, Esquire, was born at New- 
bury, in that part of it now incorporated as Newbury- 
port, on the 3d of September, 17G0. He was the 
fifth child of Dudley Atkins, Esquire. Mr. Tyng's 
father having died at the early age of 37, under cir- 
cumstances of great embarrassment as a merchant, in 
no degree cuT^uiiug his character as a man, the care ot 
his whole family devolved, without other means, than 
the resources of her own strong and vigorous mind, 
upon his widow, the late Mrs. Sarah Atkins. Those 
who, with us, had the happiness of knowing the ener- 
gy, perseverance, and high intellectual character of 
this lady, will not be surprised at her surmounting dif- 
ficulties, which would have discouraged minds of less 
force, and that she not only provided for the physical 
wants of her children, but imparted to them, by her 
example and precepts, what was of inestimable and 
unappreciable value to them, intellectual and moral 
power ; a power, which (if there were none of them 
now living.) we should say, had been most fully ex- 
emplified in their long and highly useful lives. Mrs. 
Atkins's efforts and usefulness were not, however, 
connned to her own family ; they shed a benign and 
most powerful influence upon all who enjoyed the 
delights of her society. A more radiant mind, one 
which exerted an higher influence on all around her, 
cannot easily be cited — certainly fifty years' experi- 
ence do not enable the writer to recall one, whose 
moral efficacy was greater. 

We should not have dwelt upon this subject, were 
it not, that in our opinion, much of Mr. Tyng's firm- 


ness of character, of his sterling integrity, and sound- 
ness "of opinions, may be fairly traced to the influence 
of a mother, whom no stranger ever visited without a 
conscious improvement. Peace to her delightful mem- 
ory ! which is as fresh to the writer, as it was forty 
years since. 

Mr. Tyng received his early instruction at Dummer 
Academy, under the auspices of that profound scholar, 
but singularly eccentric man, Master Moody. He 
was indebted to the friendship of Tristram Dalton, 
Jonathan Jackson, Nathaniel Tracy, and John Tracy, 
Esquires, for the means of his education at Cam- 
bridge ; and it was not lost upon Mr. Tyng. One of 
the very last acts of his life was to record this kind- 
ness. How many of the ablest men in Great Britain 
and in this country are indebted to the prophetic 
kindness of liberal persons, who, perceiving the dawn 
of talent in young men, hasten to encourage it. And 
how delightful the reward, when the exertion is found 
to nurture a mind, as strong, as pure, as vigorous, and 
to produce a life as useful, as that of Mr. Tyng. Mr. 
Tyng's academic opportunities were not lost upon 
him. His reputation as a scholar was such, that when 
a total eclipse of the sun was expected in October 
1780, in his senior year, and the government of the 
State deemed the observation of it to be so important, 
as to fit out a government vessel, to go to Penobscot 
bay, and to obtain from the British commander per- 
mission to enter that bay, then in British power, Dr. 
Williams, the Professor of Astronomy, selected John 
(now Judge) Davis and Tyng, of the then senior class, 
as his assistants in this expedition. There cannot be 
a stronger proof of the high standing, which he then 
held in his class, in that particular science. 

After Mr. Tvn£ received the decree of bachelor of 
arts, his necessities compelled him to seek occupation 
as an instructer, and he found employment, as such, 
in a respectable family in Virginia. Originally, his 
engagement was with Judge Mercer, one of the 


Judges of the highest Court in Virginia ; but on arriv- 
ing in Virginia, he removed to the estate of Mrs. Sel- 
den, a sister of Judge Mercer. He however entered 
as a student in Judge Mercer's office, and there laid 
the foundation (and an excellent one it must have 
been) of his subsequent legal knowledge, lie was 
admitted to practice id Virginia, and on his return to 
his native state, he was also admitted to full practice 
here. This is the whole history of Mr. Tyng's law 
advantages ; and we are the more disposed to take 
notice of it, as it will show the rare force of his mind, 
and the readiness, with which he made intellectual 
attainments. Upon his return from Virginia in 1784, 
he was, by the influence and effective exertions of 
his early friend and instructer, Chief Justice Parsons, 
admitted to the Essex bar. Precisely at this critical 
moment, there occurred a rare circumstance, an event 
which exerted a most inauspicious influence on the 
fortunes and future history of Mr. Tyng. With 
greater means of knowledge than any other individual 
could possess, we have no hesitation in saying, that to 
the circumstances, now to be related, he owed the de- 
feat of the fairest prospects in his profession, and was 
reduced by them to shifts and expedients, in his fu- 
ture life, from which his sound talents and learning, 
his industry and vigour of mind, would have elevated 
and secured him. If Mr. Tyng had never felt the oppres- 
sive weight of patronage, we should have seen him at 
the head of the Essex bar, and sustaining an honourable 
distinction on the bench of the highest court of law. 
We think that this point is almost proved by the fact, 
that under every possible disadvantage, he discovered 
in his advanced age, a rare talent for his profession, of 
w ? hich we shall speak more at large, when we come 
to the review of what he subsequently effected. As 
early as November 1783, Which was only two years 
after he left college, he most unfortunately for his 
future success in life, as we shall abundantly show, 
received an intimation from one of his sisters, inform- 


ing him, that he was to receive a fortune on the death 
of a Mrs. Winslow, a branch of the Dudley family, 
with which Mr. Tyng was allied. In order to explain 
this transaction, very common in Great Britain, but 
equally rare in our country, it will be necessary to 
state, (and it is not uninteresting in giving a historical 
account of this State,) that the principal branch of 
this ancient family of Tyng, one of the original pa- 
tentees of the Plymouth colony, had become extinct. 
The last surviving male, Mr. James Tyng, of Tyngs- 
borough, intermarried with Rebecca Russell, second 
daughter of the late Honorable James Russell of 
Charlestown, and died without issue. His widow 
subsequently became the wife of the late Judge Low- 
ell, by whom she had several children who survive.* 
Upon the death of the last male heir of the ancient 
Tyng family, one of the oldest in New England, the 
landed estates in the ancient town of Tyngsborough 
descended to Mrs. Winslow, his only surviving sister 
and heir. Mrs. Winslow felt all the aristocratic feel- 
ings which were common to the great landholders of 
this State, before the revolution, and as all the Tyng 
blood in this quarter was extinct, she resolved to set- 
tle her estate on her distinguished maternal family, 
the Dudleys. Unfortunately for him, in surveying the 
claims of her numerous family, she fixed upon our ex- 
cellent friend, Mr. Tyng. She put upon him the 
onerous load of sustaining the expiring fortunes of an 
impoverished family. Mr. Tyng's connexion with 
her arose from a very remote source. They were 
mutually descendants from a Mrs. Rebecca Tyng, 
who had married Governor Joseph Dudley, and they 
stood in the relation of sixth cousins to each other. 
So completely had the old Tyng family run out in less 
than two hundred vears. 

No event of Mr. Tyng's whole life could have been 
so adverse as the accidental circumstance of her fix- 

* This fact is mentioned, merely to explain the cause of the writer's intimate 
knowledge of this interesting part of Mr. Tyog's life. 


ing her preferences upon him, and resolving, with kind 
intentions, to make him the object of her most ruin- 
ous bounty. She made known to Mr. Tyng her un- 
happy designs in his favour. The late Judge Lowell 
being the brother-in-law of Mrs. Winslow, and the 
bosom and affectionate friend of Mrs. Atkins, the 
mother of Mr. Tyng, was the confidential adviser of 
both. All the facts are as familiarly known to the wri- 
ter of this sketch, as they were to our deceased friend 
Mr. Tyng himself. He was the announced heir of the 
great Tyng estates ; but no man ever passed so severe a 

novitiate for admission to a Monkish order. She chang- 

ed her will as the wind blew north or south, and finally 
bequeathed to him a large farm, giving away the princi- 
pal means, and nearly all the means, of supporting it;* 
Our excellent friend and associate, whose delicacy 
was pre-eminent above his other virtues, never lisped 
one complaint. He took possession of his farm, of 
very indifferent soil, generally ; and with scientific 
skill, he tried its capacities, till he found ruin the in- 
evitable consequence. His pride, and no man had a 
greater share of that honourable quality, (honourable, 
when modified by good sense,) induced him to perse- 
vere, until all his friends demanded a change. He 
was appointed to the Collectorship of New bury port. 
This was a radical change for a lawyer, a great farmer 
of a thousand acres, but our friend had the vigour of 
mind adapted to such a change. No man in the Uni- 
ted States, from Maine to Georgia, ever performed the 
duties of a Collector with greater fidelity, exactitude, 
and ability, than he performed them. The testimony 
of his recent neighbours, and of the Treasury depart- 
ment, will prove this fact. He left that office with a 
reputation as spotless as that with which, thirty years 
afterwards, he left the world. Then came the great 

Nothing in this sketch of an important incident in Mr. Tynsr's life, is in- 
tended as the slightest impeachment of Mrs. Window's character. The truth 
is, that she considered the devise of the whole landed estate of the Tyng family 
a noble act ; but in modern times, and to a man without capital, a great farm is 
a great burden. 


revolution in our republic, the entire overthrow and sub- 
version of truly republican principles, and the substitu- 
tion of the name for the substance* During the twelve 
years of the two first administrations, the only question 
thought of, was a man* sjitncss for his office. Sir. Jeffer- 
son's accession was the signal for the introduction of a 
new principle in our government. It worked well for his 
friends for twenty years, so long as the dominant and in- 
tolerant party were held together by the strong links of 
common interest. So long as the dread of a virtuous mi- 
nority restrained them, their power was as despotic as 
that of Russia or Turkey. But since they have succeed- 
ed in crushing all the pure advocates for republican prin- 
ciples, we have witnessed scenes, which all of us pre- 
dicted, and which the old Jefiersonians condemn as 
much as we do — a shameless avowal of private inter- 
est — of utter disregard to that of the public. How 
this too general corruption of public men will terminate, 
and to what consequences it may lead, nothing but 
actual history can show. Whether there is a redeem- 
ing spirit in our institutions, as our professional wri- 
ters, themselves subject in some degree to the in- 
fluence of this corruption, pretend, time alone, the 
great resolver of all doubts, will determine. To the 
unprincipled revolution which brought Mr. Jefferson 
into power, Mr. Tvng owed the loss of his office. He 
lost it, and the public lost, by his removal, a faithful, 
capable, efficient officer — a man without reproach and 
without guile. He lost it, and simply because he was 
too honest to truckle to the existing authority. This 
single fact condemns the policy and integrity of that 
administration. But his fate was only that of a thou- 
sand others. 

Thus thrown once more on the world, in the me- 
ridian of life, incapable of competing at the bar which 
he had scarcely touched, and to which he had never 
been enured, Mr. Tyng removed to Boston with the 
hope of regaining some share in professional employ- 
meat. No man who has not witnessed, or felt in his 



own person, the up-hill labour of striving in a profession 
which he had long abandoned, can truly feel the 
difficulties with which Mr. Tyng had to contend — 
they were to his mind and character insuperable. At 
this juncture, the most critical moment of Mr. Tyng's 
life, Ephraim Williams Esq., the first Reporter of the 
judicial decisions of the Supreme Judicial Court of 
this State, resigned his office, and Mr. Tyng was ap- 
pointed his successor. Here commenced the more 
public character of our late venerated associate. 
The office to which he was appointed was one of the 
most important and interesting in our republic. Mr. 
Tyng took upon himself these arduous duties under 
disadvantages, which would have made any other man 

_1 ., 1 J ,. TM. _ ,:^ _ .. _ C ii • . .....* i r. ,1 ,. ^ . 

OilUUUCl. AUG VYilLUi Ul 11115 HOtlLC licl^ Ul ICll lUUUgill, 

that the intrepidity and self-reliance, which induced 
Mr. Tyng to undertake this task, could only be equal- 
led by his extraordinary success in its execution. Let 
us pause to reflect, that he had only an education in 
Virginia, during which he had been a private preceptor 
— that he had afterwards but a transient practice at 
the bar— that the rest of his life had been spent in 
agricultural pursuits, and as Collector of Newburyport ; 
and what must be our surprise at his undertaking, at 
more than forty years of age, the important duty of 
reporting the judicial decisions of this great Common- 
wealth ? Yet there was neither vanity nor presump- 
tion on his part. Those who selected and recom- 
mended him were well aware of the powers of his 
mind, and the admirable adaptation of his habits to 
the office proposed for him. They were in no degree 
disappointed. He fulfilled those duties as well, and 
probably much better, than many men who are eminent 
advocates at the bar could possibly have done. The 
writer of the present article has been so long with- 
drawn from professional practice, that his opinion 
would deserve very little weight ; yet so far as his 
opinion would go, (after fourteen years' extensive prac- 
tice at the bar,) he may be permitted to say, that no 


legal Reports in use in his day, were to be compared 
to those of Mr." Tyng, for the simplicity, fulness, and 
accuracy of the general statements of the case, upon 
which much of the merits of any reports must depend. 
But the writer should do very little justice to Mr. 
Tyng, if he expressed only his own crude opinions, the 
opinions of a man who has forgotten half the law he once 
learned. The reputation of Mr. Tyng as a reporter, 
rests on the opinion of the late Chief Justice Parsons, 
Judge Story, Chief Justice Parker, Judges Jackson, 
Putnam, and Wilde, and of the profession generally. 
It may be asked by the ignorant, what proof does an 
able report afford of talent in the reporter ? To this 
we may reply, that no man can give an able report of 
an argument, a sermon, a discourse, without fully 
comprehending it. No man can give a scientific state- 
ment of the grounds of any action, and the pleadings, 
without being a well and thorough bred lawyer. It 
is then a matter of historical fact that our friend, our 
lamented friend, Mr. Tyng, was a sound lawyer, a man 
of acute mind, of accurate perceptions. Of the al- 
most infinite labour, which he must have sustained 
and undergone in preparing these reports for the press, 
and in supervising their publication, no man can be 
sufficiently sensible, who has not submitted to this 
dreadful process ; that he has produced works which 
will endure as long as our liberties, and be praised till 
they shall be extinct, is a source of satisfaction to his 
surviving friends. 

It would be improper to leave the character of Mr. 
Tyng without giving a bird's eye view of it. In de- 
tail, we have presented it, perhaps at more length, 
than the circumscribed course of his life would to 
strangers seem to require, but we have been entirely 
silent as to the traits of character which rendered him 
so dear (and who on earth was dearer ?) to his inti- 
mate friends and associates. There will be nothing 
in our sketch like the common cant, which might be 
stereotyped, and answer for all characters. We shall 


draw the man as he lived and died. Mr. Tyng was a 
man of strong feelings and passions. He was never 
indifferent on any subject, or as to any person. Where 
he laved, he loved with an intensity, Which few people 
feel, and of which, when they perceived it in him, 
they could scarcely form any conception. His tem- 
per was frank, approaching, in the view r of strangers, 
to abruptness and severity. A nearer approach, and a 
more intimate knowledge, convinced you that no man 
had a greater share of what is termed the milk of 
human kindness. He w r as the most tender-hearted 
man, whom the writer of this imperfect sketch ever 
knew, and he was the most solicitous to conceal this 
weakness — shall we call it sublimity ? He affected to 
do it under the guise of an apparent roughness, but it 
was ill-concealed, and a very slight acquaintance show- 
ed the honest disguise. He was eminently benevolent. 
Distress, in whatever form it presented itself, took 
deep hold upon his heart, and no man of his age or 
country ever devoted more hours, or greater exertions, 
than he did, to relieve the suffering, to bring forward 
retiring merit, and to soften and alleviate the anxieties 
and wants of his fellow men. There was a circum- 
stance in Mr. Tyng's life, of which the writer was 
ignorant until after his decease, and which produced a 
greater influence on his future life and character than 
we can safely estimate. It seems that in early life 
he had resolved to devote himself to the service of the 
Episcopal church as a priest. He was deterred from 
this by the difficulty (in 1782) of procuring Episcopal 
ordination. To that venerable establishment his whole 
life was devoted, and probably that church cannot 
name among its members, one more devoted to its in- 
terests, and few 7 who rendered it more efficient service. 
For no one trait in Mr. Tyng's unblemished character, 
does the writer of this article, differing from him in 
his faith, feel a more profound respect, than for the 
constancy and sincerity with which he adhered to the 
religious opinions and forms, which, with solemn de- 


liberation, he had selected and preferred. Yet Mr. 
Tyng was no bigot. He was perfectly catholic in his 
religious creed. 

We abstain from saying any thing of Mr. Tyng's 
domestic character. A christian upon conviction and 
research, a man of high moral principle ; the ex- 
emplary performance of domestic duties followed as a 
necessary consequence. That he should live beloved 
by those who knew him intimately, and of course, be 
lamented, now we can see his benevolent form no 
more, is the natural and inevitable effect of his vir- 

We have reserved to the close a sketch of Mr. 
Tyng's mind and pretensions as a scholar. Mr. Tyng 
was educated at a period when learning in this coun- 
try, and instruction at the University was at its very 
lowest ebb. Following him immediately in a course 
of academic education, we are able to state this to be 
true from actual knowledge. The college was shaken 
to its centre by the revolutionary war. Its stu- 
dents were for a time dispersed, its funds dilapidated, 
and sunk by depreciated paper. The old race of ripe 
scholars had disappeared, and nothing but the shadow 
of its past glories remained. The successive adminis- 
trations of Locke and Langdon had completed the 
ruin which civil commotions had begun. That Mr. 
Tyng should have made himself a sound scholar under 
such disadvantages is the best proof of the vigour of 
his mind, and the intensity oi his application. That 
he was such a scholar, to all the useful purposes of 
life,, we all know. He had a ripe and chaste taste in 
literature. He was w T ell conversant with English his- 
tory and belles-lettres. His conversation and writings 
afford abundant proofs of it. 

Mr. Tyng was in every sense a public spirited 
man— a promoter of the agriculture and general 
prosperity of the country. To his mind and ex- 
ertions, we owe the first canal ever made in Mas- 
sachusetts, round Patucket Falls in the Merrimack, 


a work which was of great value to his native 
town and county, and now the site of the greatest 
manufacturing establishment in this country. We 
intended only a sketch of his useful, unassuming, and 
interesting life. We could extend it with truth, but 
we are reminded of his own modesty, which sought to 
conceal his merits, and we therefore pause here, leav- 
ing much untold, which would do him honour ; but 
we trust we have shown that he deserved a place in 
the history of the ancient State which gave him birth, 
and that the Dudleys and Tyngs have sustained no in- 
jury by his life and conduct; and surely the Atkyns 
family, his nearer friends, may have cause to be proud 
of his character. Mr. Tyng intermarried about the 
year 17^2, with the eldest daughter of the late Ste- 
phen Higginson Esq., Sarah Higginson, by whom he 
has many surviving children of both sexes. Dr. At- 
kyns of Newbury port has resumed the old family 
name, and is the oldest son. There are also two sons 
in the Episcopal church, who still retain his adopted 
name of Tyng. After the death of his first wife, he 
married another daughter of the late Mr. lli£ginson, 
who survives. Thus some of our most ancient fami- 
lies were united after a lapse of nearly two centuries. 
Of the surviving members of the families of Atkyns 
and Tyng it would be improper to speak, but we may 
indulge the hope that they will long sustain the repu- 
tation which descended to them. A republican gov- 
ernment has as deep, and indeed a deeper interest in 
the preservation of its ancient families, than those of 
an aristocratical character. Hereditary virtues are as 
valuable to a republic, as to any other form of gov- 
ernment. But it is onlv the virtue, not the descent, 
which is of any value. It is surely a strong motive 
to good conduct, that your predecessors have done 
icorthtj service to the State. They cannot transmit 
those merits to their posterity, but most assuredly the 
desire, and the honest pride, which is inseparable from 
our nature, to sustain the reputation of our predeces- 



sors, is a laudable one, and so far as it operates, is 
highly useful to a State, be its political form aristo- 
cratic, or republican. It is, indeed, a feeling insepa- 
rable from our condition, and the attempt to eradicate 
it, is as unwise, as it is futile. It is a powerful mo- 
tive to good conduct, and certainly a republic has as 
much need of such motives as a monarchy. No dan- 
ger need be apprehended from this principle of human 
feeling, since there is always a corrective in the worst 
passions of mankind, their envy, and jealousy, and in 
the entire freedom of suffrage. 

If this memoir has been extended beyond the bounds 
ordinarily allotted to biographical sketches, it should be 
remembered, that it relates the later annals of a de- 
scendani of some of the most eminent founders of our 

Time of 




Instances of Longevity in New Hampshire. 

[Continued from Vol. 1, (Third Series,) p. 153.] 


Widow Anna Glover, 
Widow xAPDufFee, 
Widow Margaret Wight, 
Widow Eunice Hall, 
Widow Twombiv, 
John M'CrilHs, 
Hugh Tallant, 
Samuel Drown, 
Widow Harford, 
Ehenezer Jones, 
Widow Richards, 
Widow Sarah Toppan, 
Philip Richardson, 
Widow Hannah Catchelder, 
Widow Wright, 
Widow Elizabeth Smith, 
Wkiow Johnson, 
Widow Rachel Meloon, 
Widow Abigail Sanborne,* 
Widow Elizabeth Stebbins. 

• She belonged to the Shaker Society— Was bora in B 











































jra in Brentwood in 





Widow Hannah Giles, 




Widow Elizabeth Butler, 

Pel ham, 



Widow Rachel Wilson, 

New Boston, 



Thomas Drew, 




Widow Bickford, 




Widow Abigail M'Crillis, 



James Otterson,* 
Widow Eh, or Healey, 
Jonathan Hodgdon, 









Nathaniel Green, 




Widow Anna Sherburne, 




Samuel Wingate, 




Jonathan I)uston,f 




Benjamin Jackson, 




Eunice Whidden, 




Widow Mary Butler, 




Deacon Ichabod Calmer, 




Widow Mary Ann Snow.t 




Joshua Boynton, 




John Ingalls, 




Deborah, (a woman of color) 




Mary Currier, 




Widow Peggy Kimball, 




W T idow Mary Kent, 

Pel ham, 



Widow Heard, 




John Huntoon, 




Thomas Cresson, 




Isaac Small, § 




Widow Hannah Small, || 




Hannah Snell, (single woman), 




William Rines, 




Lieut. Job Kidder, 




Joseph Pallote, 




Widow* Mary Butler, 




Widow Hannah Richardson, 




Widow Mary Avery, 




Widow Abigail Owen, 




Widow Sarah Gay, 




Widow Swain, 




Widow Rebecca Shaw, 

San down, 



Widow Elizabeth Gilman, 



* The year of his decease has not heen ascertained. From him, I suppose, 
the proverbial phrase, common in this region, " As old as Oticrson," was derived. 
He came to this country from Scotland. 

f Grandson of the intrepid Hannah Duston, of Haverhill, who destroyed the 
Indians at Contoocook in 1693. 

t She lived to see her fifth generation. 

§ Isaac Small was born at Cape Cod in 1721. 

11 Widow of Isaac Small, before mentioned. 




Thomas Perkins,* 
Benjamin Blake, 
Jonathan Cressy, 
Asa Carlton, 

Widow Hannah Richardson, 
Widow Rebecca Shaw, 
Widow Joanna Woolson,f 
Widow Elizabeth Adams, 
Widow Anna Draper, 
Widow Tryphena Stiles, J 
John Twombly, 
John Buxton, 
Warren Snow, 
Mrs. Potter, 
Hannah Merriam, 
Widow Rebecca Parker, 
Widow Sarah Smart, 
Widow Lakeman, 
Col. William Gregg,§ 
Jonathan Martin, 
Francis Como, 
Ensign Ebenezer Colcord, 
John Firleld. 
Nathaniel Wiggin, 
Mehitabel Col burn, 
Widow Elizabeth Beede, 
Widow Hannah Wheeler, 
Widow Hannah Parker, 
Widow Abiah Lincoln, 
Widow Mary Locke, 
Timothy Favour, 
John Morgan, 
John Burns, 
CoL Cutting Cilley,|| 
Deacon Thomas Farwell, 
Widow Dorothy Berry, 
Widow Anna Kimball, 
Widow Abigail Lowell, 
Widow Jennet Cochran, 
Mrs. Spear,f| 
Martha March, 



Wolfe borough, 






















































Keene, 1 






New London, 














New Boston, 






* A great grandson of William Perkins, who died in Newmarket in 1732, at 
the age of 116. 

f Widow of Thomas Woolson, who died at Amherst 1823, aged 93, 

\ She was born 22 February, 1722. 

§ A memoir of Coi. Gregg may be found in the 3d vol. of Farmer and Moore's 

|j Brother to the tate Major General Joseph Cillcy of Nottingham. 

^t A native of Ireland. 




1825, Widow Lydia Bouttell,* 

1625, William Burroughs, 

1625, James Chase, 

1825, Deacon William M'Kcen, 

1825, Col. Robert Wiison, 

1825, Capt. Nathan Brown, 

1825, Jonathan Beede,f 

1825, Capt. Asa Pattee,f 

1825, Capt. John Sloan, § 

1825, Moses Jewett, 

1825, Widow Elizabeth Ferguson 

1825, Widow Mary Noble, 

1825, Widow Pearson, 

1825, Widow Sarah Crosby, 

1825, Widow Martha Lamprey, 

1825, Widow Mary Straw, || 

Concord, N. II. 26 Oct. 1825. 


New Ipswich, 
























Mil ford, 






Bill of Mortality for Amherst, N. II. for Twelve 
Years, commencing 1 January, 1815. 

By John Farmer. 
[Continued from Vol, IV. (Second Series.)] 














O to 



t> loo 








1 p 






"2 'H 



~3 ; ^3 









H h 






to tj< 


10 lo 



O jȣ5 







7 P 



1 1 




3 ! 3 





6 1 



1 1 
















, 4 

















1 2 










i 1 





l'i 1 





3! 2 



' 2 









3 1 





l! 2 











2 2 



1 1 






4 i * 



1 2 








7! 2 

1 1 




2! 2 








221 3 

; 1 

i 2 







i 3 














8 16Jl3 13 




15; 9 





* Formerly of Amherst. ■ 

■j- For many year; a noted preacher among the Friends. 

I He was in the battle of Quebec under cJen. Wolfe, and served in the war 
of the revolution. By two wives he had twenty-two children. 

§ The oldest person in that town, and one of those who commenced its set- 
tlement, 20 May, 17b4. 

|j She was a member of the church seventy bis-years. Her descendants 
were 324. \ 












































Annual number, with the aggregate and average of ages each 


No. of deaths. Am'tofanjea. Av. ago. No. of deaths. Am'to*"a?os. Av. a?/ 



The preceding 33 ill of Mortality, with that of the ten years re- 
ferred to in the Collections, Volume IV, Second Series, embraces a 
period of twenty-two years, and presents the following facts. 

The whole number of deaths for 22 years is 534. 

The annual average number, 24. 

The average age of each individual, 32f-J^years. 

1 in every 5i have lived 70 years and upwards. 

1 in Go have died annually, on an average. 
266 have died over the age of 25 years. 
268 have died under that age. 

2 persons have lived beyond a century. 

Churches and Ministers in New Hampshire. 

[Continued from Vol. I, (Third Series,) p. 155.] 


The Congregational church in this town, according 
to Johnson, was gathered in the year 1639. It is 
prohably the oldest which now exists in the State of 
New Hampshire, having, it is believed, continued an 
organized body from its first establishment until the 
present time. The ministers who have successively 
had the pastoral charge of it have been, 

1. Rev. Stephen Batchelor, who came from Eng- 
land in company with Rev. Thomas Weld in the ship 
William and Francis, and arrived at Boston, 5 June, 
1632. He was probably settled when the church was 
gathered, and remained its minister about three years. 
For further notices of this man, see Savage's Winthrop, 
vol I. p. 78. 


2. Rev. Timothy Daltoivwas settled about the same 
time with Mr. Batchelor. He died in 16G1, and is 
said to be the great ancestor of several respectable 
families of that name. 

3. Rev. John Wheelwright, who came from Eng- 
land in 163G, and after his arrival preached at Boston, 
afterwards the founder of the church and town of Exe- 
ter, of the church at Wells, in Maine, was settled in 
Hampton in 1G47. It is uncertain how long he re- 
mained here. He afterwards settled in Salisbury, 
where he died 15 November, -1G79. 

4. Rev. Seaborn Cotton, born at sea in August, 
1633, while his parents, Rev. John and Elizabeth Cot- 
ton, were on their passage to this country, graduated 
at Harvard college in 1651, ordained at Hampton 
16G0, died 1G8G, aged 53. '■ 

5. Rev. John Cotton, son of the preceding, gradua- 
ed at Harvard college in 1G78, ordained in 1G96, died 
27 March, 1710, aged 57. 

6. Rev. Nathaniel Gookin, son of Rev. Nathaniel 
Gookin of Cambridge, and grandson of Major Gene- 
ral Gookin, graduated at Harvard college in 1703, was 
ordained in 1710, and died in 1734, aged 48. 

7. Rev. Ward Cotton, son of Rev. Roland Cotton 
of Sandwich, son of Rev. John Cotton, of Plymouth, 
son of Rev. John Cotton, of Boston, graduated at 
Harvard College in 1729, was ordained in 17S4, and 
dismissed in 17G5. 

8. Rev. Ebenezer Thayer graduated at Harvard 
College in 1753, was ordained 17 September, 17G3; 
died G September 1792, aged 58. Dr. Thayer of 
Lancaster is his son. 

9. Rev. Jesse Appleton, D. D. son of Francis Ap- 
pleton, a descendant of John Appleton, Esq. who died 
at Waldingfield, Suffolk, in 1436, was born at New 
Ipswich, 17 November, 1772. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in 1792; was ordained at Hampton, 
22 February, 1797, dismissed upon his being chosen 
to the presidency of Bowdoin college in 1807, and 
died at Brunswick, Me. 12 November, 1819, aged 47. 


10. Rev. Josiah Webster, ~a native of Chester, 
N. H., graduated at Dartmouth college in 1798, was 
installed in the year 1808. lie had been previously 
settled over the 2d ehureh in Ipswich, where lie was 
ordained 13 November, 1799, and dismissed 23 July, 

Hampio n - Fa Us. 

The Congregational church in this town was proba- 
bly organized about the year 1712. The ministers 
who have been ordained over it have been six, as 
follows : 

1. Rev. Theophilus Cotton, the youngest son and 
11th child of Rev. John Cotton, of Plymouth, who 
was the 2d son of Rev. John Cotton of Boston, was 
born 5 May, 1682. He graduated at Harvard college 
in 1701 ; was ordained 13 January, 1712, and died 
16 August, 1726, aged 45. 

2. Rev. Joseph Whipple, who graduated at Har- 
vard college in 1720, succeeded Mr. Cotton, and was 
ordained 15 January, 1727 ; died 17 February, 1757, 
aged 57. 

3. Rev. Josiah Bay ley, who graduated at Harvard 
college in 1752, was ordained 19 October, 1757; and 
died 12 September, 1762, aged 29. 

4. Rev. Paine Wingate, son of Rev. Paine Win- 
gate, of Amesbury, graduated at Harvard college in 
1759; was ordained 14 December, 1763, resigned his 
pastoral charge, 18 March, 1771. He was afterwards 
Senator in the Congress of the United States, and 
judge of the Superior Court of New Hampshire. 

5. Rev. Samuel Langdon, D. D., who graduated at 
Harvard college in 1740, and had been the minister 
of the 1st church in Portsmouth from 1747 to 1774, 
and President of Harvard College, was installed 18 
January, 1781, and died 29 November, 1797, in his 
75th year. 

6. Rev. Jacob Abbot, son of Abie! Abbot, Esq. of 
Wilton, graduated at Harvard college in 1792, was 
ordained 15 August. 



The first minister of Hampstead was the Rev. Hen- 
ry True, who graduated at Harvard college in 1750, 
and was ordained 24 June, 1752. Rev. Edward Bar- 
nard preached the sermon from Acts xi. 24, " For he 
was a good man." Dr. Eliot in his Biographical Dic- 
tionary, says of this sermon, that it would have done 
honor to any divine in any age or country. The 
Charge was given by Rev. Joseph Parsons, of Brad- 
ford, and the Right Hand of Fellowship by Rev. Eben- 
ezer Flagg, of Chester. Mr. True died in 1782. 

Rev. John Kelly, a descendant from John Kelly,* 
one of the first settlers of Newbury, who came from 
Newbury in England, graduated at Dartmouth college 
in 1791, and was ordained 5 December, 1792. 

Note. It is satisfactorily ascertained that Rev. Thomas Weld, 
the first minister of Dunstable, II Coll. Hist. Soc. X. p. 54, was 
not killed by the Indians as intimated in President Alden's Col- 
lection of Epitaphs, and Sperry's summary History of the Church 
in Dunstable, but died a natural death, 9 June, 1702, and was 
buried June 11th. " He was an eminent preacher of the word of 
God ; a man well beloved and much lamented by them that knew 

Concord, N. IL 30 June, 18^5. 


New- Castle formerly constituted a part of Ports- 
mouth, and was originally the seat of considerable 
business. It was incorporated as a township, in 1G93, 
having before that time been known by the name of 
Great Island. The time when the Congregational 
church was first organized has not been vet ascertain- 
ed. There might have existed one some years before 
the commencement of the 18th century. There did 
exist one as early as 1704. The inhabitants appear 
to have had a succession of preachers from an early 

* The late Rev. William Kelly, of Warner, Col. Moses Kelly, and John Kelly, 
Esq. of Northwood, descended from hira. 

t Mr. Daniel Fairfield's Journal, as copied by Rev. T. M. Harris, D. D. 


period, but it is not easy to recover their names. Samuel 
Moody, who graduated at Harvard college 1689, ap- 
pears to have been there several years, as would seem 
from an ancient record in the Secretary's office, con- 
taining the births of his children.* The regularly set- 
tled ministers of this place since the year 1704, have 
been as follows : 



Dismissed or died. 

John Emerson, 




J 7 12. 

Wiliiam Shurtleff, 





John Blunt, 




died 1747. 

David Robinson, 




" 1748 or 9. 

Stephen Chase, 




" 1778. 

Oliver Noble.t 


.J. C. 



dis. . 

Rev. John Emerson, a native of Ipswich, Mass., 

attf>v rtiE n i<c it* >ce»r» , ~ 4 ivns co + ti<"»rJ <~»vnv <l\n >»nnf i ( hiirr>h 

in Portsmouth, 23 March, 1715, and died there 21 
June, 1732, aged 62. His successor at Newcastle, 
Rev. William Shurtleff, who also succeeded him at 
Portsmouth, was installed in 1732, and died 9 May,. 
1747. Rev. John Blunt was ordained 20 December, 
1732; died in August, 1747. His wife, by whom he 
had seven children, was a daughter of Hon. John 
Frost, of Newcastle. Rev. David Robinson died 
within about 10 months after his ordination. Rev. 
Stephen Chase had been the minister of Lynn, Mass. 
He died in January 1775. -Of Rev. Mr. Noble an 
account will be given under Orford. 


Conjecture would assign the date of the church in 
this town in July, 1707, in which case it would rank 

* 1. Joshua Moody, born 11 Feb. 1695-6; died 27 May, 1696. 

2. Joshua Moody* " 31 Oct. 1697 ; perhaps grad. H. C. 1716. 

3. Samuel Moody, " 29 Oct. 1699 ; " « H. C. 171S. 

4. Mary Moody, " 16 Nov. 1701. 

Mr. Moody afterwards removed to Boston. His wife was Esther Green, of 
Boston, whom he married 4 April, 1695. 

I Dartmouth Catalogue calls him Obadiah Noble, and probably Sew Jer=ey 
Catalogue does the same; but the N. H. Gazetteer and Mr. Kelly call him Oli- 
ver, [Oliver Noble graduated at Yale college in 1758, was afterwards minister 
at Newbury, Mass. Obadiah Noble graduated at Princeton, N. J. in 1763, and. 
died at Tiumouih, Vt. Feb. 1829, aged 90. Ed.\ 


as the 8th church now existing, which was gathered 
in New Hampshire. 

Rev. William Allen, the first minister, who graduat- 
ed at Harvard college, 1703, was ordained 15 July, 
1707 ; died 8 September, 1760, at the age of 84. 

Rev. Samuel Macclintock, D. D. who was born at 
Medford, Mass., 1 May, 1732, graduated at New Jer- 
sey college, 1751, was ordained as colleague to Mr. 
Allen, 3 November, 1756, and died 27 April, 1804, 
aged 74. A biographical memoir of this worthy man 
may be found in Farmer and Moore's Collections, 
vol. II, p. 273-278. 

Rev. James Armstrong Neal, who graduated at 
college, succeeded Dr. Macclintock, 22 May, 

1805, and died 18 July, 1808, aged 34. 

Rev. Ephraim Abbot, who was born at Newcastle, 
28 September, 1779, graduated at Harvard college, 

1806, was ordained 27 October, 1813, and is still in 
the ministry.* 


Rev. Joseph Adams, the first minister of the church 
in this town, which was probably organized about the 
time of his settlement, was son of Joseph Adams, a 
grandson of Henry Adams, who came from Devon- 
shire, England, about 1630 to Mount Wollaston, now 
Quincy, Mass. He was born in Braintree in June, 
1688, graduated at Harvard college 1710; ordained 
16 November, 1715 ; continued his ministerial labours 
until January, 1783, and died 20 May, 1783, being 
almost 95 years — an age attained by no other minister 
ever settled in New Hampshire. He had been a 
preacher between 72 and 73 years, although he had 
not quite completed the 69 year from his ordination. 
He commenced preaching soon after he left college. 

* This article was written in May, 1S2G. Mr. Abbot has since been dismissed, 
and L-j now (1S29) Preceptor of the Academy at Westiord, Mass. 


Rev. Joseph Langdon, who graduated at Dartmouth 
college in 1783, succeeded Mr. Adams, and was or- 
dained 9 January, 1788, dismissed in March 1810, 
and died at Portsmouth in 1824, in the 66th year of 
his age. 


The church in Durham, the second in the county of 
Strafford, was organized 26 March, 1718, at which 
time Rev. Hugh Adams was installed as the pastor of 
it. He graduated at Harvard college, 1697, and he- 
fore his settlement at Durham, had been the minister 
of the 2d parish in Rraintree, where he was ordained 
10 Septentffaer, 1707. Ho had also been settled at 
Chatham, whence he was dismissed in consequence of 
the result of an ecclesiastical council, assembled on 
25 April, 1716. He was one of the most eccentric 
clergymen ever settled in New Hampshire. In the 
office of the Secretary of State is a very curious pe- 
tition, (preserved by Dr. Belknap in his Hist. N. H.) 
of Mr. Adams to the Provincial Assembly, in 1738, 
complaining of the delinquency and trespasses of his 
parishioners, in which he represents the town of Dur- 
ham "as an Achan in the camp; and as the seven 
sons of Saul in the days of King David, and as Jonah 
in the ship of the Commonwealth of the Province." 
And he prays not only for justice to himself, but that 
a neglect to pay a minister may be made penal, and 
presentable by the grand jury, as it was in Massachu- 
setts, which he considered the principal reason why 
the people of that Province had been " proportionally 
spared from the throat pestilence and other impoverish- 
ing more than New Hampshire." He had singular 
notions of the efficacy of his prayers, and among oth- 
er things, which he had accomplished by prayer? he 
informs the assembly that being provoked by the in- 
justice of his people, and robbing him of the £50 ad- 
dition to his salary, he prayed while it was yet more 



than three months to the harvest, that " it might not 
rain, and it rained not for three months after ; 5) when, 
some of his friendly brethren prevailed upon bim, and 
he "appointed and conscientiously sanctified a church 
fast from evening to evening* and abstained three 
meals from eating, drinking, and smoking any thing, 5 '' 
and the Lord, he says, was pleased to hear, and grant- 
ed such plentiful and warm rains as to produce " a 
considerable harvest ; so as was then remarkable. 55 
He concludes his petition by importunately asking for 
justice, and expressing his firm belief that, after he had 
obtained it, God will be intreated for the land of 
New Hampshire. Various instances of his peculiari- 
ties may be found in the work referred to, Vol. II, 
240-243,281-284: Vol.11!, 149-151, 193-196. 
He was dismissed from office, 23 January, 1739, and 
died at Durham in 1750, aged 74, where his descend- 
ants are said to be numerous and respectable. 

Rev. Nicholas Gilman, son of Nicholas Oilman, 
Esq., of Exeter, succeeded Mr. Adams. He was born 
18 January, 1707, graduated at Harvard college 1724, 
was ordained 3 March, 1742, and died 13 April, 1748, 
aged 41. 

Rev. John Adams, son of Mr. Matthew Adams, of 
Boston, and nephew 7 to Rev. Hugh Adams, succeeded 
Mr. Gilman. He graduated at Harvard college 1745, 
was ordained in 1748, and dismissed in 1778. He 
was afterwards settled in Maine, where he died 4 
June, 1792. [See Mr. Kellyh Ecclesiastical Memoran- 
da in the work referred to above, Vol. II, 364, 365.] 

Rev. Curtis Coe, who graduated at Brown Univer- 
sity in 1776, succeeded Mr. John Adams, and was or- 
dained 1 November, 1780; dismissed 1 May, 1806. 
He preached the Convention sermon in 1802. After 
his dismission, he was employed in the missionary ser- 
vice in various parts of the state. 

Rev. Federal Burt, A. M. at Dartmouth college 
1819, succeeded Mr. Coe, and was ordained 18 June, 




Rev. Henry Rust, who graduated at Harvard college 
1707, was ordained the first minister of the church m 
Stratham in April or May, 1718. He died 20 March, 
1749, aged 63. 

Rev. Joseph Adams, who graduated at Harvard 
college, 1742, was ordained, [installed, says one ac- 
count,] 24 June, 1756, and died 24 February, 1785, 
aged GS. He was a Calvinist and in those days was 
called a New Light. " He had many peculiarities, 
but was a pious man, and much esteemed by his peo- 

Rev. James Miltimore, who graduated at Dartmouth 
coll^o-p in 1774. was ordained 1 February. 1786, dis- 
missed 15 October, 1807, and afterwards settled over 
the 2d church in Newbury, Mass. 

Rev. Jacob Cummings, who graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in 1819, was ordained 28 April, 1824. 


The ministers of this ancient town, in regular suc- 
cession have been, 

1. William Leveridge, 

2. George Burdet, 

3. Hanserd Knollys, 

4. Thomas Larkham, 

5. Daniel Maud, 

6. John Rayner, 

7. John Rayner, jr. 

8. John Pike, 

9. Nicholas Sever, 

10. Jonathan Cushing, 

11. Jeremy Belknap, 

12. Robert Gray, 

13. Caleb H. Sherman, 

14. Joseph W. Clary, 

Rev. William Leveridge, the first minister of Dover, 
of whom any account can be recovered from the re- 
cords, or from the early historians, probably com- 





about 1636, 




Died or dis. 








II. C. 1663, 



" 1675, 
« 1701, 



" 1712, 



» 1702, 



" 1786, 



Brown. 1803, 



Mid. 1S0S, 


In office. 


menced preaching there in 1G33. He arrived in this 
country in the ship James, with Captain Wiggin in 
that year, and repaired to Dover soon after his arrival. 
Whether he gathered a church there or not does not 
appear, but it seems hardly probable that he did. He 
left Dover about 1635, and repaired to Plymouth colo- 
ny ; remained a while at Sandwich, and afterwards 
removed to Brookhaven, on Long-Island, N. Y., and 
from that place removed in 1670, to a place called 
Newton'. The time and place of his death do not 
appear in our ancient historians. Of his three suc- 
cessors ample accounts may be found in Dr. Belknap, 
and in the Hon. Mr. Savage's edition of Winthrop. 
Knollys, or Knolles, as his name is generally spelt, re- 
turned to England, where he died 19 September, 1691, 
aged 91. Larkham also returned and died in 1669, 
aged 68. 

Daniel Maud was admitted freeman of Massachu- 
setts colony, 25 May, 1636, having been admitted a 
member of Boston church the 25th October preceding. 
He was, according to Hubbard, " a good man, and of 
a serious spirit, and of a peaceable and quiet dispo- 

Rev. John Rayner had been the minister of Ply- 
mouth, and various notices of him will be found in the 
First Series of the Collections. He died 3 April. 

Rev. John Rayner, jr. succeeded his father in 1671, 
and died 21 December, 1676. 

Rev. John Pike, it is supposed, was from Newbury. 
The time of his settlement has not been ascertained. 
He died in March, 1710. 

Rev. Nicholas Sever was ordained 11 April, 1711, 
and was dismissed in the spring of 1715. Further 
notices of him may be found in the Ecclesiastical Me- 
moranda by John Kelly, Esq. printed in Farmer and 
Moore's Collections. 

Rev. Jonathan Gushing was ordained in September. 
1717, and died in March, 1769, having been above 
51 years in the ministry. 


Rev. Jeremy Belknap was ordained as a colleague 
with Mr. Gushing," 18 February, 1767. He is the 
Historian of New Hampshire. 

Rev. Robert Gray succeeded Mr. (afterwards Dr.) 
Belknap 28 February, 1787, and was dismissed in 
May, 1805; died in 1822 or 3. 

Rev. Caleb H. Sherman was ordained in May, 
1807, and dismissed in August, 1811. Mr. Clary was 
ordained 7 May, 1812. 


For an account of the churches and ministers in 
Portsmouth, the reader is referred to the sketch of 
President A Id en ; In 1 Hist Coll X 

Concord, N. If. 10 May, 1826. 


The church in this place was organized 20 July, 
1726, and Rev. Nathaniel Morrill, who graduated at 
Harvard college 1723, and was ordained 14 September, 
the same year. He continued in the ministry about 
seven years, and was dismissed in 1734. His succes- 
sor was 

Rev. Samuel Parsons, who graduated at Harvard 
college 1730. He was ordained 3 November, 1736, 
and died 4 January, 1789, aged 78. During his min- 
istry 206 persons were admitted into full communion 
with the church and between 600 and 700 received 

Rev. Huntington Porter, son of Rev. John Porter, 
of Bridgewater, succeeded Mr. Parsons. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard college 1777 ; was ordained 29 
(December, 1784, and from that time to 1822, 84 per- 
sons had been received to full communion, and 811 
baptized. ' 


The church in Plaistow was gathered 2 December, 
1730, and Rev. James Gushing was ordained on the 


same day. He was son of Rev. Caleb Cushing of 
Salisbury, whose wife was tbe widow of Rev. James 
Ailing, his predecessor in the ministry, and daughter 
of Rev. John Cotton of Plymouth, second son of 
Rev. John Cotton of Boston. Mr. Cushing gradu- 
ated at Harvard college 1725; died 13 May, 1764, 
aged about 59. 

Rev. Gyles Merrill from Salisbury, Mass., succeed- 
ed Mr. Cushing. He graduated at Harvard college 
1759; was ordained 6 March, 1765, over the parish 
consisting of Plaistow and the north parish of Haver- 
hill, Mass., when Rev. Edward Barnard preached the 
sermon. He died 27 April, 1801, aged"62. " He was 
a sound scholar and learned divine, and possessed that 
simplicity, yet dignity cf manners and kindness of 
heart, which secured him the love and respect of all 
that knew him." 


Rev. James Pike, the first minister settled at Som- 
ersworth, was born at Newbury, Mass. 1 March, 
1703; graduated at Harvard college 1725, and receiv- 
ed his second degree in course. Soon after leaving 
college, he taught a grammar school at Berwick, Me. 
He preached his first sermon from Eph. i. 6, 7, 23 
October, 1726. He commenced preaching in .the 
northeast part of Dover, now Somersworth, 27 
August, 1727, and was ordained 28 October, 1730. 
The sermon was preached on that occasion by Rev. 
Jeremiah Wise, and was printed. Mr. Pike preached 
his last sermon, 31 October, 1790. and died 19 March, 
1792, aged 89. In 1751, he published a sermon on 
the " Duty of Gospel Ministers as Christ's Ambassa- 
dors," from 2 Cor. v. 20. He preached a sermon before 
the Convention of ministers at Newington, 9 October, 
1750. Nicholas Pike, author of the "New and Com- 
plete System of Arithmetic," was his son, and was 
born at Somersworth, 6 October, 1743; graduated 


at Harvard college 1766, and died at Newburyport 9 

December, 1819, aged 76. 

Rev. Piersou Thurston was ordained as colleague 
with Mr. Pike. He was a native of Sterling, Mass., 
born in December, 1763, graduated at Dartmouth 
college, 1787; commenced preaching at Somersworth 
in July, 1791, and was ordained 1 February, 1792. 
Rev. Samuel Spring preached the sermon from " Who 
is sufficient for these things." He removed from town, 
2 December, 1312, and was afterwards, it is believed, 
settled in Vermont. He died at Leominster, Mass. 
15 August, 1819, aged 56. The house in which Mr, 
Thurston lived was consumed by fire 22 January, 
1812 ; when the records of the church, the communion 
vessels, and a social library were destroyed. 

Rev. Reuben Porter succeeded Mr. Thurston, after 
a long interval, and was ordained 27 April, 1825. 


The date of the church in this town has been re- 
ferred to the year 1737, and the ministers who have 
been settled over it have been as follows : 

Rev. Jeremiah Fogg, 
" Napthali Shaw, 
" Nathaniel Kennedy, 
" Joseph A. E, Long, 

Mr. Fogg was a native of Hampton ; graduated at 
Harvard college in 1730; was ordained in November, 
1737; died 1 December, 1789, aged 78. 

Mr. Shaw was son of Mr. William Shaw, of Bridge- 
water, Mass. who died in 1809, aged 79. He gradu- 
ated aHDartmouth college in 1790. 

Mr. Kennedy was a foreigner, having, it is believed,, 
come from Scotland. Ke was the minister of Litch- 
field, N. H. from 1809 to 1812. 

Mr. Long, who graduated at Harvard college 1818, 
was ordained 5 June, 1822, and dismissed within 
a year or two afterwards. The church has since 
been vacant. 




died 1789. 








East Kingston. 

But one minister has been settled over the church 
in this place, viz. Rev. Peter Coffin, who graduated at 
Harvard college 1733; ordained in 1738 or 1739;* 
and dismissed in 1772. He kept a true and exact 
meteorological diary, of which that for 1752 is in 
the library of the N. H. Historical Society. Mr. 
Coffin, it is believed, removed to Exeter, where he 
died. East Kingston has had no settled minister since 


Gosport is one of the Isles of Shoals, and was an- 
ciently called ^Ippledore, and afterwards Star Island. 
It was early invested with town privileges, and with 
the other islands, enjoyed religious ordinances from a 
very early period. Before the year 1641, a meeting- 
house was erected on Hog Island, and a Mr. Hull f 
supplied the desk. After him Mr. John Brock, who 
settled in Reading, Mass. preached about 12 years. 
There were other preachers between him and Rev. 
John Tucke, who was settled over a regular organized 
church, which was probably embodied about the time 
of his settlement. Mr. Tucke graduated at Harvard 
college 1723, and was ordained 26 July, 1732. He 
being located among a people who procured their sub- 
sistence by fishing, Mr. Fitch, of Portsmouth, w 7 ho 
preached the ordination sermon, selected the follow- 
ing pertinent text for the occasion, " I will make you 
fishers of men." Mr. Tucke continued in the minis- 
try until his death, 12 August, 1773. He left one 
son, Rev. John Tucke, of Epsom , and two dac^hters. 
He published a sermon preached at the ordination of 
his son in 1761. Mr. Tucke received a settlement of 
£50, and an annual salary of £110 ; but from 1754, 
his salary was paid in merchantable winter fish, at a 

* Dr. Belknap, cays 173S ; Mr. Kelly, 1739. 
| See 1 Savage's Winlhrop, 163, Note. . 


Died or dismissed. 






dis. 1775. 




dis. 1824. 


In office. 


quintal per man, making between 80 and 100 quintals 
per annum. The fish being worth a guinea per quin- 
tal, his salary was deemed one of the most valuable in 
New England. 

Concord, N. II. 30 May, 1826. 


Rochester was incorporated 10 May, 1722, and its 
settlement commenced 28 December, 1728. The 
time when the church was organized does not appear. 
The pastors who have been invested with the care of 
it have been, 

Rev. Amos Main. 

Rev. Samuel Hill, 

Rev. Avery Hall, 

Rev. Joseph Haven, 

Rev. Thomas Cogswell Upliara, 

Rev. Isaac Willey, 

Rev. Mr. Main, graduated at Harvard college 1729, 
and died 5 April, 1760, having been in the ministry 
about 23 years. " He was a great blessing to the 
people of his charge, and greatly encouraged them in 
their concerns, spiritual and temporal." 

Mr. Bill graduated at Harvard college 1735; was 
installed 19 November, 1760, and died 19 November, 

Mr. Hall was the son of Rev. Theophilus Hall, of 
Meriden, New Chester, Conn., and was ordained 15 
October, 1766, and dismissed 10 April, 1775. After 
his dismission, he removed to Wakefield and engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, and was a magistrate of Straf- 
ford county. He died in 1820, at the age of 83. 

Mr. Haven was a native of Hopkinton, Mass., born 
in May 1747, graduated at Harvard college 1774; 
ordained 10 January, 1776, and died in January, 1825, 
aged 77, — a worthy and good man. 

Mr. Upham, son of Hon. Timothy Upham, and 
grandson of Rev. Timothy Upham, first minister of 
Deerfield, was ordained 16 July, 1823; dismissed in 



1824, ill consequence of his appointment to a profes- 
sorship in Bovvdoiu college.* 

Mr. Willey was ordained 18 January, 1826. 


The Congregational church was organized 1 March, 
1737. The ministers have been, 

1. Rev. Aaron Whittemore, from Concord, Mass., 
who graduated at Harvard college 1734. He was or- 
dained at the time the church was formed, and retain- 
ed his pastoral relation until his death, 16 November, 
1767, at the age of 55. 

2. Rev. Jacob Emery, a native of Andover, Mass., 
who graduated at Harvard college 1761, succeeded 
Mr. AVhittemore, and was ordained 3 August, 1768, 
and was dismissed 23 March, 1775. 

3. Rev. Zaccheus Colby, a native of Newtown, 
who graduated at Dartmouth college in 1777, succeed- 
ed Mr. Emery, and was ordained 22 March. 1780. 
Soon after his ordination the Presbyterian church in 
this town, (over which Rev. Daniel Mitchell, from 
Ireland, was settled 3 December, 1760, who died 15 
December, 1776, aged 69,) united with the Congre- 
gational church under the same pastor. Mr. Colby 
was dismissed 11 May, 1803. 

4. Rev. Rev. Abraham Burnham, a native of Dun- 
barton, who graduated at Dartmouth college in 1804, 
was ordained 2 March, 1808, when the church was 
newly organized, consisting of 54 members, which, in 
1822, had increased to more than 170. 

Nottingham- West. 

The Congregational church in this town was form- 
ed 30 November, 1737, and on the same day Rev. 
Nathaniel Merrill, who graduated at Harvard college 

* Professor Upham is a descendant of the sixth generation from Maj. Gen. 
Daniel Gookin, of Cambridge, and of the seventh from Rev.' John Cotton, of 


1732, was ordained. His civil contract was dissolved 
in 1774, but his relation to the church continued until 
his death in 1796. 

Rev. Jabez Pond Fisher, who graduated at Brown 
University 1788, was ordained 24 February, 1796; 
and dismissed in May, 1801. Mr. Fisher has since 
been employed as a missionary in various places. 

The Congregational church in this place has be- 
come extinct, having united with the Presbyterian 
church, over which Rev. W. K. Talbot is settled. 


The Congregational church in Keene was gathered 
18 October, 1738. 

L Rev. Jacob Bacon, a native of Wrentham, Mass., 
who graduated at Harvard college 1731, was ordained 
18 October, 1738, and continued the minister of the 
place until April, 1747, when the settlement being 
broken up by the Indians, he went to Plymouth where 
he was settled. [See Col. Mass. Hist. Soc. Vol. Ill, 
Second Series.] He died at Rowley in 1787, aged 
81. [See an interesting letter from him to Meshech 
Weare, Esq., published in Farmer and Moore's Col- 
lections, Vol. II. 176-178.] 

2. Rev. Ezra Carpenter, who graduated at Harvard 
college 1720, and had been the minister of Hull, 
Mass., for a number of years, was settled over Keene 
and Swanzey, 4 October, 1753, and contracted with 
from year to year until 1760, after which his con- 
nexion with Keene ceased. 

3. Rev, Clement Sumner, who graduated at Yale 
college in 1758, was ordained II June, 1761, and 
dismissed 30 April, 1772, 

4. Rev. Aaron Hall, who graduated at Yale college 
in 1772, was ordained 19 Februarv, 1778, and died 
12 August, 1814. 

5. Rev. David Oliphant was ordained 25 May, 
1815, dismissed 1 December, 1817, and is now set- 
tled in Beverly, Mass. 


6. Rev. Zedekiah Smith Barstovv, who graduated 
at Yale college in 1813, was ordained 1 July, 1818. 

A second Congregational church (Unitarian) has 
been formed at Keene, and Rev. Thomas R. Sullivan 
was ordained over it in December, 1825. 

North- Hampton . 

The church in this place was gathered 31 October, 


1. Rev. Nathaniel Gookin, son of Rev. Nathaniel 
Gookin, of Hampton, graduated at Harvard college 
173i, and was ordained 31 October, 1739, at which time 
the sermon was preached by Rev. William ShiirtlerT, 
of Portsmouth, from Rev. ii. 1. Mr. Gookin died 
22 October, 1766, aged 53, having nearly completed 
the 27th year of his ministry. 

2. Rev. Joseph Stacey Hastings, a graduate of 
Harvard college 1762, was ordained 11 February, 
1767. Sermon by Rev. Jonas Merriam, of New- 
ton, Mass., from 1 Tim. iv. 12. Mr. Hastings was 
dismissed 3 July, 1774. 

3. Rev. David M'Clure, D. D., a graduate of Yale 
1769, was installed 13 November, 1776. Sermon by 
Rev. Josiah Stearns, of Epping, from 2 Tim. ii. 
2. He resigned his office, 30 August, 1785; settled 
in East Windsor, Conn, where he died 25 June, 1820, 
aged 71. 

4. Rev. Benjamin Thurston, a graduate of Harvard 
college, was ordained 2 November, 1785. Sermon 
by Rev. Mr. Allen, of Bradford, from 1 Tim. iv. 6. 
Mr. Thurston resigned 27 October, 1800. 

5. Rev. Jonathan French, son of Rev. Jonathan 
French, was born in Andover, Mass., 16 August, 
1778; graduated at Harvard college 1798, and was 
ordained 18 November, 1801. Sermon by his father 
from 2 Cor. ii. 15, 16. Mr. French published an in- 
teresting sermon delivered at North-Hampton, 22 De- 


cember, 1820,' in commemoration of the landing of 
the first settlers of New England, which contains 
some valuable historical facts relating to Hampton and 
North-Hampton. He preached the Election sermon 
in 1822, which was printed. 


Salem was incorporated by charter, 11 May, 1750. 
A church had been gathered a number of years before 
this time. Rev. Abner Bayley, born in Newbury, 
Mass. j 19 January, 1716, who graduated at Harvard 
college 1736, was ordained 30 January, 1740, and 
died 10 March, 1793, aged 82. Rev/ John Smith, 
who graduated at Dartmouth college in 1794, was or- 
dained as colleague with Mr. Bayley in 1797, and was 
dismissed in 1816. Rev. William Balch succeeded 
Mr. Smith in 1819. Mr. Smith is now Professor of 
Theology at Bangor, Me. 


The church in Swanzey was organized 4 Novem- 
ber, 1741. 


1. Rev. Timothy Harrington, a native of Waltham, 
Mass., who graduated at Harvard college 1737, was 
ordained 4 November, 1741, and remained the minis- 
ter of the place until 2 April, 1747, when the town 
was destroyed by the Indians. He was dismissed hy 
the church, at a meeting called and holden in Rutland, 
Mass., 12 October, 1748, and was installed at Lan- 
cater, Mass., 16 November, 1748, where he died 18 
December, 1795, aged 80. 

2. Rev. Ezra Carpenter, the same mentioned un- 
der Keene, was installed, upon the union of the two 
churches of Keene and Swanzey into one, 4 October, 
1753, when Rev. Ebenezer Gay, of Hingham, preach- 
ed from Zech. ii. 1. He remained the minister of 
Swanzey till his dismission in 1768. He had been 


the minister of Hull, Mass., where he was ordained 
24 November, 1725. 

3. Rev. Edward Goddard, from Shrewsbury, Mass., 
who graduated at Harvard college 1764, was ordained 
27 September, 1769, and was dismissed 5 July, 1798. 
He afterwards preached in various places, and died 
13 October, 1811. 

4. Rev. Clarke Brown, A. M. at Harvard, Yale, 
Dartmouth, and Brown colleges, was installed 5 Sep- 
tember, 1810; dismissed 16 August, 1815, and died 
in Charles county, in Maryland, in 1817. Mr. Brown 
was first settled at Machias, in Maine, and was instal- 
led at Brimfield, Mass., 20 June, 1798. 

5. Rev. Joshua Chandler, who graduated at Har- 
vard college 1807, was ordained in January, 1819, and 
was dismissed in 182-; afterwards settled in Orange, 
in the county of Franklin, Mass., from which place he 
w 7 as also subsequently dismissed. 

South- Hampton, 

South-Hampton was incorporated 25 May, 1742, 
and the church was probably organized the next year. 
Rev. William Parsons, who graduated at Harvard col- 
lege 1735, was ordained iu 1743, and dismissed 6 
October, 1762. Rev. Nathaniel Noyes, son of Dea. 
Parker Noyes, of Newbury, Mass. succeeded Mr. Par- 
sons. He was born at Newbury, in 1735, graduated at 
New Jersey college, 1759, was ordained 23 February, 
1763, dismissed 8 December, 1800, and died at New- 
bury, in December, 1810, aged 75. 


The first minister of Nottingham was Rev. Stephen 
Emery, who graduated at Harvard college 1730. He 
was ordained in 1742, preached a few years, and left 
his people without a regular dismission. 

Rev. Benjamin Butler, who graduated at Harvard 
college 1752, was ordained in 1758, dismissed 1 Au- 
gust, 1770, became a civil magistrate, and died 26 
December, 1804. 



Rev. Robert Cutler, the first minister of Epping, 
was ordained 9 December, 1747, when it is probable, 
the church was organized. The sermon was preach- 
ed by Rev. John Moody, of Newmarket, from Eph. iv. 
11, 12. Charge by Rev. John Odlin, of Exeter. 
Mr. Cutler graduated at Harvard college 1741. He 
was dismissed in 1755. He was settled in February, 
1760, in Greenwich, Mass., where he died in Febru- 
ary, 1786, aged 65. 

Rev. Josiah Stearns succeeded Mr. Cutler, and was 
ordained 8 March, 175S. He was born in Billerica, 
Mass., 20 January, 1732, and descended from John 
Stearns, one of the first inhabitants of that place, who 
married Mary Lathrop, of Ply mouth colony, and af- 
terwards a second wife, by whom he had all his chil- 
dren who came to mature years. Mr. Stearns gradua- 
ted at Harvard college 1751. By two wives, Sarah 
Abbot, of Andover, and Sarah Ruggles, of Billerica, 
he had 12 children, G of whom were sons. Rev. 
Samuel Stearns, of Bedford, Mass., is one of them. 
Mr. Stearns died 25 July, 1788, aged 56. He pub- 
lished seven occasional sermons. 

Rev. Peter Holt, who graduated at Harvard college 
in 1790, became the successor of Mr. Stearns in Feb- 
ruary, 1793, and was dismissed in 1821. 

Exeter, 2d church. 

The time when the church in the second parish in 
Exeter was organized has not been ascertained. The 
formation of the Parish in 1748, "was attended with 
a violent convulsion, and followed by a series of mu- 
tual injuries and resentments, which greatly interrupt- 
ed the harmony of society, for many years." [See 
Mr. Kelhfs Memoranda in Fanner and Moore- s Col- 
lections, Vol. II. p. 364.] 

Rev. Daniel Rogers, was ordained the minister over 
this society in 1748. He was son of Rev. John 


Rogers, of Ipswich, and grandson of President John 
Rogers, of Cambridge, and was born 28 July, 1707 ; 
graduated at Harvard college 1725, where he was 
tutor nine years, fie died 9 December, 1785, aged 78. 

Rev. Joseph Brown succeeded Mr. Rogers, and was 
ordained in 1792, and dismissed in 1796. He died 
at Deer Isle, in Maine, September, 1819. 

On the 24th December, 1813, the church was re-or- 
ganized, or a new one formed, and in 1817, Rev. Isaac 
Hurd, who graduated at Harvard college in 1806, was 
installed. Mr. Hurd had been previously settled at 
Lynn, Mass. 


The church in this place was gathered 13 Novem- 
ber, 1751. 


1. Rev. James Hobbs, a native of Hampton, who 
graduated at Harvard college 1748, was ordained 13 
November, 1751, died 20 June, 1765, aged 40. His 
widow married his successor. 

2. Rev. Amos Moody, born in Newbury, Mass., 20 
November, 1739, graduated at Harvard college 1759, 
was ordained 20 November, 1765, dismissed by mu- 
rua! agreement in 1792, and died 22 March, 1819, 
aged 79. 

3. R.ev. John Hubbard Church, D. D., a native of 
Rutland, Mass., who graduated at Harvard college in 
1797, was ordained 31 October, 1798. He received 
his Doctorate from Williams college in 1824. He has 
published a considerable number of occasional sermons. 

Portsmouth, 3d church. 

For an account of this church and society, see Rev. 
Timothy Alden's " Account of the Religious Socie- 
ties in Portsmouth." 1 Hist. Coll. X. Rev. Joseph 
Walton, the last minister of the society mentioned by 
Mr. Alden, died in 1822, aged 80. 



The first and only Congregational minister settled 
in this town was Rev. Jonathan Eames, who gradua- 
ted at Harvard College 1752. He was ordained 17 
January, 1759, dismissed in 1791, died at Wentworth 
in 1800. 


The first minister of Sandown was Rev. Josiah 
Cotton, who was settled 28 November, 1759, and re- 
mained in the ministry until his death in 1781. 1 have 
not yet ascertained whether he was the person who 
graduated at Harvard college in 1722, was ordained at 
Providence, 23 October, 1728, and installed at Wo- 
burn, 15 July, 1747, as noted in an interleaved Cata- 
logue of the Graduates of Harvard college. 

Rev. Samuel Collins succeeded Mr. Cotton about 
1780, and was dismissed in 1788. 

Rev. John Webber; a brother of President Webber, 
of Cambridge, succeeded Mr. Collins in 1795, and 
was dismissed in 1800. He graduated at Dartmouth 
college in 1792. 

New Ipswich. 

The church in this town, according to Mr. Kelly, 
was organized 22 October, 1760. 


1. Rev. Stephen Farrar, son of Samuel Farrar, was 
born in Lincoln, Mass., 22 October, 1732, graduated 
at Harvard college 1755, was ordained 22 October, 
1760, died 23 June, 1809, aged 76. 

2. Rev. Richard Hall, who graduated at Middle- 
bury college in 1808, was ordained 12 May, 1812, 
and died on a journey or visit at Newhaven, Vt., 13 
July, 1824. 

3. Rev. Isaac R. Barbour was installed 8 March, 
1826. Sermon by Rev. Mr. Fay, of Charlestown. 



Canterbury. • 

. Rev. Abie! Foster, first minister of Canterbury, was 
born in August, 1735, graduated at Harvard college 
1766, ordained 21 January, 1761, dismissed in 1779, 
was afterwards a Member of Congress, and Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas, and died in February, 
1806, aged 71. 

Rev. Frederick Parker from Shrewsbury, Mass., 
who graduated at Harvard college 1784, was ordained 
in January, 1791, died in April, 1802. 

Rev. William Patrick, who graduated at Williams 
college in 1799, was ordained in October, 1803. 


Rev. John Tucke, son of Rev. John Tucke, of the 
Isles of Shoals, was ordained 23 September, 1761, 
dismissed in 1774. He graduated at Harvard college 
in 1758. After his dismission, he was appointed a 
chaplain in the revolutionary army, and while on his 
way to join it, died of the Small Pox in 1776. 

Rev. Ebenezer Haseltine was born in Methuen, 
Mass., 28 October, 1755, graduated at Dartmouth 
college in 1777, was ordained at Epsom, 21 January, 
1784, died 10 November, 1813, aged 59. 

Rev. Jonathan Curtis was born at Randolph, Mass., 
22 October, 1786, graduated at Dartmouth college, 
1811, ordained at Epsom, 22 February, 1815, dismiss- 
ed in 1824, and was installed in Sharon, Mass. ? in 
October, 1825. 



Dear Savage, 

You taxed me some years ago with having in- 
formed you that manuscript Journals of the Long and 
some other Parliaments existed in New York ; and I 
then " of my own mere motion" became bound to 
examine and report to you the true state of facts re- 
garding them. 

Now, though our "own mere motion" is, in this re- 
public, subject to the scrutiny of our constituents and 
is no " good consideration" in the eye of the law; 
yet strengthened by " other good and sufficient rea- 
sons/ 7 ' such for example, as gratifying a friend, and my 
own curiosity, I felt " firmly bound to you in this be- 
half," and now performing the condition, I crave the 
cancelling of the bond. 

I have several times essayed to perform my promise, 
but from one cause or another every attempt proved 
abortive, till June last. Through the kindness of John 
Delafield Esq., the untiring Librarian of the New York 
Historical Society, to whom that society is under the 
greatest obligations, I then obtained access to the Li- 
brary, and in several days' examination of these MSS. 
was aided by him ; and by his kindness am now ena- 
bled to present you with many of the following ex- 
tracts, and to vouch for their accuracy. . . 

After giving you some idea of the course pursued in 
examining these volumes, I will add a description of 
each, its beginning and end, that you may know, on 
occasion, what periods are contained in the whole ; 
several extracts from each volume, that you may form 
some notion of their contents ; and a description of the 
water marks &c, that you may have a test of the 
faithfulness of my examination and of the correctness 
of my inferences. 

My first object was to ascertain whether these MS. 
volumes were regular journals; or were mere excerpts 


made by one or more members of Parliament for a 
temporary, or limited purpose ; or by some historian, 
to aid him in his labours ; or by the Board of Planta- 
tions, for the use and direction of some one of our pro- 
vincial Governments. 

On this last point, I was soon satisfied by finding 
subjects that could have no manner of bearing on any 
thing this side the Atlantic. And that they were not 
mere extracts, I was as soon assured, by the. formal 
opening and closing of each day and of the business 

That they were genuine Journals besides these con- 
siderations i became entirely satisfied by the prima fa- 
cie appearance of honesty, which, as in metoposcopy y 
iiiough indescribable, is often perfectly convincing; — 
by the court hands, of which you will hereafter per- 
ceive there are several in the volumes; — -by the regu- 
lar and ample " margents," as our Lord Coke calls 
these clerical " oceans ;" — by the use, in the earlier 
volumes particularly, of certain letters, words, and ab- 
breviations, that were common in that day, the ff for I\ 
the peculiar e, s* A, &:c. the use of peticon &c. &c, all 
denoting the gradual subsidence of the old English text 
into the modern running hand. 

Next the water marks of the paper were carefully 
examined, of which you will also find evidence. 

I then made ample extracts from the different vol- 
umes for comparison, at my leisure, with the printed 
extracts from the Journals to be found in authentic 
histories, diaries, and chronicles ; in Coke, May, Dug- 
dale, Vvhitelock, Heath, Rushworth, Baxter, Burton, 
&c. Do not tremble at this display of names: It is 
far from my intention to inundate you with all the 
evidence I have had before me* as I shall rely upon 
the effect of showing to you that I have examined in 

Lastly, (for I will have mercy on you who have, in 
public sacrifices, so little mercy on yourself,) I invited 
a very shrewd, discerning, and well educated English 


gentleman to accompany me in an examination of 
these volumes; and requested the favour that he would 
take notes of several parts with a view to a compari- 
son with the journals in England; if, contrary to the 
belief of several gentlemen, the journals of this period 
were found to exist in that country. 

This gentleman, C. W. Stokes Esq., immediately 
on his return home very kindly bore in mind my re- 
quest, and with no inconsiderable trouble pursued its 
object to a satisfactory result. An extract from his 
letter I here subjoin, relying upon the kindness that 
dictated it, to excuse the liberty 1 am taking in mak- 
ing it public without permission. 

The letter is dated London, 29 Sept. 1829. After 
mentioning several means to which he had resorted io 
accomplish my wishes, he proceeds — -" I have got access 
to the original journals for the period between 1650 
arid 1658: The entire series is unbroken, and there 
is no reason to doubt the authenticity of those which 
are in the journal-office of the House of Commons. 
They are obviously written at the spur of the moment, 
the handwriting being different for various entries on 
the same day, and some parts better written than oth- 
ers, as if from the use of a new pen. The marginal 
references too, which appear as in all the other jour- 
nals at earlier and later periods than from 1650 to 
1658, are in a different handwriting. In order that 
this may be rendered clear, I subjoin an extract made 
from 1650, with as near an imitation as I can make of 
the two modes of writing." 

[The extract, of which a fac simile is given, will be found under date of 9 Oc- 
tober, 1650.] 

" This I extracted from a journal from June 26, 
1650, to August 14, 1651. — The water marks of one 
sheet were something like the following — (the letters 
A r C M reversed are then given) — and of the other 
sheet it was this figure almost six inches lon£." 

[The Zany is here given as on old foolscap, of which a fac simile will be found 
at the end of the article.] 


" Unless my memory deceives me, the handwriting 
and water marks are the same as those in the books 
we examined together at New York, so* that there is 
no doubt that the copies, (for I am convinced they are 
only copies,) were made at about the same time when 
the originals were written. I have made most minute 
inquiries on the subject, and 1 have learned in the 
course of them, that many scores of copies of Jour- 
nals of the House are to be found in libraries in Eng- 
land, it having been formerly the practice, before min- 
utes and proceedings of the House were printed, for 
members to send their servants some every morning 
to take copies. Those in New York then will, we 
may suppose, have been the copies made by one of the 
regicides, who took refuge in America." 

Do you now ask, Why are the volumes peculiarly 
interesting? I answer, No copy of any of the journals 
(though portions of them were printed) is to be found 
on this side the Atlantic; and detached fragments 
only, scattered here and there in rare books, can here 
be got at. These journals contain the pith and mar- 
row of the history of England from a short time after 
the decapitation of Charles I., through the period of 
the republic, protectorate, &c, to the return to a regal 
form of government. This period is most important 
and valuable to us, from its connexion with the history 
of the foundation of our present government in the 
principles, of the republicans of that day; from the 
light it sheds on the tendencies and dangers of repub- 
lics, and the means of subverting them ; and from the 
immense changes effected in favour of rational liberty, 
by alterations in the law of tenures, by requiring all 
laws and legal process to be published in the English 
language, fee. 

The period is highly interesting to us, because in it 
we find the germs of the royal society, which was 
then intended for New England ; the foundation of 
the " Corporation for Propagating the Gospel unto 
the Indians," fostered by Cromwell, by means of which 


great interest in our colony was excjted and kept 
alive, its Indian language preserved to us, and our lit- 
erary men aided and encouraged ; and because our 
fathers were either members of the parliaments, or, 
though living a thousand leagues distant, exercised an 
almost controlling inlluence over their counsels and 
those of the British government. A very curious evi- 
dence of this influence I met with in a noted publica- 
tion of 1660 (after the restoration), from which is the 
following passage ; " and moreover, it is very fit to be 
taken into consideration, how much mischief and sedi- 
tion a press at New England may occasion and dis- 
perse, in this juncture of time, if the licentiousness 
thereof be connived at, and any longer tolerated." 

The debates of the long parliament, and of the par- 
liaments of the protectorate are to be sought only. in 
diaries, k,c. [of which, by the way, Mr. Rutt deserves 
our thanks for preserving Burton's and Goddard's, the 
best of a part of this period,] or in mere scraps in the 
newspapers [Mercurii, &c] of the day, which are now 
rarely met with even in England. As for histories, 
Rapin's caution is, " we have no other historians of 
those times, than the royalists," &c. And so long was 
it fashionable to decry as well the actors as the actions 
of that great and, with deference, most eventful and 
useful drama, that many of the authorities on the repub- 
lican side of the question have disappeared ; and of the 
manuscripts yet existing, though now eagerly sought, 
many have been so closely held by their timid or their 
cavalier possessors, that the keys are lost to the 
short hand or cipher in which they were generally 
written ; whether from the inconvenience of obtaining 
paper, or of the bulk and tedious process of writing 
the old English hand, or from the desire of security in 
those troublous times, or from all of these causes, I shall 
not stop here to inquire : the fact is, however, unques- 

Very many of the manuscripts were without doubt de- 
stroyed (and you will perceive in May 1661 a disposition 


in parliament even to mutilate these journals) by their 
possessors, as evidence that might cause forfeitures of 
estate or of life ; whilst others met a similar fate, be- 
cause illegible, or as waste paper. And time, edax 
rerum, has the while been actively devoured not only 
the events, but their evidences. As for the journals 
under consideration, the soldiers in Jersey, during our 
revolution [we will hope they were Hessians], are 
said to have found something more rapid, though not 
more sure as a destroyer, than time's agents, moth and 
rust, in the use of many of their pages for lighting, 
not their patriotism, but their tobacco-pipes. 

But to proceed. There are many more obvious and 
weighty reasons for placing great value on the vol- 
umes, one only of which I will again allude to; that 
without crossing the Atlantic we cannot elsewhere 
pursue the daily proceedings of the government, during 
this, to an American, most interesting and important 
period, in which as much talent, to say the least, was 
elicited and displayed, as at any time in the history of 
Great Britain. 

You may now feel some curiosity to know in what 
way the New York Historical Society became possess- 
ed of these volumes; and on this head I am not pre- 
pared to gratify your wishes. 

Of their arrival in this country, and of their advent- 
ures during more than a century, in the midst of wars 
and tumults, captures and recaptures, there is a good 
deal of discrepancy in the accounts I have heard. 
Their arrival here has generally been ascribed to some 
one or other of the regicides, as is suggested before in 
the letter from London. But the dates of some of the 
journals are muck later than would justify this hy- 
pothesis : and besides, there is no certainty, nor 
is there a tradition so far as I have learned, that 
the volumes immediately prior to and during the trial 
of the king, accompanied those under examination to 
this country ; yet are they the volumes in which a 
regicide would feel the deepest interest. 


Other sources have been assigned. In giving you 
the following memoranda, 1 will not vouch for my own 
accuracy, since it in part depends upon memory ; much 
less will I pretend to be positive as to my authority. 
With these qualifications and reservations, 1 venture 
to quote John Pintard Esq., a gentleman who, amongst 
the. numerous good deeds of a long life, was formerly 
very efficient as a member of the New York Historical 
Society ; and he is now a corresponding member of 
our own. Mr. Pintard about the year 1810, then being, 
I believe, librarian or secretary of the Society, received 
a part of these volumes from his relative, the late lion. 
Elias Boudinot; a part from Gov. Jay, who received 
them from Gov. Livingston of New Jersey, through 
the late Judge Brockholst Livingston ; a few of them 
were afterwards purchased by Mr. Pintard at auction ; 
and another gentleman, whose name is not known to 
me, discovered and secured the rest to the Society. 

Mr. Pintard also suggested, if my memory is true, 
that Lord Cornbury's widow possessed all the vol- 
umes ; that needing money, she received for them 
£100, more or less, from the lawyers of New York; 
that in this way they came to the hands of Mr. Alex- 
ander or Mr. Chambers ; and thence to Gov. Living- 
ston, &c. 

Whence these last suggestions were derived. I do 
not know ; and I should here make an ample, as I 
hope it would be an acceptable, apology to my friend, 
Mr. Pintard, for introducing his name to you thus un- 
ceremoniously, did I not trust that he will readily 
anticipate my excuse, in my earnest hope that hereby 
he may be provoked to the good work of tracing the 
pedigree of these journals. 

I have felt no inconsiderable interest in this matter 
of the first arrival of these volumes; but feared that 
no further assurance on the subject could probably be 
attained, than uncertain tradition or surmise, except by 
very laborious investigation. The persons are quite 
numerous who might by possibility have brought them 



over ; but in looking at probabilities this number is 
much reduced. I will venture to state the following, 
which, considering the period at which the stamp was 
probably made, will be of great weight with some 
men. Having omitted, when in New York, to examine 
the binding of these volumes, I lately wrote to Mr. 
Delafield to this end ; and in reply he mentioned, that 
as an embellishment upon the back, there was "a 
dove, wings expanded, and a coronet." In return, I 
forthwith wrote him that if his coronet were that of an 
earl, and he could convert his dove &c. to the follow- 
ing: — "on a wreath, an eagle, with wings expanded 
sable, v (which on further examination he has now 
no doubt is the true description,) the following might 
be the course of a part or the whole of these volumes, 

Edward, Viscount Cornbury, and Earl of Clarendon, 
Chancellor and Historian, whose daughter Anne" was 
wife to James II, mayhap had a part of them in 
use ; the whole Be could not have had, as these jour- 
nals end in January 1677, and he died an exile in 
France, on 29 December 1674. Thence they may 
have come to his son and successor, (if he were not 
the original possessor,) Henry, Earl of Clarendon, &c. 
who died 31 October 1709; and thence to his only 
son and heir, Edward, Lord Cornbury (who thus be- 
came Earl of Clarendon), who was appointed Governor 
of New York by his relative King William in 1701, 
and of New York and New Jersey, when the latter 
was surrendered to the government in 1702, by Queen 
Anne. I will remark here, that he died on 31 March 
1723, many years after he had left the government 
of New York ; and hence, as well as from the fact 
that his wife was heir to the Duke of Richmond and 
Lenox, I cannot but doubt the sale of these volumes 
by u his widow," which would make her resident in 
New York so long after his return to England, (his 
successor Lord Lovelace arrived in New York in 
1708,) and also the cause of sale, want. The 


Earl of Bellomont, predecessor to Lord Cornbury, 
died in New York in February 1700-1; whether he 
left a widow in poverty or not, 1 have not been able 
yet to learn. After all, however, the volumes may 
have been brought by Bellomont, though this is not as- 
serted, and the crest I referred to, together with the 
connexion with the prominent affairs of England during 
the period, lead me very strongly to Lord Cornbury, 
and from any other individual. The crest in this case 
is given, to wit, "the eagle with wings expanded ; ? ' 
and the earl's coronet is placed above it, as is not un- 
common, to denote only that the head of the house is 
an earl. 

It is not necessary, however, to believe that all 
these volumes came from the same source ; and you 
will perceive in my notice of the general appearance 
and preservation of the volumes, that there may be 
reason to doubt if one or two of them were originally 
of the same series with the others. 

I come now to the volumes themselves. 

Vol. I. 

It will be borne in mind that Charles I. was beheaded January 
30, 1648-9. 

The 1st volume of the manuscripts begins on the 1st day of 
the year, viz. — " Lunae Die 25 Martij 1650. Prayers. S r Ar- 
thur Hasilrig reports from the Comm ee at Goldsmithes Hall 
touching Compos-sions with delinq ts ." It ends with the record of 
" Martis 25° Junij 1650 pt- meridiem." "Die Veneris 19° 
Aprilij 1650," amongst other amendments to an act for the better 
observation of the Lord's Day is this, " lhat the word Realm be 
putt out and the word Commonwealth be putt instead thereof." 

The water marks in this volume are, — the Royal Anns, viz, 
a shield or escutcheon surmounted by a crown, with a lion and 
unicorn (looking a little like 2 lions) as supporters; a column with 
2 or 3 St. Andrews (Scottish) crosses upon it divides the shield. 
The initials beneath the arms are H C ; on the second leaf of 
the sheet are the letters R M, probably those of the paper maker, 
or possibly monopolist. *' 

With regard to water marks, the principal use in noticing them 


is for c comparison with public papers of about the same period. 
In a few instances, I will here remark, I have done this ; and 
have found my belief in the genuineness of these journals corrob- 
orated thereby. Some fac similes are hereafter given, that 
others may apply the same test. 

How far the plan of having the water marks those of the gov- 
ernment entered the minds of any, save perhaps some paper 
makers, I do not know. In modern times the government has, it 
is said, interfered in this particular, and it is quite certain, that 
some of the best letter paper I have ever seen, was sent out from 
France and sold here at very low prices,, because it had Napoleon 
&c. as a water mark. 

Neither the quantity of paper nor the use for it in the time of the 
Stuarts was as great as in our time ; and it is improbable that any 
serious fears of propagating rebellion by means of its water marks 
were at that period entertained. Hence we find the royal arms run- 
ning into the volumes of the Long Parliament, &c. But the 
paper seems to have been mixed at the stationer's or in the 
journal office, for several sorts are to be found almost in contact 
with each other. With regard to the arms, which I have called 
the arvis of the commonwealth, I ought to remark, that by this ap- 
pellation is intended principally to mark the period used ; and not 
to assert positively, that they were the armorials of the Common- 
wealth. On this last point I entertain great doubt. 

Three days after the decapitation of Charles, in January 
1648-9, parliament altered the style in courts of justice to " custo- 
des libcrtatis Angliee auctoritate parliament'!." 

The arms of the commonwealth in 1650, according to Howell's 
medulla, were " St. George's Cross and the Harp." 

The great seal, according to Mrs. Macauly, had the arms of 
England, and the inscription, " The Great Seal of England ; " 
on the reverse, a portraiture of the House of Commons inscribed, 
" In the First Year of Freedom by God's Blessing Restored, 
1648." January 22, 1651, it was declared by Parliament, trea- 
son to counterfeit the great seal " of the Parliament of the 
Commonwealth,"™" engraven with a cross and an harp, with 
this circumscription, The Seal of the Parliament of the Com- 
monwealth of England." Dugdale. 

In 1654, April, (though Scotland had virtually been united with 
England in 1.651, see 4 Burton,) an act was passed, says Dug- 
dale, " making Scotland one Commonwealth with England," and 
requiring that 4i the arms of Scotland (viz. St. Andrew's Crosb) 
should thenceforth be borne with those of the commonwealth." 
Again, in the account of the burial of Cromwell, " the standard 
of the Lion of England " is mentioned ; but I believe him not to 
have been rampant. 


But to go no further, I am inclined to think, that the lion ram- 
pant &c. may be Cromwell's own arms ; since on the beautiful 
crown-piece issued by him in 105S, I find the reverse as follows : 
in a shield crowned with the imperial crown of England, quarter- 
ly, 1st and 4th, St. George's cross for England; u ind, St. An- 
drew's cross for Scot and ; 3d, the harp for Ireland ; and " in a 
scutcheon of pre ence his (Cromwell's) paternal coat, namely, a 
lion rampant," & . My only doubt arises from the fact that the 
lions in these volumes generally hold in one of their paws 
(" gambs") what appears a thunderbolt, or bundle of arrows or 
twi^s ; and in the other, in some instances, if not in all, a sort of 
short curved sword, cal ed, in heraldry, a falchion. I have not 
been ab e to find Cromwell's arms in Collins, or Kimber, or 
Debrett ; or the question might be settled. In Cromwell's life 
of Cromwell, vol. 1, 307, it is intimated, doubtingly, that Crom- 
well used in his crest a Semi-lion with a ring in the foregamb, 
after he became protector, but before that, the j 
the ring. 

r„^^ that ihf» Javelin inetPafJ nf 

Vol. II. 

The 2nd volume begins " Die Mercurij 26° Junij 1650* 

Resolved, That the doore be shutt. Resolved, That the 
roome without be cleared. Resolved, That all the members of 
Parliament be called out of Westminster Hall. 

The Lord Com is ' Whitelock reports from the councill of state, 
that inpursuance of the order of Parliament of the 9th of April 
last," &c. 

" Die Veneris 28 Junij 1050," inter alia, it was "Resolved, 
that Oliver Cromwell Esq. be constituted Captain Generall and 
Commander in Chief of all the forces raysed and "to be raysed by 
authority of Parliament within the Commonw. of England." It 
was read a 1st and 2nd time, and passed. 

" An act for the better preventing and suppressing of pro- 
phane swearing and curseing, was this day read the third time, 
and upon the question passed and ord d to be forthwith printed 
and published." 

" Mr. Bond reports from the counsell of state that the counsel!" 
finds it necessary upon the Parliaments referring of the letter of 
Mr. George ffisher from Spaine relating the death of Mr. Antho- 
ny Ascham unto the counsell of state, that a letter should be 
written from the Parliament to the King of Spaine to demand 
justice upon the mur'therers," k.* 

* Anthony Ascham was'sent in 1649 by the council of state, agent (minister) 


" Die veneris 27° Septemb. J 650," inter alia, are an " act for 
relief of religious and peaceable people from the rigour of former 
acts of parliament in matters of religion.* 

The h imble petition of W ul Barton, preacher of God's word, 
was this day read. 

Mr. Weaver reports from the committee for suppressing lycen- 
tious and impious practices under pretence of religious liberty 
&lc. the Confession of Lawrence Clarkson, touching tUe making 
and publishing of the impious and blasphemous booke, called the 
Single Eye, and also Major Rainborrovvs Carriage." 

Clarksoii was sent to the house of correction for one month, 
and then banished, and his book was burnt by the common hang- 

This volume ends with "Die Veneris 11° Octob. 1G50, 
when the House, according to former order, adjourned itselfe un- 
til! Tuesday morning next at eight of the clock." 

T ko.-/ - ". aro cpimrol n • *+% !•*»'»>*' T^"-»'or mop 

o the King of Spain, and Charles Vane to Portugal, on board Blake's fleet. 

Dr. Dorislaus had been sent to Holland, and on the first day after his 
arrival at the Hague was murdered in his house by Col. Whiiford, a royalist. 
The Commonwealth threatened to retaliate it upon those of that party in 
their hands; yet Ascham, their agent and envoy to Spain, some time after, 
with his interpreter, Signor Eliba, was served in the same manner, at his arrival 
at Madrid, in his house, by one Sparks and other English merchants upon 
the same account. Heath 

A court of justice was constituted under a vote of April 5, 1650, of which 
Keble, one of the commissioners of the seal, was now made president," Brad- 
shaw being too high to do that journey-work any longer, being president of 
the council of state; it was erected in revenge of Ascham's and Dorislaus's 
death, as a vote and declaration of the states angrily expressed." Heath. 

This high court of justice in revenge of Dorislaus and Ascham, sentenced 
Sir Henry Hyde, "cousin to Sir Edward (Hyde) the lord chancellor with 
the king for taking upon him the quality of an embassador from his majesty 
to the Grand Seignior at Constantinople," <^c. Sir Henry was executed 
June 4, 1650. Merc. Polit. quoted Journal of Earl of Leicester, lu6, says 
" his aime being likewise to seize upon our merchants' goods for the use of 
the king of Scotland." 

Ascham was murdered in June 1650. I have met with a part of the trial of 
those who murdered him in the Harl. Miscell. The murderers, Sparks, Prog- 
ers, &x. escaped to the church and claimed sanctuary. Having got them 
from the church to prison, there was a learned argument to determine, 
whether they having killed the English ambassador or resident and his inter- 
preter, " fraudulently by forecast, with a deliberate mind and proditoriou.s- 
ly," and boasting "to have performed an heroick act," should have the 
benefit of the sanctuary, and this too notwithstanding Ascham and his inter- 
preter bore a safe conduct. The question was partly afeued on the prece- 
dent of Abner slain by Joab, and Solomon's punishment of Joab at the altar. 
After great delays they were condemned, but it was so contrived that 5 of 
the 6 escaped, and the one that was executed, according to Mrs. Macauley, 
(5 Hist, of Eug. 36,) was the only proteslant amongst them, 

* See Oct. 15, 1650. 


similes of two from the journals in New York, and of one from 
the journals in England, are given at the end of this article, lie 
pleased to bear in mind hereafter that the zany's head, and fool's 
cap and bells, when mentioned in the subsequent volumes, refer 
to these two figures indiscriminately. After comparing that of 
the zany from New York with that from England, of about or 
precisely the same date, you will not doubt of their identity ; and 
this circumstance may account for the f;ict that the handwriting 
of the two under this date differs, since two clerks must have been 

The initials, which, let me remark once for all, are not very 
easily deciphered, are, in this volume, according to my memoran- 
da, quite numerous, though possibly I may be wrong in this re- 
spect. Upon the last leaf of each sheet, the marks looked 
like some of the following letters, N B, IP, F B, M N, or 
iM H. With regard to the initials under the zany, those in the 
n.ngi:^ journals, iO^h. sometnmg like i\ w .ti , Mt* x^eiduciu 
thinks they may possibly be these letters ; and I found in my 
memorandum M C or N G put down with diffidence. For 
whom these letters stood I have not thought it important enough 
to ascertain at the cost of much lime. The names of some of the 
distinguished printers of that day on the republican side I will give 
you for your amusement. I pass over the editor, March. 
Nedham, and come to Christ. Barker, John Bill, John Field, 
H. Hills, G. Bishop, R. White, William Du Gard. 

There is also in this volume a water mark, (of Dutch origin ? ) 
which is so indistinct in all cases, as to defy an accurate delinea- 
tion. I will give you a slight description, that you may recognize 
it in the fac simile. It seems to be a solid column, possibly in- 
tended onlv for a frame, in the centre of which is an escutcheon, 
surmounted by a crown, though possibly a vase, upon which are 
the words ..iroies of England ; the base of the shield rests upon 
a square block or plinth, upon which are letters somewhat as in- 
telligible and much resembling these — Foriorin Boven. 

The following is the extract of which a fac simile was sent 
from England. On comparing the handwriting with that of the 
same day in the journal at New York, I found they were not the 
same. The language however was verbatim in each, with one 
exception, which to my mind goes strongly to prove the authen- 
ticity of the New York journals, and that they were written about 
the time of their respective dates ; I refer to the fact, that the 
New York journals have not a marginal reference, whereas the 
journals in England have after the word prayers, in the margin, 
" thanks to Mr. Strong." Now these words and all the marginal 
reference are in the English journals added by a different hand 


from that of the body of the journal, doubtless in the leisure of a 
parliamentary recess. 

"Die Mercurij 9° Octobris 1650. Prayers. Ordered by 
the Parlia mt that the thanks of this House be given unto Mr 
Strong for his greate pnynes taken in his sermon preached yester- 
day at Margaretts West* being, a day sett a p' e for publique 
thank-giveing and that he be desired to print his sermon and that 
he have the like privilege in printing as others in like case have 
usually had and that Colonel! ffielder doe give him the thanks of 
this House accordingly." 

This thanksgiving was for the victory of Dunbar, I believe. 
By the way, I will assure you of the legitimate descent of our 
New England (ere long I hope to say North American) thanks- 
givings, from their puritan prototypes ; witness the following ex- 
tract from a poem of Butler, which, I doubt, even you have not 
read, entitled " Philip Nye's Thanksgiving beard," in which this 
distinguished divine, happening tc be like his puritan brethren, in 
bad odour with friend Hudibras, is sadly quizzed. , He 

11 Could clap up souls in Limbo \vi!h a vote, 
And for their fees discharge, and let them out; 
i Which made some gran-dees bribe him with the place 

0! holding forth upon Thanksgiving-days 
Whither the members two and two abreast 
March'd to take in the spoils of all — the feast." 

Vol. III. 

The third volume begins, " Die Martis 15° Octobris 1650." 
The following is extracted from the doings of "Die Veneris 25° 
Octobris 1650. Resolved, that all the bookes of the lawes be 
putt into English, and that all writts process and returns thereof 
and all patents commissions indictments inquisitions certificates 
judgements and proceedings in courts ol justice within the 
commonwealth of England, shall be in the English tongue onely 
and not in Latine or fTrench or any other language than En- 

* What wmld you say to me if I asked the question, Whether this act and 
that for liberty of conscience were to be traced to a political manage- 
ment for the purposed of union amongst several minor divisions of religious 
sects, with a view to create a political majority against the Presbyterians? 
Yet this idea would not be new, nor unsupported by able and honest heads ol 
that time; as yon will now see. 

" On thp i»th of April 16.51, in order and design* to abolish all Bases of the 
Norman Tyranny (as they were pleased to call iQ now that the English na- 


"Die Mercury 5° fFebruary IG50 it is ordered that the late 
kings armes bejtaken down in all publick places in all cittyes 
burroughes and markett townes throughout the commonwealth of 

ion had obtained their natural freedom, they resolved to manumit the laws, 
and restore them to their original languages ; which they did by this ensuing 
additional act ; and forthwith all or most of the law hooks were turned into 
English (according to the act a little before, fov turning proceedings of law 
into English) and the rest written afterwards in the same tongue ; but so lit- 
tle to the benefit of the peopte, that as good store of game is the country- 
man's sorrow, so the multitude of solicitors and such like, brought a great 
deal of trouble to the commonwealth, not to speak of more injuries by which 
that most honourable profession of the law was profaned and vilified, as being 
a discourse out of my sphere." 

The additional statute follows, committing the examination and approval of 
the translations of the act, writs, <kc. to the Speaker, Commissioners of the 
Great Seal, Lord C.J. of the u Upper Bench," and of the Common Pleas. A 
proviso to this act allows " the certifying beyond seas any case or proceed- 
ings in the court of admiralty," may still " be certified in Latin as formerly." 
Heath, 267. 

" It is not unworthy of observation likewise, that «s tula signal Jisasid to 
the Presbyterians" (the defeat at Dunbar) " did very much raise the spirits of 
the Independent grandees ; so did it incite them to give all possible encour- 
agement to the rest of that party, and. to all other sectaries, of whose help, 
upon occasion, they might stand in need. They therefore first passed an act, 
[27 September 1650], intituled an act for the relief of religious and peaceable 
people from the rigour of former acts of parliament, in matter of religion ; 
amongst which those of primo and 35° Elis. which concern the subjects obe- 
dient repairing to church, were repealed. And shortly after that, another act, 
[22 November,] whereby they directed all proceedings at law, scib, writs, 
pleadings, patents, books of reports, and other law books to be in Eng- 
lish." — Dugdale, 399. — See also Baxter to the same effect. 

Cromwell having, on 3d September 1650, defeated at Dunbar the Scotch 
Covenanters, (Presbyterians) :— " Now was the time of the Independent Eccle- 
siastical government: — for the parliament would no longer halt between two 
opinions. An act was now published for relief of religious and peaceable 
peopie, from the rigour of former acts of parliament, whereby the compul- 
sive authority of presbytery and its appurtenances of lay elders, was quite 
annihilated, and the Separatists and Sectaries were the only church counte- 
nanced then in London ; who, to make themselves more considerable and in 
grateful acknowledgment to the parliament, raised one regiment of horse, and 
another of foot," k.c. making in all three of foot, and two of horse, 8000 
men; the command of whom was given to Harrison. Heath, 275; (whose 
marginal reference is " Liberty of Conscience enacted in England.") 

Notwithstanding this act of toleration, soon after a member of Parliament, 
who had been also one of the king's judges, John Fry, was expelled the 
house, and his book burnt, which was written against the Trinity, but more 
particularly against the divinity of Jesus Christ. Noble, Lives of the Rege- 
cides, says Fry died in 1050. 

I add one further extract for your reflection. 

"The instrument of government," delivered by Cromwell to his parliament 
in July 1653, has the following provisions : — " That the Christian Religion, 
as it is contained by Holy Scripture, should be the public profession of the 
nation ; and that those who are to have the care thereof, should have their 
support from the publick ; so that it be with some other more convenient 
maintenance, and less subject to envy than by tithes. 
That no man should be, by any fine or penalty whatsoever, forced to com- 




England and that the commonwealth arms be sett up in all such 
places' instead thereof," kc. 

This volume ends with " Die Veneris 14° iTebu 1 050," when 
the House adjourned to meet on Tuesday. 

The water marks in this volume are the zany, he. as in vol- 
ume If. 

Vol. IV. 

Volume 4th begins "Tuesday the 3d of June 1651," and 
hence it seems an hiatus exists from 15 February to June od. I 
have not endeavoured to trace the parliament day by day 
in order to ascertain the fact that no adjournment took place 
for a part of this period ; but 1 contented myself with finding 
•one or two references to intermediate days. For example, a vevf 
important law regarding the translating of leeal process into English 
above referred to was passed on the 9th of April 1651. I fear 
an entire volume is here wanting to complete the series ; and I 
will here notice also, that some pages have been torn from the 
close of the volume, which ends Thursday 28th August, 1651. 

One extract from this volume will suffice. " Wednesday the 
27th of August 1 651 ." " Resolved by the Parliament, that ail the 
records, together with the regalia and insignia taken in the castle of 
Sterling in Scotland, be brought into England and placed in the 
tower of London." The castle surrendered on articles to 
Monk, August 14. It contained " the king's royal robes, the cloth 
of state, and all the Scotch records." Heath, 301. 

The water marks are the zany, foolscap, &c. as before in vol- 
ume II. 

I had hoped, in noticing this volume, to have given you the 
proceedings of parliament on the petition of Massachusetts, oc- 
casioned by the prohibition of trade with Virginia. Barbadoes, 
&c. ; but it could not readily be turned to. 

Vol. V. 

Volume 5th begins " Mercurii 16° Junij 1652. Prayers. 
Resolved, that the former committee for the army be continued." 

ply with the said publick profession, otherwise than by persuasions and argu- 

That no man. professing faith in Christ, should be prohibited the exercise of 
his own religion, so that he disturb not any other; but thai neither popery or 
prelacy should be permitted the least favour or license ; and that all laws to 
the contrary should be void.'' Dugdale, 416. 


"Veneris 9° DieJulij 1G52," after a resolution offered for pull- 
ing down cathedrals, it was moved, " that the bells of such cathe- 
drals as the parliament shall think fitt to be pulled downe shall be 
applyed to the public use for makeing ordnance for shipping." 

On " Tuesday the 31st of August 1652: Mr. Lowe reports 
from the counsell of state a coppie of a letter from Richard Ben- 
nett Edmund Carew and Wm. Claibourne dated at Virginia J 4th 
of May 1652 with the copy of the articles agreed on and con- 
cluded at James Cittie in Virginia for the surrendering and settling 
that plantation under the obedience and government of the Com- 
monwealth of England which was this day read." 

These articles of capitulation signed March 12, 1651-2, may 
be found in Burk, he. Instead of Carew however, Burk repeat- 
edly gives the name Curtis. 

" The humble petition from Cecill Lord Baltamore and divers 
adventurers planters and traders into that part of America called 
Maryland adjoining to Virginia was this dav read." 

This volume ends with 17th September 1652. The water 
marks are, throughout the volume, the zany, and the foolscap and 
bells he. as in volume 11. The handwriting of this volume 
changes about August 27, and the new hand finishes the volume. 

Vol. VI. 

Volume 6th begins " Tuesday 2 1st September 1652." — 
"Prayers. Ordered, that it be referred to the committee of the 
navy to consider of the salary allowed," he. 

On the 7th of December 1652, it was "resolved, that Henry 
Stuart third sonne of the late king be removed from the place 
where he now is in the Isle of Wight." — " Ordered, that it be re- 
ferred to the council] of state to send the said Henry Stuart be- 
yond sea to such place and with such accommodations as they 
shall thinke fitt." 

On the 14th of December 1652, " Mr. Speaker by way of re- 
port acquaints the Parliament, that he had received a copie of a 
letter from the ffrench king dated at Paris the 2nd day of De- 
cember 1652 in ffrench with a translation thereof which was this 
day read. The ffrench was superscribed thus, A nos tre chers 
h grands amis les gens du Parliament de la Republique D'an- 

* Card. Mazarine, who had lately returned from exile, notwithstanding the 
exertions of the queen mother, sent Mons. Bourdeaux Neuville who deliver- 
ed^his letters in England, on December 14th "but the superscription not 
being as full and as ample as other princes were, they were returned again 


The letter was not received by the Parliament in consequence 
of the informal address, and the French minister was instructed 
as to the proper style. 

This volume ends with 23 December 1652. The hand- 
writing of the volume changes about December 20th. Water- 
marks are the zany, foolscap, &:c. (as given in volume If,) to 
October 20; then lollovv arms of the commonwealth or of Crom- 
well, a garter encircling a Hon rampant, in whose paw is a bunch 
of arrows ; and for a crest, a crown ; of which you will find a fac 
simile. Letters on the opposite leaf are P B. These water 
marks alternate, at intervals, through the volume. 

The proceedings from 28 October to 3 November are very 

Vol. VII. 

Volume 7th begins with " Fry day 24 December 1652 ; " and 
ends with Tuesday 19th of April 1653. 

Several leaves have been torn from the end of the volume. 
This is particularly unfortunate, as the account of the breaking up 
of the Long Parliament by Cromwell on the 20th is thereby lost. 
The address of a clerk must be very considerable who could 
invent an unobjectionable entry of this catastrophe.* 

December 24th it was " resolved, that no observation shall be 
had of ffive and 20th day of December commonly called Christ- 
mas day nor any solemnity used or exercised upon that day in 
respect thereof." 

The celebration of this day was a great annoyance to the 
Puritans, but more particularly to the republicans. Many at- 
tempts to put it down were made by the government ; yet even in 
1657, a cavalier assembly, under Rev. Dr. Gunning, was broken 
up by the soldiery under an order of Parliament. 

In 1656, in a debate in Parliament, on a bill for its suppression, 
it is said, "you see how the people keep up these superstitious 
observations to your face ; stricter in many places, than they do 
the Lord's Day. . One may pass from the tower to Westmin- 
ster and not a shop open nor a creature stirring." . I quote from 

•unbroken up to the embassador, who having; others by him (as was supposed) 
presented them shortly after; which were wel! received, and an answer 
promised to be with all speed returned." Heath, 332, 

* Since writing this remark, 1 have found, that Mr. Ccobel, the clerk of 
the Long Parliament, felt the dilemma I have suggested, and made the fol- 
lowing laconic entry : — " 20 April 1653. This day, his Excellency the Lord 
General dissolved this Parliament," for which in January 1659-GO, he was 
called to the bar and the entry ordered to be expunged. 2* Burt. 417. 


Burton. Whether this were principally a political measure or the 
effect of religious feeling, heightened by the troubles, you may 

Our Massachusetts legislature hy law in 1G51, as you will re- 
collect, imposed a fine of 5 shillings. upon " whosoever shall he 
found observing any such day as Christmas or the like, either hy 
forbearing labour, feasting, or any other way upon any such 
account," 8cc* 

January 5, 1652-3, "a Proclamation commanding all Jesuits, 
Seminary Priests, and other Romish Priests to depart out of this 
Commonwealth, was this day read." 

This it seems was not then considered as conflicting with the 
:" liberty of Conscience" allowed by the law before referred to; 
but to me it seems more pointed than " George Fox digged out 
of his burrow " by RogerJVVilliams. 

The water marks of this volume are the zany &c., as given 
vc!.2d, tillMarch 15, when the roya! arms appear for a few 
pages ; the^zany then recurs, and the initials H. M. to the end. 

* However grateful it may be to the generous feelings of one's heart to 
commemorate this day, whether as the birth of our Redeemer, or of the 
source of most of our temporal comforts and enjoyments, or both ; we may 
yet admire the political sagacity, which, ascribing as $ cause some useless, 
perhaps pernicious customs and junketings, aimed to remove from the minds 
of the people one of the most important and pleasing of their associations 
with royalty, Christmas and its holydays, interwoven as they were with 
church, parliament, courts of justice, universities, and schools. 

I marvel that some persons have objected to this celebration, on the 
ground of doubt, whether the day (25 December) were the actual one of 
Christ's birth. On this point I have not troubled myself; it is near enough 
for ray purpose. Time is a very subtle and uncertain non-entity to deal with- 
al ; and the difficulty of securing to one's self even a birth-day, if first 
brought within its cognizance any where about 12 at night, must be encoun- 
tered by all who advert to the fact, that, do what we may, time gains upon 
us one day to the leap year. 

I do not recollect to have ever heard of a refusal to honor the birthday of 
Washington, or of our Nation, on the ground that the firing at day-break, 
on the 22d of February and 4lh of .July at Easlport, might, if they could be 
heard at Oregon, break the slumbers of our Yankee brethren on the nights 
of the 21st of February and of the 3d of July. 

Again, serious doubts have been entertained about the true day for cele- 
brating the landing at Plymouth, Strawberry Bank, and Naumkeag; and 
possibly a doubt may be invented regarding that of the first settlement of 
Boston. Yet in the three first cases dinners have been given and eaten, 
Judge Davis, Mr. Haven, and Judge Story have delivered orations, the 
memories of the Puritans kc. have been honored and toasted ; and do you 
doubt that the first settlement of our goodly city will, within the year 1830, 
meet its desert ? 


Vol. VIII. 

Volume eighth begins " Munday, 4th of July, 1G53 " ; and 
ends vyith Wedpesday, 26 October, J 653. 

From the end of this volume a large number of leaves have 
been cut. The Journal should have closed with December 12, 
1653, being the day of the ostensibly voluntary surrender of its 
powers into the hands of Cromwell of his first, or as Baxter says 
it was called, " the Little," or as Coke and others say, " Bare- 
bone's " Parliament; by which four days after, viz. 16 Decem- 
ber, Cromwell from " Lord General " became " Lord Protector," 
under " the Instrument of Government." You may find <an ac- 
count of the grand ceremonies of his Inauguration as Lord Pro- 
tector, as also " the Instrument of Government," in Dugdale, 414. 
The latter provides for a triennial or more frequent Parliament of 
" 400 elected according to an equal distribution": 30 each for 
Scotland and Ireland. 

The entry on the 4th of July, 1653, is as follows : " Severall 
letters haveing issued under the hand and seale of the Lord Generall 
directed unto several! persons in this fforme. Forasmuch as upon 
the dissolution of the late Parliament it became necessary that the 
peace, safety, and good government of this Commonwealth should 
be provided for, in order whereunto divers persons fearing God,* 
and of approved fidelity and honesty are by myself with the ad- 
vice of my Counsell of officers nominated to whom the greate 
charge and trust of soe weighty affaires is to be Committed, and 
haveing good assurance of the love to and courage for God and 
Interest of his Cause and of the good people of this Common- 
wealth — I Oliver Cromwell Captaine Generall and Commander 
injChiefe of all the Armyes and fforces raised and to be raised 
within this Commonwealth doe hereby summon and require you 
— -(beinge one of the said persons nominated) personally to bee 
and appear att the Counsell commonly knowne or called by the 
name of the Counsell Chamber in Whitehall within the cittie of 
"Westminster upon the fourth day of July next ensueing the date 
hereof then and there to take upon you the said trust unto which 
you are hereby called and appointed to serve as a member for 

* In accordance with this suggestion of Cromwell, the Parliament on Thurs- 
day, July 7th, " Resolved, that no person shall be employed or admitted 
into the service of this House, but such as the House shall be first satisfied of 
his real godliness." See 1 Burton's Diary, Introd. i, and Journal of the EaH 
of Leicester, p. 150. 


the County of and hereof you are not to fayle. Given 

under my hand and scale the 6th day of June 1053 : — 

O Cromwell.* 

This day there was a great appearance of those persons to 
whome the letters were directed in the Counsel! Chamber at 
Whitehall where the Lord Generall Cromwell declared unto 
them the grounds and end of calling them and delivered unto 
them an Instrument in Writeing under his hand and seale and 
afterwards left them." 

On the next day, 5th, after prayers, Mr. Rous was called to 
the chair, and Mr. Henry Stoble [Scobel] appointed Clerk. 
A Committee was appointed to request the personal attendance 
of Cromwell, viz. Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, Sir Gilbert Pick- 
ing, Mr. Strickland, Col. Sydenham, Mr, Meyer, Mr. Carew, 
Col. Bennett, Col. Jones. 

Sept. 20, 1653, " Resolved, that there hp an offer of Hamp- 
ton Court to the Lord Generall in exchange for Newhall." 
" That Sr Anth. Ashley Cooper doe tender this offer to the 
Lord General from this House." — (Who reported its acceptance 
on 26 Sept. 1 Burton, xi.) 

On Tuesday, 1 1 October, the Counsell of State reported 
sundry abuses for correction, such as the publishing of sediiious 
pamphlets, and setting forth one in particular, entitled, " A charge 
of High Treason exhibited against Oliver Cromwell Esq. for sev- 
eral! Treasons by him committed." This is also verbatim, in 
1 Burton, xii. 

The water marks in this volume are, zany's head, foolscap, &c. 
as before, in volume 2nd : initials are P B. 

I hert: add a description of this, Barebone's Parliament. 

" These were Anabaptists and Fifth-monarchy-men, Crom- 
well believing them to be the properest instruments to do his 
Journey-work, but was mistaken." He summoned 144, "which 
was 12 fold the number of the Tribes of Israel." " Their prate 
was to make way for Christs monarchy upon Earth, which they 
w r ere sure was at hand, now they w r ere got together : Therefore 
they pronounced Priesthood to be Popery; Paying of Tithes, 
Judaism ; the Laws of England, the remains of the Roman yoke ; 
Schools and Colleges, Heathenish Seminaries of curious and 
vain Learning ; and Nobility and Honour, contrary to the Law 
of jXature and Christianity." This is a pretty fair specimen of 

* I have somewhere found it asserted, that Cromwell effected much with 
the Irish by using only the initial of his christian name, being thereby cou- 
sidered the head of the family, as O Rourke, O'Connel!, Lc. 


the style of historians of that day. It is quoted from 2 Coke's 
Detect. 35. 40. In the same style Heath calls it " an Assembly, 
or Trim-tram." 

Vol. IX. 

Volume 9th begins with the opening of Cromwell's second 
Parliament, " on the third day of September, 1G54 ; being the 
day whereon the Parliament was by write summoned to raeete, 
the same being the Lords Day, divers members mett at the Abby 
Church in Westminster att the sermons there and alter the ser- 
mon in the afternoone about foure of the clocke they came from 
thence to the Parliament House to the number of about three 
hundred, and after a while a Message was brought that his High- 
nesse the Lord Protector was come to the Painted Chamber 
and desired the presence of the Members who thereupon wpnt 
from the House to the Painted Chamber whether being come 
His Highnesse standing bare upon a place erected for that pur- 
pose declared to this effect — That this being the Lords day which 
was not to be taken up in Ceremonys, His Highnesse desired 
them to meet him at the Abby tomorrow at nine of the clock at 
the sermon and from thence to come again unto the Painted 
Chamber where bee would communicate unto them some things 
which he held necessary for the good of the Common wealth 
and soe the Members departinge came again to the House and 
adjourned till to morrow eight of the clock : 

Mr. Gewen standing in his place and by generall consent the 
House pronounceing the adjournement." * 

Ttiis last sentence is verbatim that of the English Journals, 
according to I Burton, xix. 

The following day, Monday, 4 September, 1654, the House 
met the Protector, who " made unto them a large narration 
of the grounds of their being called. " When the members 
had returned to the House, exception was taken by two members 
that the Clerk (Scobel) and Sergeant came into the House be- 
fore they were chosen, whereupon they withdrew ; and presently 
after the Clerk was called in, and Wm. Lenthal, Master of the 
Rolls, sitting in the chair as Speaker, informed him that he had 
been chosen Clerk, and commanded him to come to his place. 

* It is suggested very naturally, that Cromwell's good fortune at Dunbar 
on September 3, 1650, and at Worcester on September 3, 1651, led him to 
fix upon that day for the meeting of this Parliament; but I doubt if he ad- 
verted to the fact, that it would come on Sunday. He died on September 3, 


Coming to the Bar, he asked leave to speak, which being granted, 
he " declared that he did not presume to come into the House 
out of Ambition to that place but because it was his duty to bee 
there and that before the House sate, nor did he seeke that place 
at first, but was called to it (as Mr. Speaker well knew) by a 
command from that chaire when nothinge else could have 
brought him thither— that the Parliament which called him 
did by an Act of Parliament appoint and constitute him Clarke 
of the Parliament during his life and. alsoe granted him a Patent 
under the great seal ; but neverthelesse if his right did not con- 
sist with the service of the House bee should accept of an easy 
dismission and did lay both the Act of Parliament and Patent at 
their iTeete. Whereupon the Speaker againe commanded him 
to come to his place, which he did." 

These facts regarding Mr. Scobell (the Clerk) &c. are al- 
luded to, as in the English Journals, in 1 Burton, xx. 

This volume ends 22 January, i6o4-5, on which day Crom- 
well d ssolved this, his second, Parliament. 

The water marks in the volume are Commonwealth or Crom- 
well's arms, viz. a shield within a double circle with a lion ram- 
pant holding arrows &c. in his paw. The initial is the letter q 
(reversed), transfixed by an arrow. 

Vol. X. 

Volume I Oth begins with " Tuesday the 25th of November 
r656," and ends with "Tuesday 21 Aprill 1657." A volume 
is probably lost between volumes 9 and 10 ; there being no jour- 
nals in the New-York series, from September 17, 1656,* when 
Cromwell's third parliament met, to the above date, 25 Novem- 

On 27 November, 1656. " An Act that the passing of Bills 
shall not determine this present Session of Parliament was this 
day read a third time. Resolved that instead of the word Assent 

in the line of the Bill, the word Consent be inserted and so 

the bill upon the question passed. 

Resolved that the Lord Protector's consent be desired to this 
Bill," &c. 

The House, with the Speaker &c, attended his Highness to- 
day, and presented the bills for his consent, which he gave in 
the words, " Wee doe consent" ; and a very strong' evidence in 
favour of these Journals occurs in this fact, that in the list of Acts, 
the 5th Act is left blank in the Journals at New York ; and I 

* 2 Rapin, 696 ; 1 Burton, Introd. 146. 


find the same blank in the English Journals, as quoted 1 Burton, 

" Fryday the 5th of December 1656, Resolved that on Wed- 
nesday next this House be resolved into a Grand Committee of 
the whole House on the Bill for uniteing Ireland into one Com- 
monwealth with England." I find that a similar bill regarding 
Scotland was under consideration about the same time ; but 
neither passed for some time after. 

On 25 December, 1656 (Christmas day), " A Bill for abol- 
ishing and takeing away of ffcstivall daies commonly called Holy- 
dayes was this day read the first time and upon the question 
ordered to be read the second time tomorrow morning." 

The bill was deferred principally because it was thought to 
take " away the Lords day, for in the Bill # the festival of Easter 
and Pentecost are abolished." 1 Burton, 230. See ante, Vol. 
7, December 24, 1652. 

On Monday, 19 January, 1056-7, "Mr. Secretary made a 
Relation of a wicked Designe to take away the Lord Protectors 
life and to ffire Whitehall and presented the examinations of 
John Ceciil and John Toope upon oath taken before iTiancis 
White and William Jessop Esqrs. two of his Highnesses Justices 
of the Peace for the liberty of Westminster which were read." * 
Oilier relations on the same subject having been made, the House 
appointed Friday 13 February to be a day for " publique thanks- 
giving to God for this discovery and greate deliverance." 

On Saturday, January 31, the day was altered to February 

On Wednesday, the 18th, the Protector, by the Speaker, in- 
vited the House to dine with him in the Banqueting House, 
Whitehall, on Thanksgiving day, the 20th. 

Through March and April the time of the House was princi- 
pally occupied in preparing "The Humble Petition and Advice." 
On the 25 March it was resolved, by a vote of 123 yeas " who 
went forth," to 62 " noes," to introduce the following clause, 
" That your Highnesse will be pleassd to assume the Name 

* This passage is verbatim in 1 Burton, 256, preceded by these words; 
"Mr. Secretary's report thus entered in the Clerk's book." Some of the 
particulars of this affair may be found in the s;nne volume. 

Sir Gilbert Pickering objected to its being " deferred so long, for we give 
way for anoUier plot before the appointed day come." Id. 353. 

" Mr. Church moved that Mr. Meade might preach for one, and that 
charity might be better observed than when die fast was last kept in the 
House. Nothing was sftven at the door to the poor." Id. 351), 360. 

In 1640; members disturbing the House paid 1 shilling, one half for the 
poor. In 1643, members coming in after 9 o'clock paid I shilling to toe 
poor. On fast-day, January 27th, 1657, Parliament voted and made a col- 
lection for the poor. 2 Burton* 373. 


Style Title Dignity and Office of King of England Scotland and 
li eland and the respective dominions and Territoryes thereunto 
belonginge and to exercise the same accordinge to the lawes of 
these nations." The words are identical with those quoted in 
1 Burton, 393. Cromwell had been petitioned by some coun- 
ties to become king as early as 1 6*55. 

This celebrated paper was brought into Parliament by Sir 
Christ. Pack, Feb. 23d, with the title of "The Humble Address 
and Remonstrance" &c, and on the 20 March, P. M., Lord 
Chief Justice Glyn reported in the place of the words " Address 
and Remonstrance," be inserted " Petition and Advice." 

You will smile at the following motion of Lord Commissioner 
Lisle, who reported a clause to be added on 23 March, 1657, ' 
" that none may be suffered or permitted, by opprobrious words 
or writing, maliciously or contemptuously to revile or reproach 
the Confession of Faith, to be agreed upon by His Highness." 
(p. 393.) The whole instrument may oe found in Whitelock. 

On the 29 March a large Committee was appointed to acquaint 
his Highnesse that the House desired to attend him on business 
of importance. He appointed Tuesday the 3 1st, and then re- 
ceived " the Petition and Advice." April 3d he addressed a 
letter to the House, and a Committee was in consequence ap- 
pointed to wait on him. On Saturday, April 4th, the House 
voted to adhere to their Petition and Advice. On April 7th, 
the House appointed a Committee of 51 members to urge their 
reasons on the Protector. By Cromwell's appointment, he met 
thern the next day, and delivered an Address. On the 9th of 
April, a Committee of 99 was appointed to listen to Crom- 
well's doubts, who had several conferences with him ; till Tues- 
day, 21 April, 1657 (the last day in this volume), Lord White- 
locke reported that his " Highnesse was yesterday pleased to 
speake something to what had been offerd formerly and had a 
paper wherein hee said were contairid some other things which 
he had to offer to the Comm tee &lc." and begged further time, 
which was granted. 

This is nearly verbatim with 2 Burton, 7. 

The water mark in this volume is the lion rampant with arrows 
&c, and no other ; being the same that I have called Common- 
wealth or Cromwell's arms. 

Vol. XI. 

Volume 11th begins " Wednesday 22 of Aprill 1657," and 
ends with "Munday 15 June post meridiem." 

On 23 April the Protector's doubts of accepting the Crown 


were read; and on Tuesday, 12 May, " Mr. Speaker according 
to former order Reports his Highnessc speech on Arid ay last to 
the House at Whitehall upon the Humble Petition and Advice 
presented unto him by the Parliament " ; which is recorded at 
length, and in which he declines to accept the title of King. The 
style and title having, on 22 May, been altered, from King to 
Protector, the House met the Protector on Monday, the 25 May, 
and he then consented to act under the Petition and Advice. 
His speech, after having thus consented, is reported by the 
Speaker to the House on Tuesday, 26 May, 1057. 

These facts agree with Burton,- Ludlow, &c. 

The water marks in this volume are Commonwealth or Crom- 
well's arms, as heretofore described, viz. the lion rampant, with 
arrows &:c. In this volume and the next, the falchion or small 
crooked sword, in one of the lion's paws, is quite obvious. There 
appears to be something upon the lion's head ; I dare not call it 

„ „..^„-„ TUn ^:^m^, r,f tUa pvforlnr -"--, - c the disk re qhruit 

2~ inches. See fac simile, at the end. 

From June 8th to the end of the volume the water marks 
change, and though very indistinct, appear to be the royal arms, 
somewhat differing from any others in these volumes ; but the 
marks are so indistinct, as not to admit of being traced. 

Several pages are torn from the end of this volume. 

Vol. XII. 

The 1 2th volume begins Tuesday, 16 June, 1657, and ends 
with " Jovis 4° die February 1657." 

The early part of the volume relates principally to the excise, 
&lc. On 23 June a Committee was appointed to draft an oath 
to be taken by the Lord Protector. The form was reported to 
the House on the 24th, by the Lord Chief Justice (Glynn), 
which after being amended was adopted. * 

On 25 June the house ordered, that " there be a purple 
robe Lyned with Errhyne — a Bible — a Sceptre, and a Sword 
provided for the investment of the Lord Protector." * 

Amongst the last resolves was one for publishing Henry Scobell's 
Acts fcc. of the Parliament, begun in 1 640. Another for reviv- 
ing the readings in the Inns of Courts, fcc. 2 Burton, 343. 

* In debate on the day previous (according to 2 Burton, 303), Mr. Lister 
says, " His Highness has a sword already. I would have him presented with 
a robe. Some understood it a rope, and it caused allum risum. He said 
he spoke as plain as lie could, a robe." 


On "ffryday," 26 June, the House adjourned to 20 Jan. 1657-8,* 
on which day it met and elected John Smith (or Smythe), Esq., to 
be Clerk of the House. No list of members of the House is given 
in the Journals, but the commissioners and officers arc named. 
With the new Clerk, the Latin dates are resumed, this meeting 
beginning " Mercurij 20° January 1657." On " Jovis 21° Die 
January," the Speaker reports the Protector's opening speech, in 
which allusion is made to " puritans of the nation," " who were 
forced to fiy for Holland, New-England, and almost any whither, 
to find liberty for their consciences." 

The following order was passed on " Veneris 22° January," 
"That Mr. Shobell (Scobell) be sent unto to deliver the Joumall 
Books, Records and Writings that belong to this House, to Mr. 
Smith the Clerke of this House and that he be required to de- 
liver them unto him accordingly, and that they be disposed of in 
the roome over this house." 

The Lord Commissioner ffines' (or Fiennes') speech to the 
Two Houses f (the new Lords' House being now created) as 
Mr. Delafleld remarks, is very singular, comparing them " to 
Leah and Rachel." It occupies 59 pages of the Journals, in 
one continued strain of allegory. J 

Henry Scobell, the old Clerk, refused to deliver the Journals 
to the new Clerk (Smith), on the ground mentioned before (see 
ante, September 4, 1654), that he had been appointed for life. 
On 26 January, 1657-8, a Committee was appointed to make 
an inventory of the Journals and papers in Scobell's possession, 
and to examine the Journals and see that the orders and pro- 
ceedings of the House are truly entered, &c. 

The water marks in this volume are precisely those of vol. 11. 

Did you recollect that there was a proposition in Parliament 
for an Assembly of Divines in 165S ? In a debate on this point, 
January 21, Major Beake says : " The gentleman that spoke last, 
said, that morality was as religious as divinity. If he mean that 
morality, in its kind, is as good, I shall agree : otherwise, it is 
somewhat heterodox." 2 Burton, 333. 


* The day of the grand ceremony of inaugurating Cromwell as Lord Pro- 
ctor. 2 Rapin, 597. 

f This title "House of Lords," though Cromwell in his speech addressed 
" My Lords and Gentlemen, ,: yet did not please some members. On January 
22d, Mr. Harvey says, We cannot allow of a message from such an authority 
as a House of Lords. I am one of the pose naii. 1 raid three rubs upon 
me why I cannot consent to call them by that title; i. The Engagement; 
2. The oath lately taken ; 3. The Act of . Fnr liament to abolish them. The 
2d article of the Humble Petition and Advice provides, that a Parliament of 
two Houses should be called every year. 

X Mr. Rutt, in his note to Burton, notices this singular performance of a 
distinguished lawyer. 


I will here add a few passages from other sources to connect 
the present with the following volume. 

On the 4 February, 1657-S, Cromwell dissolved the Parlia- 
ment in the midst of debate about the appellation of the other 
House, viz. the House of Lords. Jn his speech he accuses them 
of making the petition and advice ; and creating him Lord Pro- 
tector who " never sought it ; " and then abandoning both it and 
him ; and he even charges some of its members with enlisting 
soldiers for an insurrection in favour of Charles Stuart. He 
closed by saying, " I think it high time that an end be put unto 
your sitting, and I do dissolve this Parliament : and let God 
judge between me and you," — " at which," adds Mr. Rutt, 
" many of the Commons cried, Amen." 

This speech is in 2 Rapin. 598, and also in Burton. 

No Parliament was held from the above date till 27 January, 
1653-9. v 

On the 3d of. September, 1658, " a day consecrated by the 
trophies of Dunbar and Worcester to Cromwell's military fame, 
his thoughts perished, his mighty purposes were broken off." 
Mr. Rutt says, " the tolerant spirit of the Protector's government, 
on every question unconnected with civil authority, and this uni- 
formly discovered, amidst the evil examples of an intolerant age, 
may seem almost to atone for the wrongs of his usurpation." 
Many on this side the Atlantic might be quite willing to change 
this " almost " to altogether. See 2 Burton, 279. 

One of the most interesting and most impartial accounts of 
Cromwell, of his motives, he. is, after all, to be found in 
Maidston's letter to my ancestor, Governor Winthrop, in March, 
1659-60 ; a copy from the original of which, you recollect, we 
inserted in the last volume of the Collections, correcting some 
mistakes made by Birch in transcribing from the same original 
for the Thurloe State Papers. 

The grand ceremonial of his burial is contained in the Appen- 
dix, to 2 Burton. Cromwell was buried in efligy. In the list of 
those who attended his funeral, 1 observe " Mr. John Milton, 
Mr. John Hampden, and Mr. Francis Bacon." 

Vol. XIII. 

Volume 1 3th begins with Thursday, 27 January, 165S-9, 
being the day on which Richard had summoned his first parlia- 
ment to meet [2 Rapin, 603] ; and ends with Friday, 22 April, 
1659, on which day the Parliament was dissolved by Proclama- 
tion of Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector. 


Coke, after saying that " This and 'father house met, when 
this House fell at variance with hother House, by what right they 
sat there," mentions [2 Detection, 73] the dissolution thus, " that 
upon the 22 April they [the Republican officers] beset White- 
hall, and sent Desborough and Fleetwood to beseech him [Rich- 
ard] to dissolve the Parliament ; and if 'twere not speedily done, 
they would set fire to the House, and kill all who should resist ; 
which so frightened Richard, that he forthwith signs a Procla- 
mation for dissolving the Parliament ; " and to his own power 

On die 14 February, 165S-9, according to our Journals, the 
Act of Recognition having been under consideration during the 
day, it was at length " Resolved that it be part of this Bill to 
recognise and declare his Highness Richard Lord Protector, to 
be the Lord Protector and Chiefe Magistrate," he. he. This 
passage is verbatim, in 3 Burton, 2S7. Heath mistakes, 1 be- 

the language of the Resolve : Was its singularity occasioned by 
the disputes, whether Oliver should be allowed to transmit his 
powers either by descent, or by nomination of a successor ? 

In the month of April the jealousy between the two .Houses 
becomes very obvious in these Journals. The Commons, says 
Heath, 414, " resolved not to own them in the other House as 
Lords, but called them, The persons now sitting in the other 
House of Parliament ; neither would they treat and confer with 
them in the usual way as with the House of Peers, and therefore 
found out the new word of Transacting." 

On " Friday the 15 April! 1659," the House was informed of 
the death of Mr. Chaloner Chute, who at the first meeting of 
Parliament had been chosen Speaker. Heath says he died " in 
the heat of business," " a man fit in every respect for the Chair." 
Whitelock gives the same character. The House appointed Mr. 
Thomas Bampfield to succeed him ; in which Burton agrees. 

On the 16 April, 1659, the Quakers presented a petition, 
to which the House replied with a rebuke, requiring them to 
resort forthwith to their habitations, and apply themselves to their 
callings, " and submit themselves, adds Burton, iv. 445, to the laws 
of the nation, and the magistracy they live under." The parties 
presenting the petition were ordered, say our Journals, to take 
off their hats before they entered the House. 

* The principal causes assigned for his losing the latter (though I incline 
to attribute it to many others united), was, that he appointed cavaliers in- 
stead pi roundheads to office ; and was so irreligious as to avow, he would 
trust " Dick Ingolsby, who could neither preach nor pray." 


Some of the Quakers of that period, whether from opposition 
or other cause, seem to have differed entirely from our modern 
Friends, whose peaceful habits are proverbial. There can be 
little doubt, from the best authorities, Baxter, Whitelock, he. &c, 
that the Quakers of that day deliberately disturbed the congre- 
gations in their worship. A Quaker was arrested at the door 
of the House of Commons, three or four years before this time, 
for using his sword too freely. In New-England there was an 
important reason for severity against Quakers, that did not exist 
in England. I refer to the absolute necessity ol every man, and 
even woman, being compelled to do a share in the protection of the 
country against the Indians. I would not willingly have exposed 
(without some check) a descendant of " Maj. Savage " to the 
temptation of becoming a Quaker, or lugging a heavy musket 
of that day near one of our outposts, as a regular minute man. 

The water marks in this volume are like those in the last, viz. 
n double circle, enclosing as escutcheon with the lion rampant) 
with arrows in his lower, and a drawn sword or falchion in his 
upper paw, as before described. 

And here, dear Savage, [ part with my friend Burton, with 
whom, though 1 have not always agreed, yet have I never once 
disagreed in our not unfrequent meetings sjnee July 1653, as a 
comparison with these extracts from our Journals will betoken. 
Like the old year we are putting off, he is to be laid upon the 
shelf, and another new friend greeted, because more useful. 

Vol. XIV. 

The next volume of the New York Journals, which I will call 
the 14th, does not begin till Tuesday, 10 July, 1660 ; it ends 
with Thursday, 13 September, 1660. Many leaves have been 
also cut from the end of this volume. A volume must be here 
missing in the series, and probably from folio o02 to folio 481 of 
another volume. The period gone between vols. 13 and 14 is 
a year and a quarter, from April 22, 1659, to July 10, 1660. 

" Oliver Cromwell's death was followed by so many alterations 
in the Government/' says Rapin, " that the interval between that 
and the Restoration, may be justly called a time of true Anarchy." 
Of this, though in volume 13th I have given some evidence, I 
shall considerately attempt neither description nor analysis ; and, 
before noticing the contents of this 14th volume of the Journal, 
shall cast a glance only at a few prominent events, showing the 
Journals missing ; and this I do, that, by my means, they may 
not be bootlessly sought in this series. 


The members of the Long Parliament, with some exceptions, 
met, by invitation of the council of officers, May 7, 1659, to the 
number of 42; being only half the number of the House in 
1643, when the Presbyterians were expelled: "Hence they 
were called in derision the Rump-Parliament, in allusion to a 
fowl all devoured but the Rump." This Parliament was inter- 
rupted by the army on 13 Oct. 1659. The " Juncto-rhen or 
Rumpers " were permitted to reassemble on 26 December ; and 
Parliament existed till it dissolved itself on 16 March, 1659-60. 
A new Parliament of two houses assembled on 25 April, 1660, 
and continued to sit till prorogued on the 13th September (on 
which this 14th volume ends), to November 6, 1660. Of the 
Journals of this long and very interesting period, the portion 
from July 10 to September 13, is all that remains in our series. 

From this review of the sessions, it appears that the Journals 
wanting arp those of the amusing and distracted courses pursued 
uy jl until cue ■ i\.narcijy , uuu uiFQugn LiiouK. s con*? 
founding (and qu. confounded) duplicity (which won for him the 
title, amongst others, of " Baron Potherigc, his own patrimony ") 
to the restoration in May, 1660; and thence onward through a 
part of the sickening effeminacy and fawning flattery to the king 
(partially, let us hope, the natural effect of the subsidence of the 
storm), whose character was such, as that an intelligent friend 
in compliment should say of him, " that he was no Atheist," 
who governed himself by the dogma, " that there was neither 
sincerity nor chastity in the world out of principle." Periods of 
this kind are, after all, revolting to one's feelings. Hundreds of 
Doddingtons are ready with each a palinodia (to which Cicero 
gives the epithet subturpicula, which permit me to render thoro'- 
base) ; few, however, leave a diary to condemn them ; and still 
fewer excuse themselves by an aim as lofty. 

On 20 July, 1660, the House of Lords (which, after having 
been " useless" for 10 years, had been restored on 25 April of 
this year) by message requested the Commons " to send the In- 
strument under the hands and seals of those persons who gave 
Judgement against the King, and other evidences touching that 
matter:" the}* were carried, add the Journals, by Mr. Hollis. 

On 4 August, 1660, a bill for reducing the rate of interest to 
6 per cent, was read the first time. 

August was occupied in settling the " Act of Oblivion " or In- 
demnity, and the confirmation of laws and liberties. Many and 
long conferences took place regarding the Act of Oblivion, as 
appears by the Journals. Rapin (ii. 620) corroborates the above 
doings in August. 



On Saturday, IS August, the House ordered, " that the clerke 
of the House doe safely keepe in his own Custody the warrant 
for execuc-on of the late King, and that he doe not deliver the 
same out of his hands to any person whatsoever," 

On Saturday, 25 August, 1660, a long conference between 
the Houses is entered at length, in which, they seemed to agree 
as to the attainder of Cromwell, Bradshaw, Ircton, Pride, kc. 
(who were dead) ; hut differed as to Axtell, Vane, Lambert. 
and Haselrigg. On this day the Sergeant at Arms was ordered 
to deliver to the Lieutenant of the Tower " soe many of the 
Judges of the late Kings Majestic as being committed to his 
custody, he can this afternoon come by, and the rest on Wed- 

All the rest of the Journal of this day and so forth to the 26th 
August, being from folio 809 to 816 inclusive, has been cut out 
by a sharp instrument. 

With the close of this volume, 13 September, i660, the House 
adjourned themselves for a recess, to 6 November. 

The water marks in this volume are the royal arms of England 
on a shield, supported by the lion and unicorn, looking like two 
lions, and surmounted by a crown Sic, as heretofore. 

Vol. XV. 

I am inclined to think a whole volume is here gone between 
vols. 14 and 15. From the close of the former you perceive an 
adjournment took place to 6 November ; on which day Parlia- 
ment came together, nor was it dissolved till 29 December ; the 
king in his speech then saying (what we may not gainsay), " that 
this Parliament should be called to all posterity. The Healing and 
the Blessed Parliament ." This 15th volume begins with the 
new "Pensionary Parliament," 8 May, 1661. 

In this period, as for a long time afterwards, alarms and insur- 
rections were common. " Clarendon, whose views were nar- 
rowed,''' says Dalrymple (I. 26) " by his profession, and whose 
mind was weakened by his fears, spread rumours of plots and 
insurrections incessantly in Parliament and in the nation ; thus 
throwing a gloom over the Commonweal, through excess of 
attention to its welfare, and keeping the memory of divisions 
alive, which should have been heard of only in their effects. Even 
from the silence of party, he derived proofs of sedition : Novum 
sedition's genus (said he, from Livy.) siientiura otiumque inter 
cives." Hence "all the gaols in the kingdom were filled." 
•■ Mofis were swelled into insurrections." Amongst the tenants ol 


the former, and the leaders of the latter, you recollect, was 
"Venner, a New England cooper, at the head of a rabble. I 
should have called them" (continues Archbishop Parker, p. 11) 
" new monsters of fanaticism, had not Africa formerly brought 
froth its Circnmcellions, and Germany m the last age swarmed with 
Anabaptists." Venner had been concerned in an insurrection in 
1657, which you also recollect is mentioned in our last volumo 
in Hooke's letter. On this occasion his insurrection with the 
Fifth-Monarchists and Anabaptists, in January 1601, pro- 
duced the mischievous act for the suppression " of all conventi- 
cles ; " and the attention cf Parliament was also called to it by 
the speech of Clarendon : yet in corroboration of the above re- 
mark from Dalrymple, Archbishop Parker speaks of " Vernier's 
madness " with " a rabble of 40 enthusiasts, which arose and 
expired almost the same day within the city of London." 

But let us return to our Journals: — The 15th volume begins 
thus: a Parliamentmn ineeptiim eftentym annd Oivitatem West 
Monaster die Mercurij octavo scil* die Maij Anno Regni D — ni 
N — ri Caroli Secundi dei Gratia Anglia? Scotia? ffrancire et 
Hibernia3 Regis iiidei defensoris et Decimotertio Annoque D — ni : 
166J." The volume ends " Martis 30 die Julij, 166 J." 

After prayers, on S May, 1661, and the form of qualifying 
members <Scc, the king's speech is given in full, including his 
desire to have a wife, and his determination to marry the daugh- 
ter of Portugal'. The king alludes to the " many overtures that 
had been made to him." The Lord Chancellor's long speech 
follows, giving a view of the past and present, and an inkling of 
the future. The Speaker's address and the Chancellor's reply 
are also inserted at length. 

On "Martis 14 Die Maij 1661," a Committee was appointed 
to " looke into all the Journalls of the Long Parliament since his 
late Majestic departed from London till the dissolution thereof, 
and make report of what they shall thinke fitt to be expunged 
thereout as treasonable and scandalous to his Majestie and to his 
Royal father of blessed Memory." " That they likewise search 
in the severall Courts of Justice whether the Traitorous writing 
called the Instrument of Government be there remaining, and 
that they report how they find the same." 

" The Engagement," according to Heath, had been ordered 
to be expunged from the Journals in March, 1659-60. And 
Rapin says, every thing inconsistent with government by King, 
Lords, and Commons, was ordered to be expunged the Journals 
early in 1660. 

On " Sabb {i 22° Junij 1661," the Speaker received a letter 
from the king, addressed " To our trusty and well beloved S r 


Edward Turner— Charles Rex." This contained a severe re- 
buke for the tardy fulfilment of his desires regarding the pass. 
of the Act of Indemnity. The bill was passed immediately after 
the letter was read ; and the House returned humble thanks for 
his majesty's " gracious letter." 

A part of this letter I find in 1 Chandler, 38. Rapin has, 
I believe, mistaken in giving this date the 2d instead of the 22d 
of June ; the day of the week, by comparison, is conclusive 
against him. 

On 29 June, according to the New York Journals, the warden 
of the fflete prison and the Sergeant at Arms were ordered to 
bring to the bar, on the Monday following-, Lord Monson, Sir 
Henry Mildrnay, and Robert Wallop, three of his late Majesty's 
pretended judges. A bill was ordered to deprive them of their 
honours and titles ; and that they be drawn from the Tower of 
London upon sledges and hurdles through the streets or highway, 
to and under the gallowes and Tihurnp with ropp<= about their 
neckes and from thence to be conveyed backe to the Tower 
there to remaine prisoners during their lives. Sir James Har- 
rington (of the Oceana) is also mentioned in the order. It was 
further ordered, that the same bill should contain a clause for 
the execution of the 19 traitors in the Tower convicted and con- 
demned. Harrington and John Phelps (one of the clerks of the, 
High Court) are ordered to be arrested. The Attorney General 
was ordered to proceed at law against Sir Henry Vane and John 
Lambert, and to prepare the evidence against Sir Arthur Hasel- 
rigg, k,c. kc. 

It is rather odd that Pepys (vol. i. 130) makes the execution 
of this order to have taken place on 27 January, 16G1, "this 
being the day of their sentencing the king ; " whilst Chandler 
(i. 42) and others agree in 30 January. 

There is an Alphabetical Index of Matters in this volume at 
the close of Veneris 21 Junij ; and a similar Index of the re- 
mainder of the volume at the end. 

The water mark, of which a fac simile is hereafter given, is 
the royal arms in an escutcheon, surmounted by the crown, and 
supported by the lion and unicorn (or two lions) ; a column passes 
through the centre of the shield, with three crosses of St. Andrew 
upon it, to support the crown. 

" Lunce 20 Die Maij 1G61." The letter from the (estates of) 
Parliament in Scotland, addressed to his " most sacred and ex- 
cellent Majestie " is entered in full. 

On 27 Maij it was Resolved, nemine contradicente, "that the 
traitorous cursed writeing in parchment called an Act of the 
Commons assembled in Parliament for the erecting an high Court 


of Justice for trying and judging Charles Stuart be burned on 
Tuesday morning, being the 28 of May instant, in Westminster 
hall by the hands of the common hangman," &e. &c. ; the fol- 
lowing instruments to be burned at the same time : 

Act constituting the people of England to be a Commonwealth. 

Act for subscribing the Engament. 

Act for renouncing and disannulling the Pretender's title of 
Charles Stuart. 

Act for securing of his highnesse the Lord Protector's person, 
&c, &:c. 

So the Journals. Rapin (ii. 626) makes this to have taken 
place on the 23d; but Noble (xliii) and. Chandler (1 Hist, of 
House of Commons, 38) agree in 28 May.- 

I cannot well refrain from giving the following text and com- 
ment, without adding either the one or the other from rny own 

"The House fsavs ' Ghand, Wic<- n'£ Comrnonq ^7 Qg\ 
first ordered all their members to take the Sacrament according 
to the prescribed Liturgy, on pain of Expulsion ; and then, in 
conjunction with the Lords, on 20th of May (1661) ordered 
that the Instrument of writing that had caused so much mischief, 
called The Solemn League and Covenant, should be burnt by 
the hand of the common hangman," &c. 

Vol. XVI. 

I come now to the last volume of the MS. Journals, which 
will be called the 16th, for convenience of reference ; though the 
interval between it and volume 15th is nearly sixteen years, the 
former ending in 1661, and this beginning in 1676-7. This 
period is much too long to admit of a glance at the principal 
occurrences, and thus to connect the volumes. Two passages 
from Dr. Welwood may serve to characterise these occurrences. 
Of Charles II. the Dr. says, " No age produced a greater mas- 
ter in the art of dissimulation ; and yet no man was less upon 
his guard, or sooner deceived in the sincerity of others. If he 
had any one fixed maxim of government, it was to play one party 
against another, to be thereby more master of both ; and no 
Prince ever understood better how to shift hands upon every 
change of the scene." And again, " The rest of that reign was 
one continued invasion upon the rights of the people, and the 
nation seemed unwilling now to contend for them any more." 
After giving you these extracts, I do not hesitate, without more 
ado, to pass this long interstice at a single stride, leaving un- 


noticed every thing of temporary as well as permanent, import- 
ance, nor even stopping to review the bold and successful resist- 
ance of New-England to the attempt of Charles II. to impose 
taxes; nor to examine what Time, the great revealer of seerets, 
has developed, the dark intrigues of a single "Cabal," whether 
here or in England. 

, The period embraced in this 16th volume is in the midst of 
the Parliamentary histories, which render the facts it contains quite 
accessible ; nor is any very strong motive evident, that should 
induce Chandler, Timberland, &:c. to give these facts a false 
colouring. Hence, though a republican, (you will not admit the 
epithet Laconic !) I shall bestride the period of this volume, as 
I just now did the great chasm, altogether Cavalierly. 

The 16th Volume, then, begins with a part of the proceedings 
of 15 February, 1676-7, being the day on which opened the 
16th session of the second Parliament of Charles II., the first 
session of which, we have already seen, began on S May, 1661. 
The volume ends with '* Martis 15 die January 1677-8;" on 
which day, according to Chandler, Parliament met by summons, 
but the House was again adjourned by the king to the 2Sth of 
the same month. 

The first four pages have been torn from the volume. 

The Parliament, as appears from Chandler and Coke, were* 
prorogued November, 1675, nearly fifteen months before, in con- 
sequence of a " broil 3 ' between the House of Commons and the 
Lords, arising out of an appeal from the Court of Chancery to 
the latter against one Fagg, then a member of the House of Com- 
mons, the House having voted, that it was a breach of privi- 
lege, Sec. Yet, according to these Journals, on 23 February, 
1676-7, there was under consideration a report of a Committee 
on the Court of Chancery, as being grievous to the subject. 

On 10 Martij, there is entered in the Journals the address of 
the House to the king, representing the dangerous power of 
France, and the fears of the people arising therefrom. ... And I 
find a part of this address accordingly in Chandler. 

The long prorogation from 1675 to 1676-7 produced, as you 
may recollect, the commitment by the House of Lords of Buck- 
ingham, Shaftesbury, Salisbury, and Wharton for contempt of the 
authority of Parliament, the first of them haying contended, that 
the Act of 36 Ed. III. providing for an annual Parliament having 
been violated, the Parliament was dissolved. 

Between the date of the beginning and that of the end of this 
16th volume, Parliament was repeatedly adjourned. 

On J 6 April, 1677, it was adjourned to 21 May ; on the 28 
May to 16 July, but without meeting, was prorogued to 3 Decern- 


her, and thence, also without meeting, to April, 1678, but the 
king called them together on 15 January, 1G77-3, and then ad- 
journed the House, as we have seen, to 28 January. The 
adjournment on 28 May is remarkable ; the Speaker having 
" affirmed that, after the king's pleasure was signified for an ad- 
journment, there was no liberty of speech ; " ;< without any ques- 
tion put, of his own motion, pronounced the House adjourned." 

The water marks in this volume are various ; the zany, the 
royal arms, &£., with, in some cases, the initials H C, and in 
others 1 D. The latter part of the volume has a rose or " double 
quartre Foil," as a water mark. 

A description of the general appearance of these 
volumes may enable von to form a judgment of their 
authenticity, and perhaps of their origin. 

The whole number of them, as you have seen, is 
sixteen. They are, according to Mr. Delafield, hound 
with very thick pasteboard, covered with sheepskin, 
now of dark brown, with black spots. Between the 
five ribs of the back are the embellishments and crest,' 
though these are not upon all the volumes. Time 
has destroyed the gilding, leaving its traces somewhat 

The label on the back iCOMMONSJ • „ 1 ' 

c i • *i HOVRNAL. on a red held, 

of one volume is thus : i , ™ 

| 1 odu. I 

in gold letters ; and Mr. Delafield implies, that they 
are all alike, excepting the three last. Of these he 
says the binding is different from the first thirteen : 
there is not a dove nor a coronet on the back of vol. 14, 
nor any number other than 1660. 

With regard to the periods bound up in a volume, 
you will have observed in one case, in 1650, that a dif- 
ference exists between the Journals in England and 
those in New York. Whether this difference contin- 
ues through the series, I have not learned. 

There are no original numbers stamped on these 
volumes ; the distinguishing mark being the year. Num- 


bers have been pasted upon them since ; but when this 
took place I am not informed. The date might lead 
to the knowledge of how many the series consisted 
since its arrival here ; and possibly to the recovery of 
missing volumes. 

The edges of the paper have not been cut smooth, 
in binding some of the earlier volumes ; but arc left in 
the rough state. 

The volumes are a little more than a foot in length ; 
and within, margins of about an inch on each of the 
4 sides of a page are ruled off with red ink. 

Some of the volumes, are regularly paged: e.g. 
the last page of volume 13 is numbered 302 ; and 
the first page of volume 14 is numbered 481. So of 
volume 14, pages 809 to 816 are cut out ; and in 
volume 15 the pages from folio 463 to 472 are mis- 
placed by the binder, being inserted after folio 474. 

The internal appearance of many of the volumes 
does not indicate that they were minutes taken at the 
time, and as the business of the House was transact- 
ed ; nor is there evident in most of them the hurry 
and negligence that would naturally be obvious, if 
taken by servants (as before suggested in the letter 
from London), or even by clerks instantly after the 
proceedings of the House were closed ; particularly, 
considering the fact, that transcripts so made, would 
generally be temporary in their objects ; and hence 
would rarely require formalities, and would admit of 
many abbreviations. Every, thing looks otherwise in 
most of these volumes : but in one or two of them, 
there may be some reason to suspect that they were 
original entries, or at least copies taken before the 
Journal was engrossed, since here and there a case 
occurs in which a motion is entered at length, and 
cancelled with the pen, and another of similar purport, 
but different language inserted. 

When these volumes were bound up, it is not easy 
to determine. That it must have taken place an- 


ciently, particularly as regards the earlier volumes, 
may be inferred from these facts ; from the gilding 
being decayed, and the colour of the leather mainly 
gone, with no appearance of uncommon exposure of 
the volume ; from the character of the embellish- 
ments ; from the use of the V instead of U, in the let- 
tering on the back : and many of the same facts,, lead 
to the belief that they were bound in England. The 
fifteenth volume must have been bound or rebound 
after all its contents had been copied, because the 
pages are misplaced, as before mentioned. 

Of the many pages taken from these volumes, a 
large proportion of them were cut out by a sharp in- 
strument, and with some regularity ; indicating a 
ojotive aoove that Oi mere mischief] or of convenience 
in lighting a pipe. The orders of the House, to erase 
or expunge certain portions of the journals, apart of 
which I have noticed, if literally carried into effect, 
may possibly account for the removal of some of these 
pages. Many probable inducements for this mutila- 
tion may, however, be ascribed. 

Whatever may have been the cause of these pages 
being so removed, 1 cannot refrain from expressing a 
hope that the New York Historical Society may take 
measures to obtain transcripts of such pages of the 
Journals in England, as will complete the volumes 
they now possess ; if not of the additional volumes, ne- 
cessary to complete their series, beginning with the 
decapitation of Charles I. It is possible, however, 
that the volumes missing may be in possession of 
gentlemen in New York, or its vicinity, who would 
very gladly restore them to their places in the series, 
if aware of its existence. 

Something like an apology seems due to the New 
York Historical Society, for an apparent interference 
with their materials. This may, I hope, be found 
in some facts I have alluded to already, together 
with the consideration that, as far as my knowledge 



extended, no one had his thoughts bent that wav ; 
and I believed that a correspondence between that 
society and our own, and a mutual incitement to ex- 
ertion, might possibly grow out of my labours. Many 
of the gentlemen of that society might doubtless have 
done more ample justice to this subject than 1 have 
done ; and they may yet find it desirable to pursue it, 
or to correct my errors. My labours have been per- 
formed to great disadvantage, at a distance from the 
Journals, my notes having been originally made with 
a view principally to ascertain their authenticity ; and 
not to demonstrate it to you or others, at least in 
writiug. The kindness of Mr. Delaiield has relieved 
me much ; but this I put so thoroughly to the test, as 
to make nie unwilling io give him further trouble, by 
pursuing inquiries as minutely as I desired. 

One of the difiiculties attendant on being at a dis- 
tance from New York, has been, that my labours have 
been fitful and hasty ; and hence, as a necessary con- 
sequence, lengthy, and, I fear, disorderly. 

I have endeavoured to enliven an examination ren- 
dered dull by the necessity of showing here and there, 
to effect my object, that the same facts, and frequently 
in the identical words, may be found in two or more 
places. And therefore that you have or have not 
come at any thing new to you, is of far less import- 
ance, in my view, than that you should have learned 
where you can apply for recondite matters, of the 
period included in these Journals. 

Should you feel inclined to pursue the examination 
of their contents, I need not mention any books for 
your attention. 

And if you are disposed to make a more thorough 
examination than I have done, of the crest on the 
exterior of the volumes, or of the armorials of the 
water marks, I avail myself of your known taste for 
an occasional morceau of an antiquary, by placing 
before you, with a smile, the directions of " William 
Camden, Esq., Ciarenceux King of Amies, surnamed 




the Learned,'- contained in his " Remaincs concerning 
Brittaine," upon page 229; thus, u More might be 
hereunto added, of Helmes, Creasts, Mantles, and 
Supporters : but for them and such like, I leave the 
reader to EJmond Bolton, who learnedly and judi- 
ciously hath discovered the first elements of Armory, 
to Gerard Leigh, John Feme, John Guillim Portis- 
moiiih, Pursuivants of Armes ; who have diligently 
labored therein, and to others that have written or 
will write hereafter in this argument, lest I should 
seeme to gleane from the one, or prevent the other." 

If now I have led you to entertain a notion that 
some of these volumes were written by Clerk Scobelt 
himself; that they informed the Stuarts in exile ; or, 
which is more probable, that they governed Clarendon 
in his conduct towards the round-heads, after the res- 
toration ; or that they furnished the materials for his 
history ; — if I have led you to entertain any, or either, 
or all of these notions, they surely may be harmlessly, • 
amusingly, and mayhap profitably entertained ; at least, 
till some stubborn fact, if such exist, shall hereafter 
overset my surmises. But however this may be, the 
facts and arguments on the existence and genuineness 
of the Journals will remain, I had like to have said, 
entirely conclusive. 

The subject of my letter is at any rate somewhat 
curious, however I have treated it. If, as I fear, some 
mistakes and omissions have escaped me, after asking 
pardon for them (which 1 know you cannot refuse), 
I shall, as a last resort, screen myself behind the good 
authority, 4i Improbe facit, qui in alieno libro ingeniosus 

And now that my letter is become a little book, my 
paper near being expended, and I fear my reader 
nearly extinct, and my very wrist weary of writing, I 
cordially join with Martial, in a similar .state. 

" Ohe jaru satis est, ohe libelle, 
Jam pervenimus usque ad umbilicos : 

364 MS, JOURNALS, &C. &C. 

Jam lector queriturque, defecitque ; 
Jam librarius hoc ct ipse elicit, 
Ohe jam satis est, ohe libelle." 

Which being said, I add only, that I am, 
as I long have been, 

your friend and fellow labourer, 

Hon. James Savage. 

Boston, Dec. 25, 1829. 

" P. S. In running my eye rapidly over the preced- 
ing, I feel bound to add a few words. 

It was my intention to have given you in the ex- 
tracts from the Journals all the capital letters, together 
with the punctuation ; and also to have preserved the 
orthography, even to the single m with a circumflex 
over it, instead of doubling the m. The effect of 
habit and modern improvement has, I perceive too 
late, suffered these practices of other days, in 
several instances, imperceptibly to be supplanted. 
I regret this oversight, because to you and others 
familiar with the peculiarities iji the style of writing 
in remote time, these would go far to convince. The 
evidence is, however, so strong without them, that I 
would not sacrifice the , time necessary to restore 

In the following fac similes the general outline is 
given ; but the expression of the zany, &c. &x. &c. 
has not been attempted. In a case of a more doubt- 
ful MS. than the present, it would be important to 
add, that most of the figures are reduced from their 
true size, upon the paper : e. g. the figure of the 
royal arms in volume 1, including the initials at the 
foot, is more than 4 inches in height. Each zany in 
this volume is more than 5 inches ; and the figure 
bearing the words " Amies of England," in the same 
volume, is about 4~ inches in height. In volume 6th 
the figures, including the lion rampant, are about o~ 
inches high. These are approximations, — not very 
exact measurements. 


Acknowledgment of Donations. 

The thanks of the Massachusetts Historical Society nre pre- 
sented for the following donations. 

A. HOLMES, Corresponding Secretary. 

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 2d 
and 3d, New Series ; Biddle (Nicholas) Eulogium on T. Jef- 
ferson ; Vaux (Robert) Discourse before the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, New Year's day, 1S27. 

Presented by the American Philosophical Society. 

Ingersoll's Discourse concerning the influence of America 
on the mind, an annual Oration before the American Philo- 
sophical Society, 1S23; and his Discourse before the Society 
for the Commemoration of the landing of William Penn, 24 
October, 1S25. John Vaughan, Esq. 

A collection of Pamphlets and MSS. in the Wmthrop family. 
The Heirs of William Winthrop , Esq. 

Charter of Dartmouth College ; Reports of the American 
Bible Society, 7th, 8th, and 9th ; Annual Report (23d) of the 
New Hampshire Missionary Society ; Report of the New Hamp- 
shire Bible Society ; Genealogical Memoir of the Family of 
the name' of Farmer, who settled at Billerica, Mass. 

John Farmer, Esq. 

Abstract of Baron de Rogniats' Considerations on the Art of 
War ; Swett's Notes to his Sketch of Bunker-hill battle ; Plan 
of the battle of Bunker-hill ; Do. annexed to order of battle 
and march, in MS. ; Weekly Returns of Col. Pike's Regiment, 
MS. ; Copy of Proclamation by Provincial Congress, MS. 

Samuel Sivett,. Esq. 

Report of Committee for viewing the Cottonian Library. 
Dr. Colman's Sermon on the death of Rev. P. Thatcher. 

Alden Bradford, Esq. 

Rev. Mr. Sprague's Historical Discourse. The Autho 

Orations by Professor Everett. The* Author. 

Arte de la lingua Quichua (Peru) por Dos Torres ; Arte de 
la lingua Mosca por Mafban; Arte de la lingua General de Chi- 
le, por Febres. William Tudor, Esq. 

Missions among the Senecas and Munsees by Rev. T. Alden 3 
president of Alleghany College ; CataJogus Bibhothecae Coll. 
Alleghan. Rev. President Alden. 

Articles agreed upon by the Archbishops and Bishops of both 
Provinces, and the whole Cleargie in the Convocation holclen at 
London in the yeare 1562. Reprinted by his Majesties Com- 
mandment. 4to. London, 1G28. Rcdford Webster, M. 1). 



Boston News Letter and City Record, vol. I. 1826. 

Mr. Abel Bowen. 
Sexton's .Monitor and Dorchester Cemetery Memorial. 

Rev. Dr. Harris. 
Rev. Dr. Harris' Tribute of Respect to the memory of Mrs. 
Saralj Bovvdoin Dearborn, wife of Major General Dearborn. 

His Honor Thomas L. Winthrop. 
Remains of N. A. Haven. Mr. Haven's Family. 

Sprague's Eulogy on Adams and Jefferson. The Author. 
Greenwood's Artillery Election Sermon, 1826. 

Ancient and Hon. Artillery Company. 
Pierpont's Discourse before the Ancient and Hon. Artillery 
Company. Z. G. Whitman, Esq. 

Diplomacy of the United States. The Author. 

Acts of the Legislature of Massachusetts ; Rules and orders 
of the House of Representatives, Sec. 1826; a bundle of pam- 
pbletSg being Stnte Papers of the Commonwealth ; parcels of tracts, 
documents, &c. ; Report to the Mass. Legislature on the Rail 
Roads, 2 copies. Mass. General Court. 

R. C. Robinson's Address, delivered at Cummingtori, 1822. 

Dr. Jacob Porter. 
Triumph of Mercy and Chariot of Praise, by Samuel Lee, 
1676. Mr. Joshua Coffin. 

Collections of New Hampshire Historical Society, vol 11. 

The Society. 

Lowell's Sermon at the Dedication of the 3d Congregational 

Church in Cambridge, and of the South Congregational Church 

in Natick ; at the Ordination of G. VV. Wells, at Kennebunk, 

of Daniel M. Stearns, at Dennis, and of John L. Sibley, at Stow. 

The Author. 
Hutchinson's History of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, 
from 1749 to 1774. Lond. edit. 1828. 

The Editor, Rev. John Hutchinson. 
Dr. Codman's and Prof. Porter's Sermons before the Society 
for propagating the Gospel. 

The 2d Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the 
Prison Discipline Society. • Rev. Dr. Jtnks. 

Collections of the Rhode Island Historical Society. 

Trustees of that Society. 
A History of the Fight at Concord, by Rev. Dr. Ripley. 

Lemuel Shdttuck. 
Vigilius Dormitans — Rome's seer overseene, or a treatise ol 
the lift Generail Councell held at Constantinople Anno 'ooo, Sec 
by Richard Crakanthorp, D. D. 1 vol. fol. ; and a folio without 
title page, or preface, or dedication — the running title is " The 
State of Europe." Air. John Fleeit Eliot. 


The Portsmouth Journal, vol. 36-7, 1S25-G ; a volume of 
American Annals ; Collections of Rhode Island Historical So- 
ciety, vol. i. ; Report of a Committee on the Library of Con- 
gress, with an account of MSS. and Books in possession of 

0. Rich, Esc}. Hon, James Savage. 
Church's History of Philips War. Svo. Edited hy Samuel 

G.Drake. The Editor. 

New England's Memorial by N. Morton jun., edited by Hon. 
John Davis. The Editor. 

Cases of Organic Diseases of the Heart ; Letter to the Hon. 

1. Parker on the Dislocation of the Hip Joint ; A Comparative 
View of the Sensorial and Nervous System of Man and Animals, 
by J. C. Warren, M. D. The Author, 

A cask of Pamphlets. Isaiah Lewis Green. 

Two printed draughts of the Constitution of the United States 
before its final adoption, with IMS. notes of the late Governor 
Gerry, Hon. James T. Austin. 

Printed Documents of the 1st Session of the 20th Congress 
of the U. S. A. Presented according to vote of Congress, 

Duer's Eulogy of Adams and Jefferson. . 

Hon. Josiah Quincy. 

Willard's History of Lancaster ; Narrative of the Captivity 
and Removes of IMrs. Mary Rowlandson, who was taken by the 
Indians at the Destruction of Lancaster, in 1676. Written by 
herself. Joseph WiMard, Esq. 

New York Spectator, continued to vol. xxxn. 

The Publishers. 

Two MSS. of Rev. Andrew Croswell. Dr. Snow. 

Thoughts on Education ; I. Mather's Believers Gain by 
Death. , Benjamin Guild, Esq. 

Laws of the State of New Hampshire, passed June and No- 
vember sessions, 1828. General IjOW, 

Krakumal— -sive Epicedium Ragnaris Lodbrog, by Professor 
Rafn of Copenhagen, 1826. 

His Exc. the Chevalier Pedersen, minister from Denmark, 

Projecto de un Codigo Penal ; Facciones en los Gobiernos 
Nacientes ; Manifesto del Gobierno de Colombia. Ry Senr. 
M. L. Vidaurre. The Author. ; 

Cushing's History of the Town of Newburyport. 

The Author. 

Dodge's Sermon delivered in Haverhill 22 December, 1820, 
the 2d Centesimal Anniversary of the Landing of the New Eng- 
land Fathers. The Author. 

Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, P. 2. 

Tlic Society. 


Chancellor Kent's Anniversary Discourse before the New 
York Historical Society, December G, 1S2G. The Social)/. 

Retired Man's Meditations. 4to. London, 1655. By Sir 
Henry Vane* Hon. Daniel Webster. 

Pitkin's Political and Civil History of the United States of 
America. 2 vols. Svo. f The Author. 

Boston Recorder, 10 volumes. Mr. Nathaniel Willis. 

Boston Recorder and Telegraph for 1828. The Editors. 

Report in relation to the first Monitorial School in Boston ; 
Prospectus of a new School for Young Ladies. 

J\lr. John S. Foster. 

Alphabet of the Primitive Language of Spain, &c. 

G. W. Erving, Esq. 

Annals of America, 2d American Edition. 2 vols. Svo. 1829. 
Specimen of Guatemala cigars. Corresp. Secretary. 

Regalia of the Narraganset kings, or chiefs ; Specimens of 
Corn duo- vo at the place of ibp lYq^rno-nnspr Fight 

O I i m o o 

Frederick Baylies, Missionary to the JYarragansets. 

A box of Minerals. Dr. John Smyth Rogers, of JY. York. 

Portrait of Rev. John Bailey. Mr. Nathaniel Willis. 

Geschichte der Menscheit, MS. by Meiners, 4to. ; MS. of 
edition of Indian Wars ; Sabine's £ Glory of the Latter House,' 
a Sermon. Mr. S. G. Drake. 

Discourse of N. England Pastor [Emmons]. 

Rev. Dr. Jenks. 

Whitman's Artillery Election Sermon, 1S29. 

25. G. Whitman, Esq. 

MS. Journal of Hon. — — Wheelwright ; Almanac for 1743 ; 
Several folio numbers of printed journals of Massachusetts Le- 
gislature. Dr. Timothy L. Jamison. 

Danish Pamphlet, plate of antient armour, and fac-simile of 
Danish MS. Professor Rafi, by the Chevalier Federsen. 

Medal — a specimen of the medals distributed in Lima, on oc- 
casion of swearing to the Sew Constitution framed by General 
Bolivar, 1826. ' W. Tudor, Esq. 

Hildreth's Dudleian Lecture, 1829. E. W. Mcicalf. 


Page 29, line 28, for " northwesterly," read southwesterly. 
" 343, :c 13, " " Picking,"' read Pickering. 

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